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The Lotus Esprit is a sports car that was built by Lotus Cars at their Hethel factory in the United Kingdom between 1976 and 2004. It was among the first of designer Giorgetto Giugiaro's polygonal "folded paper" designs. Giugiaro wanted to call the car "Kiwi", but the Lotus tradition of having all car model names start with the letter "E" won out, and the name became Esprit.

Lotus Esprit
Lotus Esprit.JPG
Overview
Manufacturer Lotus Cars
Also called Lotus Esprit S1 (1976-1978)
Lotus Esprit S2 (1978-1981)
Lotus Esprit S3 (1981-1987)
Lotus Esprit X180 (1987-1993)
Lotus Esprit S4 (1993-2004)
Lotus Esprit V8 (1996-2004)
Lotus Esprit Turbo (1981)
Production 1976–2004 (10,675 built[1])
Assembly Hethel, Norfolk, England
Body and chassis
Class Sports car
Body style 2-door coupé
Layout Longitudinal, Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel drive
Powertrain
Transmission 5-speed manual (1976-2002)
6-speed manual (1994-2004)
Chronology
Predecessor Lotus Europa

Contents

BackgroundEdit

In 1970 Tony Rudd, who had arrived at Lotus the previous year, proposed two new model development projects. The first, Project M50, resulted in the 1974 Elite. The second, Project M70, meant to develop a successor to the Europa which, like the Europa, was to be a two-door fixed-head mid-engined coupé.[2]

A meeting between Colin Chapman and Giugiaro was arranged in 1971 by designer Oliver Winterbottom, who also suggested that Giugiaro use his Maserati Boomerang concept as the inspiration for the new Lotus.[3]

Work began on the new car in mid-1971 with production of a 1:4 scale model. According to Italdesign, Chapman was disappointed with the wind-tunnel test results with the model and halted the project, but the Italian carrozzeria pressed on and built a full-size mock-up on a stretched, modified Europa chassis. That nameless prototype, often simply called "the Silver Car", appeared on the Italdesign stand at the 1972 Turin Auto Show and convinced Chapman to approve further development.[4]

Development continued with production of a second prototype, registered as `IDGG 01' and known as "the Red Car", that would be a running platform.[5] Design of the car's mechanical systems progressed, but was not complete when the Esprit was officially announced.[2]

S1 (1976)Edit

Series 1
 
Overview
Production 1976–1978
Designer Giorgetto Giugiaro[6]
Powertrain
Engine 1,973 cc (120.4 cu in) type 907 I4[7]
Transmission Citroën C35 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,438 mm (96.0 in)[7]
Length 4,191 mm (165.0 in)[7]
Width 1,861 mm (73.3 in)[7]
Height 1,111 mm (43.7 in)[7]
Kerb weight 900 kg (1,984 lb)[7]

The Esprit was launched in October 1975 at the Paris Motor Show and entered production in June 1976, replacing the Europa in the Lotus model lineup. These first cars became known as "Series 1" (or S1) Esprits. The wedge-shaped fibreglass body was mounted on a steel backbone chassis. Power was from the 1,973 cc (120.4 cu in) Lotus 907 4-cylinder engine that produced 160 bhp (119 kW; 162 PS) in European trim and 140 bhp (104 kW; 142 PS) in US/Federal trim. The engine was mounted longitudinally behind the passengers and drove the rear wheels through a Citroën C35 5-speed manual transaxle also used in the SM and Maserati Merak. Rear brakes were mounted inboard, following contemporary racing practice. The Series 1 embodied Lotus' performance through light weight mantra, weighing less than 1,000 kg (2,205 lb).

Front suspension was by upper A-arms and lower lateral links triangulated by the anti-roll bar. Rear suspension was by tapering box-section trailing arms and lower lateral links. The half-shafts had no provision for plunge and handled some of the lateral forces. There were coil-over shock absorbers and disc brakes at all four corners. Steering was by an unassisted rack and pinion.

