F Renault engine (F for fonte, French for cast iron) is an automotive internal combustion engine, four-stroke, inline-four engine bored directly into the iron block, water cooled, with overhead camshaft driven by a timing belt, and with an aluminum cylinder head, developed and produced by Renault in the early '80s, making its appearance on the Renault 9 and 11. This engine is available in petrol and diesel versions, with 8 or 16 valves.

Renault F-Type engine
ConfigurationInline 4
Displacement1.6 L (1,596 cc)
1.7 L (1,721 cc)
1.8 L (1,764 cc)
1.8 L (1,783 cc)
1.8 L (1,794 cc)
1.9 L (1,870 cc)
2.0 L (1,965 cc)
2.0 L (1,998 cc)
Cylinder bore78 mm (3.07 in)
80 mm (3.15 in)
81 mm (3.19 in)
82 mm (3.23 in)
82.7 mm (3.26 in)
Piston stroke83.5 mm (3.29 in)
93 mm (3.66 in)
Cylinder block materialCast iron
Cylinder head materialAluminum alloy
ValvetrainSOHC 2 valves x cyl.
DOHC 4 valves x cyl.
TurbochargerDiesel and sports versions
Fuel systemCarburettor, Fuel injection
Fuel typeGasoline/Diesel
Cooling systemWater-cooled
PredecessorCléon-Alu engine
Douvrin engine
SuccessorRenault K-Type engine
Renault M-Type engine
Renault R-Type engine



In December 1982,[1] the Renault Board proposed a new 1,596 cc (1.6 L) diesel engine with 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) for the Renault 9. Known as "F8M", the new engine was designed by engineer George Douin and his team and broke with tradition by featuring no removable cylinder liners, thanks to advances in metals technology that significantly slow the wear of rubbing mechanical parts. The new four-cylinder unit adopted an overhead camshaft driven by a toothed belt that also controls the diesel injection pump. A second belt rotates the alternator and water pump, while a vacuum pump located at the rear operates the brake servo. The cast iron block is topped by a light alloy cylinder head featuring Ricardo Comet prechambers. The engine is mounted transversely inclined rearwards 12°. A few months after the release of the Renault 9 Diesel, the Renault 11 was launched in April 1983, the diesel version being introduced in autumn 1983.

In the autumn of 1983, Renault launched the 1,721 cc (1.7 L) F2N petrol engine, using the block of the F8M.[2] It has a diesel-type architecture, with combustion chambers integrated with the piston design. Since the petrol version does not require water channels in the block, a bigger bore was possible than in the smaller diesel version. It first appeared in twin carburettor form in the Renault 11 GTX, TXE, and the TXE Electronic with digital meter and speech synthesis. In February 1984, the F2N was added to the Renault 9 GTX and TXE. This engine was called the B172 by Volvo.

Thereafter, the F8M was also used in the Renault 5 Express (Rapid/Extra), and the Volvo 300 series. The F2N was installed in the Renault 21, Renault 5, Renault 19, Renault Clio, Volvo 340/360 and also the Volvo 400 series (where it was designated B18KP by Volvo). A version with a single-barrel carburetor was installed in some early Renault Trafic models and some R21, called the F1N. The 1,721 cc (1.7 L) petrol version was also built with multi-point fuel injection as the F3N. This was fitted to the U.S. versions of the Renault 9 and Renault 11 (Renault Alliance and Encore), as well as to GTE models of the Renault 5 and 11 sold in some countries such as Switzerland and Germany - as the old carburetted turbo Cléon-Fonte engines no longer met the pollution standards in these countries.

Volvo built turbocharged versions of the F2N with multipoint fuel injection (designated "B18FT"), installed in the Volvo 480 Turbo, the 440 Turbo Volvo and Volvo 460 Turbo. These engines are sought after to fit to Renault 5 GT Turbo, Renault 9 Turbo and Renault 11 Turbo.

