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Luri or Lurish (Luri: لۊری) is a Western Iranian language continuum spoken by the Lurs in Western Asia. The Luri dialects are descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi). Luri forms language groups known as Central Luri, Bakhtiari,[3][6] and Southern Luri.[3][6] This language is spoken mainly by the Bakhtiari and Southern Lurs (Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad, Mamasani, Sepidan, Bandar Ganaveh, Deylam)[7] of Iran and beyond.

Luri
زۊن لٛوْری
PronunciationIPA: [loriː]
Native toIran; a few villages in eastern Iraq.[1][2]
RegionSouthern Zagros
EthnicityLurs
Native speakers
over 4 millions[3]
circa 5 millions[4]
Dialects
  • Central Luri (Minjai)
  • Bakhtiari
  • Southern Luri
  • larestani
  • kumzari
Language codes
ISO 639-3Variously:
lrc – Northern Luri
bqi – Bakhtiari
luz – Southern Luri
Glottologluri1252[5]
Map of Luri-inhabited provinces of Iran, according to a poll in 2010

Contents

History

The Luri dialects are descended from Middle Persian (Pahlavi).[3][8] They belong to the Persid or Southern Zagros group, and are lexically similar to modern Persian, differing mainly in phonology.[9]

According to the Encyclopædia Iranica, "All Lori dialects closely resemble standard Persian and probably developed from a stage of Persian similar to that represented in Early New Persian texts written in Perso-Arabic script. The sole typical Lori feature not known in early New Persian or derivable from it is the inchoative marker (see below), though even this is found in Judeo-Persian texts".[10] The Bakhtiāri dialect may be closer to Persian.[11] There are two distinct languages, Greater Luri (Lor-e bozorg), a.k.a. Southern Luri (including Bakhtiari dialect), and Lesser Luri (Lor-e kuček), a.k.a. Northern Luri.[10]

Speakers

Lur peoples of Iran are mainly in provinces of Lorestan, Ilam Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari, Fars province (especially Mamasani and Rostam), Khuzestan, Esfahan province and Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad and some of this people live in provinces as like as Hamadan province, Qom province, Qazvin province, Gilan province and Kerman province and Kermanshah Province.[12]

Internal classification

The language is constitutes of Central Luri, Bakhtiari, and Southern Luri.[2] Central Luri is spoken in northern parts of Luri communities including eastern, central and northern parts of Luristan province, southern parts of Hamadan province mainly in Malayer, Nahavand and Tuyserkan counties, southern regions of Ilam province and southeastern parts of Markazi province. Bakhtiari is used by Bakhtiari people in South Luristan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, significant regions in north and east of Khouzestan and western regions of Isfahan province. Finally, Southern Luri is spoken throughout Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad province, and in western and central regions in Fars province, northern and western parts of Bushehr province and southeastern regions of Khouzestan. Several Luri communities are inhabited sporadically across the Iranian Plateau e.g. Khorasan (Beyranvand and Bakhtiari Luri descendants), Kerman, Guilan and Tehran provinces.[13][9][12]

Phonology

Vowels

Front Back
Close
ɪ ʊ
Mid ɛ ɔ
Open a~æ ɑː

/a/ may also range to a higher /æ/ in the Northern dialect.

Consonants

Labial Dental/
Alveolar
Palato-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stop voiceless p t k q (ʔ)
voiced b d ɡ ɢ
Affricate voiceless t͡ʃ
voiced d͡ʒ
Fricative voiceless f s ʃ (x) χ (h)
voiced z ʒ (ɣ) ʁ
Nasal m n ɲ
Tap/Flap ɾ
Approximant ʋ~v~w l j

/h/ mainly occurs as a glide to elongate short vowels (eg. /oh/; [ɔː]). [v~w] are allophones of a labiodental approximant /ʋ/. /ʁ/ occurs in Southern Luri. /ɲ/ as well as velar fricatives /x, ɣ/ as equivalent to uvular fricatives /χ, ʁ/, occur in Northern Luri. /ʔ/ occurs in Northern Luri, as well as in words borrowed from Farsi.[14][15][16]