While the S1 Esprit was lauded for its handling and was said to have the best steering of any Esprit, it was generally regarded as being under-powered, especially in markets such as the United States where the engine was stifled by emission controls. Lotus' claim of 0–60 mph (0.0–96.6 km/h) in 6.8 seconds and a top speed of 222 km/h (138 mph) may have been optimistic, as actual road tests returned a 0-60 mph time of 8 seconds and a top speed of about 214 km/h (133 mph).[8]

The S1 Esprit was distinguished from later Esprits by its shovel-style front air dam, Fiat X1/9-sourced taillights, absence of body-side ducting, and Wolfrace alloy wheels. Inside the car, the S1 Esprit had a one-piece instrument cluster with green-faced Veglia gauges. The S1 is rare today, mostly due to drivetrain problems.[9]

S2 (1978) and derivativesEdit

Series 2
 
Overview
Production 1978–1981
Powertrain
Engine 1,973 cc (120.4 cu in) type 907 I4
2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) type 912 I4
Transmission 5-speed manual

In 1978 the revised Series 2 (or S2) Esprit was introduced.[10] External changes included intake and cooling ducts added behind the rear quarter windows, taillights from the Rover SD1, and an integrated front spoiler. S2 Esprits also had 360 mm (14 in) Speedline alloy wheels designed by Lotus. Other changes included relocating the battery from above the right side fuel tank under the rear quarter window to the rear of the car, adding an access door to the engine cover, installing wider seats and replacing the Veglia instrument cluster with individual gauges made by Smiths and a new style of illuminated dashboard switches.

 
Lotus Esprit S2 Commemorative edition

A special edition Esprit was released to commemorate Lotus' victory in the 1978 F1 World Championship. Wearing the black and gold livery of John Player & Sons, Lotus' F1 sponsor at the time, these cars were known as the Commemorative Edition Esprits. They were mechanically identical to the regular 2.0 L S2. According to Lotus a series of 300 was built, but it is likely the total was considerably lower.[11] Lotus' production records are notoriously vague, but reliable estimates suggest that 149 Commemorative Esprits were made.[12]

The S2.2 was a stop-gap model introduced in May 1980 whose only major difference from the S2 was, as indicated in its model name, having a 2.2 L type 912 engine.[13] Horsepower was unchanged but torque rose from 190 N·m (140 lb·ft) to 217 N·m (160 lb·ft). The S2.2 received a galvanised chassis, but not the revised chassis structure to come in the Series 3. S2.2s are extremely rare even among Esprits. According to Lotus only 88 were produced during its thirteen month production span.[14]

Essex Turbo Esprit (1980)Edit

 
1980 Lotus Esprit Essex Turbo

In 1980 the Essex Esprit was launched. This special edition model wore the blue, red and chrome livery of the Essex Overseas Petroleum Corporation, the sponsor of Team Lotus from 1979 to 1981. While Lotus dealer Bell and Colvill had been offering turbo conversions for the S2 Esprit from as early as 1978, the Essex was the first factory turbocharged Esprit.[15] The Essex Turbo received the dry sump type 910 engine that produced 157 kW (213 PS; 211 hp) and 271.2 N·m (200 lb·ft) of torque. 0–60 mph (0.0–96.6 km/h) could be achieved in 6.1 seconds, with a top speed of 241 km/h (150 mph).

The chassis and rear suspension were redesigned, with an upper link added at the rear to alleviate strain on the half-shafts. The brakes were also improved.[16] Giugiaro designed an aerodynamic body kit for the car, with a rear lip spoiler, prominent louvered rear hatch, more substantial bumpers, a deeper front airdam, and air ducts in the sills just ahead of the new three-piece 15" Compomotive rear wheels. Inside scarlet leather combined with a roof-mounted Panasonic stereo for a dramatic environment. 45 Essex Esprits were built, interspersed and followed by a number of non-Essex-liveried but otherwise identical specification dry sump turbo cars.