Production is centered on Renault's engine manufacturing facility at Cléon, near Rouen in Normandy.[3][4]



Diesel versions


Beginning in 1987, the 1.6D underwent changes to make it more quiet. This F8M second generation was unfortunately weaker at the cylinder head and head gasket. More asbestos was being dropped, which was exacerbated the problems of cylinder head gaskets. Externally, a second generation F8M known by its cylinder head cover 6 which is secured by small screws, while a first generation F8M 3 has closed nuts for securing the valve cover. The housing for the F8M second generation had a non-painted surface around the injection pump, while the first generation F8M had completely black casing.

In 1988, Renault launched the Renault 19 as the replacement for the Renault 9 and Renault 11. The preceding F8M 1.6 D diesel engine developed 55 bhp (41 kW; 56 PS), but since it was not powerful enough to power the heavier Renault 19, Renault changed the stroke and bore of the 1.6 D, to obtain 1,870 cc (1.9 L) (1.9 D) which gave rise to F8Q which was developing 65 bhp (48 kW; 66 PS). This engine would also eventually be used in the Clio 1, Clio-based Express (Rapid / Extra), Renault 21, Kangoo, Mégane 1 and Trafic 1. A lower powered version producing 55 PS (40 kW; 54 bhp) DIN was introduced in the 1990s. The second generation F8Q cylinder heads and head-gaskets were problematic.[clarification needed]

At the end of 1988, a turbocharged version of the 1.9 D was sold with the R19 model, which was designated F8QT. It developed 95 bhp (71 kW; 96 PS) DIN. It was also used in the Renault Mégane 1, Volvo 440, Volvo 460, Volvo S40, V40 and Mitsubishi Carisma.

In the autumn of 1997, Renault introduced the 1.9 dT as their first version of the engine with Direct injection, the 1.9 dTi, designated as engine type F9Q. It was being used in the Mégane 1, Scénic 1, Laguna 1, Kangoo 1, Clio 2, Mitsubishi Carisma and the Volvo S40 and V40.

In July 1999, the 1.9 dTi was upgraded to common rail higher pressure injection. This, the F9Q, was Renault's first dCi engine. It appeared in the Laguna 1 Phase 2. The 1.9 dCi was also used in the Mégane 1 Phase 2, Scénic 1 Phase 2, Laguna 2, Mégane 2, Scénic 2, Espace 3, Espace 4, Trafic 2, Master 2, Volvo S40, Volvo V40, Mitsubishi Carisma, Suzuki Grand Vitara, Nissan Primera and so on.

Gasoline versions


In 1986, the Renault 21 2.0 was introduced, with a displacement of 1,965 cc (2.0 L), with F2R using a twin-barrel carburetor and F3R, injection version. The F3R with 1,965 cc (2.0 L) also equipped the Renault Alliance GTA in North America.

In early 1989 Renault premiered the sports version of the Renault 19, replacing the Renault 9 Turbo and Renault 11 Turbo, although it only went on sale in the second half of 1990. Renault abandoned its 1.4 Cléon-Fonte turbo carburetor in favor of a multi-valve engine with multipoint injection, an evolution of the engine of the 1,721 cc (1.7 L) F2N. The stroke remained the same, but the bore was increased by 1 mm, giving a displacement of 1,764 cc (1.8 L). The cast-iron block was topped by a 16-valve alloy cylinder head.[5] This, the F7P engine, had 140 PS (103 kW; 138 hp) and was also used in the Clio 16S from February 1991, replacing the Super 5 GT Turbo. Starting in July 1992, the Clio 16S and 16S R19 were fitted as standard with a catalytic converter in order to comply with pollution standards applicable from 1 January 1993, losing three horsepower in the process.

Clio Williams appeared in 1993. As its name suggested, the Renault Clio Williams was not designed to celebrate titles gleaned in Formula 1 with the team of Frank Williams, but before any approval for competition (2500 minimum copies required).[clarification needed] In order to run in Group A, Renault needed a 2.0-liter engine to be the best equipped in its class. So starting with the engine block F7P and the Renault Clio 16S Renault will developed the 1,998 cc (2.0 L) F7R 150 bhp (112 kW; 152 PS). The increase in capacity will then pass logically by reaming of 0.7 mm (0.028 in) and with the adoption of a Clio diesel crankshaft to get the race 83.5 to 93 mm (3.29 to 3.66 in).[clarification needed] This crankshaft "road" original thus better cash constraints to the increased torque[clarify] will now reach 175 N⋅m (129 lb⋅ft) at 4,500 rpm. The F7R was also used in the Mégane 1 and Renault Spider.