Vocabulary

In comparison with other Iranian languages, Luri has been less affected by foreign languages such as Arabic and Turkic. Nowadays, many ancient Iranian language characteristics are preserved and can be observed in Luri grammar and vocabulary. According to diverse regional and socio-ecological conditions and due to longtime social interrelations with adjacent ethnic groups especially Kurds and Persian people, different dialects of Luri, despite mainly common characteristics, have significant differences. The northern dialect tends to have more Kurdish loanwords inside and southern dialects (Bakhtiari and Southern Luri) have been more exposed to Persian loanwords.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ Northern Luri at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ a b Dougherty, Beth K.; Ghareeb, Edmund A. (2013). Historical Dictionary of Iraq. Historical Dictionaries of Asia, Oceania, and the Middle East (2nd ed.). Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 209. ISBN 978-0-8108-6845-8.
  3. ^ a b c d Anonby, Erik John (July 2003). "Update on Luri: How many languages?" (PDF). Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Series 3. 13 (2): 171–197. doi:10.1017/S1356186303003067.
  4. ^ Anonby, Erik J. (20 December 2012). "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status". Encyclopædia Iranica. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14. In 2003, the Lori-speaking population in Iran was estimated at 4.2 million speakers, or about 6 percent of the national figure (Anonby, 2003b, p. 173). Given the nationwide growth in population since then, the number of Lori speakers in 2012 is likely closer to 5 million.
  5. ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Luric". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  6. ^ a b G. R. Fazel, ‘Lur’, in Muslim Peoples: A World Ethnographic Survey, ed. R. V. Weekes (Westport, 1984), pp. 446–447
  7. ^ Limbert, John (Spring 1968). "The Origin and Appearance of the Kurds in Pre-Islamic Iran". Iranian Studies. 1 (2): 41–51. JSTOR 4309997.
  8. ^ Stilo, Donald (15 December 2007). "Isfahan xxi. PROVINCIAL DIALECTS". Encyclopædia Iranica. XIV, fasc. 1. pp. 93–112. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14. While the modern SWI languages, for instance, Persian, Lori-Baḵtiāri and others, are derived directly from Old Persian through Middle Persian/Pahlavi
  9. ^ a b Digard, J.-P.; Windfuhr, G. L.; Ittig, A. (15 December 1988). "BAḴTĪĀRĪ TRIBE ii. The Baḵtīārī Dialect". Encyclopædia Iranica. III, fasc. 5. pp. 553–560. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  10. ^ a b MacKinnon, Colin (7 January 2011). "LORI LANGUAGE i. LORI DIALECTS". Encyclopædia Iranica. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  11. ^ Paul, Ludwig (15 December 2008). "KURDISH LANGUAGE i. HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE". Encyclopædia Iranica. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  12. ^ a b امان الهی بهاروند. اسکندر: قوم لر، انتشارات آگاه، تهران، ۱۳۷۴
  13. ^ Anonby, Erik J. (20 December 2012). "LORI LANGUAGE ii. Sociolinguistic Status". Encyclopædia Iranica. ISSN 2330-4804. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  14. ^ Anonby, Erik (2014). Bakhtiari Studies: Phonology, Text, Lexicon. Uppsala University.
  15. ^ Anonby, Erik (2002). A Phonology of Southern Luri.
  16. ^ Amanolahi; Thackston, Sekandar, Wheeler M. (1987). Tales from Luristan. Harvard Iranian Series, 4: Harvard University Press.
  17. ^ "Lur - History and Cultural Relations". everyculture.com. Retrieved 2019-04-14.

Further reading

  • Freidl, Erika. 2015. Warm Hearts and Sharp Tongues: Life in 555 Proverbs from the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Vienna: New Academic Press. ISBN 978-3-7003-1925-2

External links