By the end of 1980, Lotus was building three different models of Esprit with distinct chassis designs and body moulds - the Domestic (i.e. UK) S2.2, the Export S2.2, and the dry sump Turbo Esprit.

S3 and Turbo Esprit (1981) and derivativesEdit

Series 3 and Turbo
 
Overview
Production 1981–1987
Powertrain
Engine 2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) Type 912 I4
2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) type 910/910S Turbocharged I4
Transmission 5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,440 mm (96.1 in)
Length 4,225–4,290 mm (166.3–168.9 in)
Width 1,860 mm (73.2 in)
Height 1,110–1,120 mm (43.7–44.1 in)

The Series 3 (or S3) and Turbo Esprit debuted in April 1981. The two models shared a common chassis, and bodywork was based on a common set of moulds.

 
1985 Lotus Esprit Turbo (North America)
 
1987 Turbo Esprit HC

The S3 received the 2.2 L Type 912 engine. The Turbo Esprit had a wet sump engine with the same power and torque output as its dry sump predecessor. Interior trim was revised which, when combined with changes to the body moulds, resulted in more headroom and an enlarged foot-well.[16] The Turbo Esprit retained the aerodynamic body kit of the Essex cars and featured prominent 'turbo esprit' decals on the nose and sides. The S3 gained the new larger bumpers but kept the simpler sill line and glazed rear hatch of the S2.2 body. Both cars came with 381 mm (15 in) BBS alloy wheels.

Minor changes were made to bodywork and front suspensions for the 1985 model year.[17]

The final incarnations of the Giugiaro-styled Esprit were announced in April 1986. Higher compression ratios for the engines was indicated by the 'HC' moniker. Power output of the naturally aspirated engine rose to 128 kW (174 PS; 172 hp) and 160 lb·ft (217 N·m) for the Esprit HC, and to 160 kW (218 PS; 215 hp) and 298 N·m (220 lb·ft) for the Turbo Esprit HC, with more torque available at lower engine speeds.[18]

For markets with stringent emissions requirements like the United States, Lotus introduced the first fuel-injected Esprits. The HCi variant added Bosch KE-Jetronic fuel injection and a catalytic converter to the higher compression engine. This engine developed the same peak power as the carburetted version but at a somewhat higher engine speed. Torque dropped to 274 N·m (202 lb·ft).[17]

X180 (1987) and derivativesEdit

X180
 
Overview
Production 1987–1993
Designer Peter Stevens
Powertrain
Engine 1,994 cc (121.7 cu in) type 920 turbo I4 (Italy only)[19]
2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) Type 912 I4
2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) Types 910 and 910S turbo I4
Transmission Citroën C35 5-speed manual
Renault UN-1 5-speed manual

In 1987 the Esprit was restyled by designer Peter Stevens. Stevens, who went on to design the McLaren F1, produced a less angular, more rounded car. Giugiaro is said to have liked the new shape, claiming it was perhaps too close to his original design. The exterior changes were accompanied by a redesign of the interior that gave more space to the occupants. The revised Esprit was not given a new "Series" number but is often called by its project code of X180.

Panels for the body were produced using a new process called VARI (Vacuum Assisted Resin Injection). This method, which was patented by Lotus, offered advantages over the previous hand lay-up process. Kevlar reinforcement was added to the roof and sides for roll-over protection.[20] This also increased the Esprit's torsional rigidity by 22%.[21]

The X180 cars inherited most of their mechanical components from the earlier HC Esprit and Turbo Esprit, although the name for the forced induction model was now Esprit Turbo. 1988 model year North American Esprit Turbos kept the Citroën transaxle and Bosch fuel injection system used in the previous model year. Other X180s received a new Renault UN-1 transaxle, which necessitated a move to outboard rear brakes.

Output of the Type 910 turbo engine was unchanged, but 0-60 mph times dropped from 5.6 seconds to between 5.4 and 5.1 seconds.[22][23] Top speed was over 240 km/h (150 mph).