Starting from 1 January 1993, all car models would be equipped with a fuel injection system and a catalytic converter. Here the F2N of 1,721 cc (1.7 L) saw increased bore and therefore a new cylinder capacity of 1,794 cc (1.8 L). It would be known as the "F3P" on the Renault Clio 1 and 19, and "B18U" on the Volvo 440 and Volvo 460. In contrast, the Renault 21, then at the end of its lifespan retained its 1,721 cc (1.7 L), but with injection (type motor F3N). Volvo would also retain the 1,721 cc (1.7 L) injection (type motor B18EP), alongside the new 1,794 cc (1.8 L). In 1994, the Laguna would be equipped with the F3P engine.

Volvo also marketed a 1,596 cc (1.6 L) petrol version with multipoint injection, sold as the "B16F" in Volvo nomenclature. It was installed in the Volvo 440 and 460 models. Peculiarly, this engine had the same bore and stroke (and resulting displacement) as the diesel F8M engine.

Version 8 valves engine F7R 115 bhp (86 kW; 117 PS) would appear on Laguna 1, it was also used in the Mégane 1 and Scenic Area 1 and 3, and was there known as the "F3R." In the Volvo 440, 460 and 480, the engine was known as the "B20F". The new 1,998 cc (2.0 L) F3R replaced the old 1,965 cc (2.0 L) F3R engine.

The F4P first appeared in 1998, in the Phase 2 model of the first generation Laguna. This new 16 valve 1.8 L (1,783 cc) was also used in the first Mégane Scénic and the second generation Laguna. At the same time, the bigger F4R was used in the Laguna and Espace (third generation), with the same engine size as the F7R 1,998 cc (2.0 L) from the Clio Williams. It also ended up in the second and third generation Mégane as well as the second Laguna. The F4P and F4R engines was specifically known by their 16-valve cylinder head, similar to the K4J and K4M versions of K-Type engine. The F4P and F4R engines shared the same distribution kit and water pump of the 16 valved K-Type engines (K4J and K4M).

In 1999, the F5R engine was introduced. This was an F7R engine, equipped with direct injection. This 16 valve DI engine was used in the Mégane coupé and convertible, as well as the Laguna 2. This was the first produced French petrol engine with direct injection.[citation needed]

In 1999, Renault launched the Clio 2 RS, powered by the 1,998 cc (2.0 L) F4R 16 valve engine with 172 PS (127 kW; 170 bhp). The engine, sourced from the Laguna, was tuned by Mecachrome and fitted with 2-stage variable valve timing on the intake cam, matched inlet and exhaust ports and 4-into-1 exhaust headers. In 2001 the Phase 2 F4R received electronic throttle control. In 2004, the Phase 3 version of the Clio 2 RS gained 10 PS (7 kW; 10 bhp) for a total of 182 PS (134 kW; 180 bhp) using 4-2-1 exhaust headers, changes to the intake manifold and exhaust system (the new twin rear mufflers requiring the removal of the spare wheel well in the boot). Power was increased further in 2006 for the Clio 3 RS, now with 197 PS (145 kW; 194 bhp), using further improvements to the intake and exhaust, notably continuously variable valve timing on the intake cam. The output for the Clio was increased again to 203 PS (149 kW; 200 bhp) for the Phase 2 model of the third generation Clio RS.

The F4R would also be made with a turbo, and then known as the F4Rt. It would equip two Mégane, Laguna 2, Laguna 3 Avantime and Vel Satis, but especially this basis was used for the Mégane 2 RS 225 bhp (228 PS; 168 kW) (230 bhp (233 PS; 172 kW) version of the F1 Team R26 and R26.R.

The Mégane RS 3 was presented in March 2009 at the Geneva show. It was equipped with the 2.0 16V Turbo block F4Rt the Mégane 2 RS with variable valve timing, increased to 250 PS (184 kW; 247 bhp). In June 2011, Renault launched a limited edition "RS Trophy 'power increased to 265 PS (195 kW; 261 bhp), followed by a 275 PS (202 kW; 271 bhp) version.