In 1989 the K-Jetronic system was replaced with a Lotus/Delco multi-point fuel injection (MPFI) system. The engine also received an air-water-air intercooler called a Chargecooler by Lotus.[24] This revised engine was known as the Type 910S. Power was up to 197 kW (268 PS; 264 hp) with 209 kW (284 PS; 280 hp) available on overboost. 0-60 mph times dropped to 4.7 seconds and top speed was over 160 mph (260 km/h).[25] The 910S engine went into the new Special Equipment (SE) model, which also received changes to the body, with side skirts parallel to the body, five air ducts in the front air dam, wing mirrors from the Citroën CX and the addition of a rear wing.

 
1989 US market Esprit Turbo, rear view

Lotus also produced the rarely seen Esprit S, a mid-range turbocharged car offering fewer appointments and 170 kW (231 PS; 228 hp), as well as the standard Turbo with 160 kW (218 PS; 215 hp). The normally aspirated and original Turbo were cancelled after 1990, and the S in 1991. A unique two-litre "tax special" Esprit with SE trim was developed for the Italian market. Equipped with an intercooled and turbocharged 1,994 cc (121.7 cu in) version of the 900-series engine that produced 179 kW (243 PS; 240 hp) at 6,250 rpm, this model appeared in December 1991.[19] This engine became available in other markets beginning in the fall of 1996.

 
Sport 300

X180REdit

In 1990 two specially prepared Esprits competed in the SCCA Escort World Challenge series. These cars started out as regular SE models but had all unnecessary equipment and trim removed and the glass replaced by plastic.[26] The suspension geometry was revised and Monroe shock absorbers were added. The brakes were by AP Racing, and the car's Delco/Moraine ABS system was the first anti-lock braking system ever used on an Esprit. The Chargecooled Type 910S engine had a revised engine management system with larger fuel injectors and produced 213 kW (290 PS; 286 hp). These cars were designated Type 105 and were campaigned by the Pure Sports team headed by "Doc" Bundy, who helped with development. In the first season the car was able to claim six pole positions, win four races and post two one-two finishes.

Late in 1990 Lotus built 20 road-going examples of the Type 105 and gave them the name X180R. These cars came with amenities like glass windows, sport seats, a heater and air conditioning. The chassis of the road-going X180R was also galvanised, in contrast to the untreated chassis of the Type 105.

Three more race cars were built for the 1991 season to be run by LotuSport alongside the two upgraded 105s in the American IMSA Bridgestone Supercar Championship. The new cars were designated Type 106, but adopted the X180R name as well.[27] They had a reinforced chassis with a revised roll cage and larger wheels and tyres but weighed 136.1 kg (300 lb) less than the Type 105. The engine was modified with larger fuel injectors, a better Chargecooler and the removal of the catalytic converter which caused output to rise to 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp). In 1991 driver/actor Robert Carradine placed second in the series and in 1992 Bundy won three races and took the driver's title.

In 1993 the sanctioning body changed the rules such that the X180R was assessed a 136.1 kg (300 lb) weight penalty, which made the cars uncompetitive.

An extensively modified derivative of the X180R was sold in Europe as the Sport 300.[28] These are known as the fastest of the four-cylinder Esprits and among the most desirable.[29]

Esprit sales and production fell sharply in 1991 and 1992 as the SE started to face newer competitors like the Honda NSX.[30]

S4 (1993) and derivativesEdit

Series 4
 
Overview
Also called Lotus Esprit V8
Production 1993–2004
Designer Julian Thomson
Powertrain
Engine 1,994 cc (121.7 cu in) Type 920 turbo I4
2,174 cc (132.7 cu in) Types 910 and 910S turbo I4
3,506 cc (213.9 cu in) type 918 twin-turbo V8
Transmission 5-speed or 6-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase 2,438 mm (96.0 in) - 1993–2001
2,421 mm (95.3 in) - 2002–04
Length 4,369 mm (172.0 in) - 1993–95 & 1999–2004
4,415 mm (173.8 in) - 1996–98
Width 1,867 mm (73.5 in) - 1993–95 & 1999–2001
1,882 mm (74.1 in) - 1996–98 & 2002–04
Height 1,151 mm (45.3 in)

Another refresh of the car in 1993 by Julian Thomson resulted in the Series 4 (or S4).[31] Exterior changes included a smaller rear spoiler placed halfway up the rear deck-lid and revised front and rear bumpers, side skirts and valence panels. New five-spoke alloy wheels were also fitted. New rectangular taillights were borrowed from the Toyota AE86. The S4's engine produced the same 197 kW (268 PS; 264 hp) as the SE. The S4 was the first Esprit with power steering.

 
1995 S4s

The S4 was succeeded in 1994 by the S4 Sport (S4S). The most obvious external change from the S4 was the addition of a rear wing from the Sport 300. The engine was still a 2.2 L 910-series, but with performance-enhancing modifications that included enlarged inlet ports, cylinder head modifications, a re-calibrated ECM and a revised turbocharger.[32] Engine output rose to 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp) and 393 N·m (290 lb·ft) of torque. Top speed was 270 km/h (168 mph), slalom speed 99.3 km/h (61.7 mph), lateral acceleration increased to 0.91g and 0-60 mph took just 4.6 seconds.[33][34]

The last iteration of the four-cylinder Esprit was the GT3, a turbocharged, Chargecooled car with the 2.0 L Type 920 which had previously been used only in Italian market cars. The GT3 was produced alongside the Esprit V8.

V8 (1996)Edit

 
1997 V8

In 1996 the Esprit V8 was created when the Esprit received Lotus' own Type 918 V-8. This engine was an all-aluminium, 90° DOHC V8 with a flatplane crankshaft and two Garrett T25/60 turbochargers but no Chargecooler. The transaxle used was the same Renault unit as before but upgraded by Derek Bell with a much thicker single piece input shaft. Beefier transaxle notwithstanding, the Type 918 engine was detuned from a potential 373 kW (507 PS; 500 hp) to 261 kW (355 PS; 350 hp) to prevent gearbox damage.[35] In period tests, nought to sixty miles per hour came in at 4.4 seconds and top speeds of over 282 km/h (175 mph) were achieved.[36][37]

In 1998 the V8 range was split into SE and GT models. Both cars had revised interiors and similar performance but the SE was the more luxurious of the two.

 
2004 V8

The ultimate incarnation of the Esprit was the 1999 Sport 350. Only 50 were made.[38] Each offered 350 horsepower (per the name) and various engine, chassis and braking improvements that included AP Racing brakes, stiffer springs and a revised ECU.[39] Among the visual changes was a large carbon fibre rear wing on aluminium uprights in place of the standard fibreglass rear wing. This Esprit weighed 1,300 kg (2,866 lb) and could accelerate to 100 km/h (60 mph) in 4.3 seconds and to 160 km/h (100 mph) in under 10 seconds.[40][41]

GT1Edit

Having raced the Esprit in GT2 and GT3 classes Lotus began to develop a new version of the car to race in GT1. Development of the car was entrusted to the newly formed Lotus GT1 Engineering group, which included many staff from the recently dissolved Team Lotus.

The Esprit GT1 was built on the Type 114 platform using the body from the new S4 road-going Esprit executed in composite and carbon fibre. Changes to the bodywork included a new carbon fibre splitter, diffuser and floor. Power came from a Type 918 V8 engine with a single Garrett T4 turbocharger that delivered 410 kW (557 PS; 550 hp). The Renault transaxle was not considered adequate for the task. Where the GT2 cars used Hewland DG300 units, the GT1 would use the new TGT200 6-speed transverse transaxle.[42] The front suspension was now upper and lower A-arms, while at the rear were upper and lower lateral links paired with upper and lower trailing links. Brakes were AP Racing carbon-ceramic disks, and Penske triple-adjustable gas-pressurised shock absorbers were used at all four wheels. The chassis was similar to the production Esprit but with a roll-cage that added stiffness. Weight was down to 900 kilograms (1,984.2 lb).