Cylinder capacities

Engine types Displacement Bore x stroke
F8M 1,596 cc (1.6 L) 78 mm × 83.5 mm (3.07 in × 3.29 in)
F8Q - F8QT - F9Q 1,870 cc (1.9 L) 80 mm × 93 mm (3.15 in × 3.66 in)
B16F 1,596 cc (1.6 L) 78 mm × 83.5 mm (3.07 in × 3.29 in)
F1N - F2N - F3N - B18KP - B18E - B18EP - B18F - B18FT 1,721 cc (1.7 L) 81 mm × 83.5 mm (3.19 in × 3.29 in)
F7P 1,764 cc (1.8 L) 82 mm × 83.5 mm (3.23 in × 3.29 in)
F4P 1,783 cc (1.8 L) 82.7 mm × 83 mm (3.26 in × 3.27 in)
F3P - B18U 1,794 cc (1.8 L) 82.7 mm × 83.5 mm (3.26 in × 3.29 in)
F2R - F3R 1,965 cc (2.0 L) 82 mm × 93 mm (3.23 in × 3.66 in)
F3R - F7R - F5R - F4R - F4RT - B20F 1,998 cc (2.0 L) 82.7 mm × 93 mm (3.26 in × 3.66 in)



The F1x was only available with a displacement of 1.7 L (1,721 cc). It has a parallel valve engine architecture aspirated by a single-barrel carburetor.


  • F1N 1.7 L (1,721 cc; 105.0 cu in), B x S: 81 mm × 83.5 mm (3.19 in × 3.29 in).
The 1,721 cc (1.7 L) F2N engine was called B172 when installed in Volvos, here in a 340

The F2x is an eight-valve SOHC with double-barrel carburetor.


An F3R engine, installed in a Moskvitch 214145 "Svyatogor"

The F3x is mechanically similar to the F2x, only used a monopoint-EFI system. Some later versions were equipped with multi-point fuel injection. A turbocharged version designed by Porsche was available for the Volvo 400-series.


The F5x resembles the F4x mechanically with an architecture of 16 indirect actuated valves and DOHC, but used a "direct injection IDE" fuel system. It was only offered in a 2-liter version.


The F7x was the first of the F-type engine family with a 16-valve DOHC configuration, the valves were directly actuated by Hydraulic tappets. Both the 1.8 and the 2.0-litre versions were equipped with a multi-point fuel injection system.


The F8x is the indirect injected Diesel version and has an 8-valve SOHC architecture, it uses precombustion chambers to achieve the required air/fuel mixing.


The F9x is the direct injected Diesel version and also features an 8-valve SOHC configuration, it has swirl generating intake ports to create swirling (vortex) of the aspirated air, and either a toroidal- or an elsbett-shaped piston bowl to twist the injected fuel vapour, also to achieve the required air/fuel mixing. The diesel fuel is delivered either by a mechanical injection pump or a common rail fuel injection installation.


In production


The F4x is an indirect actuated 16-valve DOHC with a multi-point fuel injection system.

Twin-scroll turbo on the F4Rt engine


  1. ^ Moteur F: son histoire sur http://cleon-fonte.forumactif.com
  2. ^ Verhelle, Tony (1983-10-13). "Frankfurt: vervolg en slot" [Frankfurt continued]. De AutoGids (in Flemish). 5 (106). Brussels, Belgium: Uitgeverij Auto-Magazine: 35.
  3. ^ "Press information" (PDF). Renault. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  4. ^ "France: Cléon". Renault Histoire (in French). April 2014. Archived from the original on 2016-11-16.
  5. ^ Mastrostefano, Raffaele, ed. (January 1989). "Scavalcato il Turbo" [Skipping the turbo]. Quattroruote (in Italian). Vol. 34, no. 399. Milan, Italy: Editoriale Domus. p. 120.
  6. ^ "F4RT (TCe 180) (Gamme)". Planète Renault. Retrieved 2010-12-01.
  7. ^ "2010 Renault Mégane Coupe". Carfolio. Retrieved 2011-02-16.