Three cars were built - chassis 114-001, 114-002 and 114-003. Two cars debuted at the 1996 BPR Global GT Series 4 Hours of Donington. Reliability dogged the car throughout the year, and it was succeeded by the Type 115 Elise GT1 the next year. Two of the Esprit GT1s were converted to GT2. Chassis 114-001 was acquired by Mark Haines Racing who developed it into a competitive GT2 car. Chassis 114-002 was damaged at Oulton Park and became a parts donor for the remaining cars. Chassis 114-003 was destroyed in a fire.[43]

Final redesign and end of productionEdit

In 2002 the Esprit received another styling update done by future Lotus Design head Russell Carr.[44] Carr, who had contributed to the S4 update, revised the car with changes that included incorporating the same round taillights as the Lotus Elise II. Few if any mechanical changes were made to the car.

Esprit production ended in February 2004 after a 28-year production run. A total of 10,675 Esprits were produced.

Esprit type numbers and production numbersEdit

Type number[45][46] Model(s) Years Production
79 S1 1975-1978 718
S2 1978-1981 1061
S2.2 1980-1981 88
82 NA and HC 1980-1987 3155
Turbo 1981-1987 2909
85 S3 1981-1987 732
Esprit (Naturally aspirated) 1988-1992 366
Turbo SE 1987-1998 1861
Turbo S4 1992-1996 625
Sport 300 1992-1995 64
Turbo S4s 1996-1999 368
GT3 1996-2004 1237
V8 1994-1997 196
V8 GT 1997-2001 204
Sport 350 1999-2001 42
105 X180-R 1990 2 (track)
20 (road)
106 X180-R1 1991 3
114 GT1 1995 3

Esprit convertiblesEdit

While Lotus Cars never developed or built a convertible Esprit, custom manufacturers stepped in to fill this market.

St. TropezEdit

The St. Tropez conversion was designed by Paul Bailey and his company PBB Design, which was established in 1987.[47] The conversion involved removing the roof and rear bodywork. The wheel arches were also widened and new Compomotive wheels were part of the package. The A-pillar and the chassis were reinforced with steel, and a steel subframe was added in the rear.[48]

PBB Design built three cars before the moulds were sold to Mark Irwin's Esprit Developments, who updated the design and marketed it along with a Rover V8 conversion. Esprit Developments completed another three cars.

Esprit RoadsterEdit

Another Esprit convertible was built in Hamburg Germany by Autohaus Kollinger GMBH. Their Esprit Roadster was based on S2, S3 & Turbo Esprit donor cars.[49]

Styling concept (2010)Edit

 
Front view of the proposed 2014 Lotus Esprit Styling Model
 
Rear view of the proposed 2014 Lotus Esprit Styling Model

As part of a five-car announcement at the 2010 Paris Motor Show, Lotus unveiled a completely redesigned Esprit, with production slated to start in late 2013 and sales in the spring of 2014.[50]

Work on a new Esprit had started as early as 2006 under Carr.[51] The car was unveiled during Donato Coco's tenure as design chief and was to have featured a futuristic front-end with LED front daytime running lights and a centre-mounted dual exhaust system in the rear.[52] Power was to come from a 5.0 litre V8 engine delivering up to 620 PS (456.0 kW; 611.5 hp) through a 7 speed dual-clutch transaxle. A KERS system was to be optional. The interior was to have a futuristic but minimal design which included a digital instrument cluster, a sport steering wheel and carbon fibre trim scattered throughout the cabin. The design exhibited had a length of 4,550 mm (179.1 in), a width of 1,950 mm (76.8 in) and a height of 1,250 mm (49.2 in). Gross weight was stated to be around 1,495 kg (3,295.9 lb).

On 29 September 2014 Lotus cancelled the project and announced that they would not make the Esprit. Lotus had decided to continue making lightweight cars instead of heavyweight cars.[53]

Esprit designersEdit

Giorgetto GiugiaroEdit

  • Esprit – 1976–78
  • Esprit S2 – 1978–81
  • Esprit JPS (John Player Special) – 1978–79
  • Esprit JPS ("JPS Mario Andretti Edition") - 1979
  • Esprit S2.2 – 1980–81
  • Esprit Essex – 1980
  • Esprit S3 – 1981–86
  • Turbo Esprit – 1981–86
  • Esprit S3 HC – 1986–87
  • Turbo Esprit HC – 1986–87
  • Turbo Esprit HCi (Bosch Fuel Injected) – 1986–87

Peter StevensEdit

  • Esprit – 1987–90
  • Esprit Turbo – 1987–90
  • Esprit SE – 1989–91
  • Esprit S – 1991
  • Lotus Esprit X180R - 1991-92
  • Esprit SE HighWing – 1992–93

Julian ThomsonEdit

  • Esprit S4 – 1993–96
  • Esprit Sport 300 – 1993
  • Esprit S4s – 1995–96
  • Esprit V8 – 1996–98
  • Esprit GT3 – 1996–99
  • Esprit V8 GT – 1998–2001
  • Esprit V8 SE – 1998–2001
  • Esprit Sport 350 – 1999

Russell CarrEdit

  • Esprit V8 – 2002–04

Parts commonalityEdit

Lotus used a variety of parts from other cars to reduce development costs.[54][55] Esprits built before 1993 used many British Leyland parts and those built in the mid- to late-1980s incorporated more Toyota parts while those built after 1993 had many GM (Vauxhall, Opel) parts.[56] Door handles from the Morris Marina/Austin Allegro were used until the S4 model in 1994 when GM Calibra door handles were used. Early cars used a Momo steering wheel, while later ones had the same wheel as the Pontiac Trans Am. Headlight lift motors came from the Pontiac Fiero. The aerial mount and whip on the S4 and V8 was the same as the GM Calibra and Tigra. The side mirrors were from the Citroën CX. Non-SE fog lamps from about 1989 were GM Astra MK1. The fan motors came from the Ford Fiesta Mk2. The alternator on the V8 models was a standard GM unit also found in the V6 Opel Omega B and the earlier Lotus Carlton/Omega, which also provided interior plastic fittings such as door handles and steering column covering. The clutch master and slave cylinders on 1998 and newer models were Girling parts shared with the series 2A Land Rover.[57] The S1 and S2 shared some front suspension components with the Opel Ascona. The GT3's Brembo front brake pads were the same as on a Fiat Coupé Turbo or a Peugeot 406 3.0 V6. The SE's fuel pump was from the Renault Fuego.

MotorsportsEdit

In film and on televisionEdit

 
1977 S1 in "submarine" mode, as seen in The Spy Who Loved Me

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Esprit History: Esprit Production Figures". Lotus Esprit World. Retrieved 2011-12-21. 
  2. ^ a b Robson, Graham (23 July 1993). Lotus Since the 70s: Esprit, Etna And V8 Engine. Motor Racing Publications Ltd. ISBN 978-0947981693. 
  3. ^ Taylor, Mike (July 2017). "Straight to the Point". Classic & Sports Car. Twickenham UK: Haymarket Media Group. p. 164. 
  4. ^ "Esprit". www.italdesign.it. 
  5. ^ "Donington 2004". www.lotusespritworld.com. 
  6. ^ "Designer". ajovalo.net. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f "1975 Lotus Esprit data". www.carfolio.com. 
  8. ^ "Lotus Esprit S1". lotusespritworld.com. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  9. ^ Beyl, Tobias (July 2017). "12 bezahlbare Sportwagen" [12 affordable sports cars]. Motor Klassik (in German). Stuttgart, Germany: Motor Presse Stuttgart. p. 23. ISSN 0177-8862. 
  10. ^ Esprit S2 Retrieved from www.lotusespritworld.com on 16 January 2011
  11. ^ Prosser, Dan (September 2014). "Black Gold". Evo. Wellingborough, UK: Dennis Publishing (199): 114. 
  12. ^ "JPS Commemorative Esprit On-line Register". Archived from the original on 2 September 2009. Retrieved 2017-08-10. 
  13. ^ Büschi, Hans-Ulrich, ed. (5 March 1987). Automobil Revue 1987 (in German and French). 82. Berne, Switzerland: Hallwag AG. p. 352. ISBN 3-444-00458-3. 
  14. ^ Walton, Jeremy (1991), Lotus Esprit: The Complete Story, Ramsbury, Wiltshire, UK: The Crowood Press, p. 90, ISBN 1-86126-066-0 
  15. ^ "On the Edge". www.lotusespritturbo.com. 
  16. ^ a b Robson, Graham. "Lotus Turbo Esprit". lotusespritturbo.com. Retrieved 2008-02-02. 
  17. ^ a b Automobil Revue 1987, p. 357
  18. ^ "When the BOOST BLOWS". lotusespritworld.com/ERoadtests. Retrieved 2007-12-17. 
  19. ^ a b Quattroruote: Tutte le Auto del Mondo 1992 (in Italian). Milano: Editoriale Domus S.p.A. 1992. p. 448. 
  20. ^ kato. "Esprit: VARI Process". Lotusespritworld.com. Retrieved 2010-05-16. 
  21. ^ Green, Gavin (December 1987). "Body & Soul". Car. Retrieved 8 August 2017. 
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LiteratureEdit

  • Clarke, R. M. (June 1982). Lotus Esprit 1975–1981. Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0907073420. 
  • Walton, Jeremy (September 1982). Lotus Esprit Autohistory. Osprey Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0850454604. 
  • Clarke, R. M. (March 1987). Lotus Turbo Esprit, 1980-86. Brooklands Books Ltd. ISBN 978-1869826116. 
  • Simister, John (7 September 1989). Lotus Esprit Turbo (Supercars). Salamander Books. ISBN 978-0861014415. 
  • Crombac, Gérard (4 September 1991). Lotus Esprit (in Italian). Automobilia. ISBN 978-8885880375. 
  • Robson, Graham (23 July 1993). Lotus Since the 70s: Esprit, Etna And V8 Engine (A Collector's Guide). Motor Racing Publications. ISBN 978-0947981693. 
  • Walton, Jeremy (6 September 1997). Lotus Esprit: The Complete Story. Crowood. ISBN 978-1861260666. 
  • Lotus Esprit and Turbo Esprit. Unique Motor Books. 2000. ISBN 978-1841555690. 
  • Walton, Jeremy (1 April 2006). Lotus Esprit: The Official Story. Coterie Press Ltd. ISBN 978-1902351247. 
  • Pitt, Colin (30 October 2007). Lotus Esprit and Turbo Esprit The story of the Development and Progression of the Lotus Esprit. CP Press. ISBN 978-1841556598. 
  • Pitt, Colin (1 June 2008). Lotus Esprit Ultra Edition. CP Press. ISBN 978-1841556895. 
  • Solnon, Rémy. Lotus esprit; le grand tourisme à l'anglaise (in French). PRESSES LITTERAIRES. ISBN 978-2350731445. 
  • Mook, Neko (1 June 2009). Lotus Esprit 1972–2004 (in Japanese). Cat · Publishing. ISBN 978-4777008094. 
  • Younger, Matt; Younger, Mike (15 June 2017). Lotus Esprit. Amberley Publishing. ISBN 978-1445669830. 

External linksEdit