List of Bohemian monarchs

(Redirected from List of rulers of Bohemia)

The Duchy of Bohemia was established in 870 and raised to the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198. Several Bohemian monarchs ruled as non-hereditary kings beforehand, first gaining the title in 1085. From 1004 to 1806, Bohemia was part of the Holy Roman Empire, and its ruler was an elector. During 1526–1804 the Kingdom of Bohemia, together with the other lands of the Bohemian Crown, was ruled under a personal union as part of the Habsburg monarchy. From 1804 to 1918, Bohemia was part of the Austrian Empire, which itself was part of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary from 1867 to 1918. Following the dissolution of the monarchy, the Bohemian lands, now also referred to as Czech lands, became part of Czechoslovakia, and they have formed today's Czech Republic since 1993.

Monarchy of Bohemia
StyleHis Majesty
First monarchBořivoj I (as duke)
Last monarchCharles III (as king)
Formationc. 870
Abolition28 October 1918
ResidencePrague Castle, Prague
AppointerHereditary 870-1212
Electoral college 1212–1620
Hereditary 1637–1918

Legendary rulers of Bohemia edit

Dukes and Kings of Bohemia from and after Přemyslid dynasty (c. 870–1306) edit

Přemyslid dynasty edit

Feuds of Bohemia and Moravia under Premyslid rule edit

       Part of Great Moravia
(until 907)
Duchy of

Raised to:
Kingdom of

Part of Poland
       Duchy of Moravia
Duchy of

(1st creation)
Duchy of

(1st creation)
Duchy of

(1st creation)
              Duchy of

Duchy of

(2nd creation)
Duchy of

(2nd creation)
       Duchy of

(3rd creation)
Duchy of Moravia
(Znojmo line)
       Duchy of Moravia

Table of rulers edit

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling part Consort Notes
Bořivoj I   852
Son of Hostivít (?)[1]

aged 35/6
Bohemia Ludmila of Bohemia
six children
First documented ruler of the dynasty.
Strojmír ? c. 883–885 ? Bohemia ? Apparently a usurper.
Bohemia annexed to Great Moravia (889–894)
Spytihněv I   882
First son of Bořivoj I and Ludmila of Bohemia
894–915 915
aged 32/3
(with Moravia since 907)
Unmarried His reign restored Bohemian sovereignty.
Vratislaus I
Second son of Bořivoj I and Ludmila of Bohemia
915 – 13 February 921 13 February 921
aged 32/3
Bohemia Drahomíra
three children
Regencies of Ludmila of Bohemia (921) and Drahomíra (921–925) Known as St. Wenceslaus ("Good King Wenceslas" for English-speaking people), the patron saint of the Czech lands.
(Svatý Václav)
First son of Vratislaus I and Drahomíra
13 February 921- 28 September 929/35 28 September 929/35
Stará Boleslav
aged 21/2 or 27/8
Bohemia Unmarried
Boleslaus I the Cruel
(Boleslav I. Ukrutný)
Prague (?)
Second son of Vratislaus I and Drahomíra
28 September 929/35 – July 972 July 972
aged 56/7
Bohemia Biagota
four children
Assassinated his brother to ascend to the ducal throne.
Boleslaus II the Pious
(Boleslav II. Pobožný)
Prague (?)
Son of Boleslaus I and Biagota
July 972 – 7 February 999 7 February 999
aged 58/9
Bohemia Adiva (of England?)
four children

Emma of Mělník
(Emma of Italy (?))
no children
Moravia is again lost, this time, to Poland, in 999.
Boleslaus III the Red
(Boleslav III. Ryšavý)
First son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
7 February 999 – May 1002

February – March 1003
aged 56/7
Bohemia Unknown In 1002-04, Bohemia was invaded twice by Poland.
Bohemia was annexed to Poland (1002-04):
Jaromír   c. 970
Second son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
1004 – 12 April 1012

9 November 1034 – 1035
4 November 1038
Lysá nad Labem
aged 60/70
Bohemia Unknown In 1004, Jaromir occupied Prague with a German army and proclaimed himself Bohemian duke, restoring the family's domain, albeit reduced. As brothers of Boleslaus III, Jaromir and Ulrich had a fight for the throne that lasted until 1034, when Ulrich died and Jaromir retired (and then murdered). Nevertheless, more land was at stake, as Moravia was reintegrated into Bohemia in 1019, after being reconquered from Poland, and given to Ulrich's son.
Ulrich I
  c. 975
Third son of Boleslaus II and Adiva
12 April 1012 – 9 November 1034 9 November 1034 or 1042
aged 59/60 or 66/7
Bohemia Božena
c. 1002
one child
1033 – 9 November 1034 Moravia
Bretislaus I the Bohemian Achilles
(Břetislav I. český Achilles)
Son of Ulrich I and Božena
1019/29 – 1033

9 November 1034 – 10 January 1055
10 January 1055
aged 50/3
Moravia Judith of Schweinfurt
four children
First separation of Moravia from Bohemia. His father usurped his place for a year. After his own death, his sons shared the inheritance.
1035 – 10 January 1055 Bohemia
Spytihněv II   1031
First son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 28 January 1061 28 January 1061
aged 29/30
(also in Moravia from 1056)
Ida of Wettin
one child
Children of Bretislav I, divided their inheritance:
  • Spytihnev kept Bohemia; the others divided Moravia:
    • Conrad received Brno;
    • Vratislav got Olomouc;
    • Otto inherited Znojmo.

The division was made ineffective by Spytihnev (1055), who extended his rule to Moravia, uniting the whole Premyslid domain under his control. However, after his death (1061), the landless brothers recovered the inheritance and divided it differently, as Vratislav inherited Bohemia:

  • Conrad recovered Brno but also received Otto's share in Znojmo;
  • Otto received Vratislav's part in Olomouc.
Vratislaus II
(Vratislav II)
  c. 1035
Second son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056 14 January 1092 Olomouc Maria
before 1057
no children

Adelaide of Hungary (I)
four children

Świętosława of Poland
five children
28 January 1061 – June 1085
(as Duke)

June 1085 – 14 January 1092
(as King)
Conrad I
(Konrád I)
  c. 1035
Third son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056

28 January 1061 – 6 September 1092
6 September 1092 Brno
(with Znojmo since 1061)
Wirpirk of Tengling
two children
14 January 1092 – 6 September 1092 Bohemia
Otto I the Fair
(Ota Sličný)
Fouth son of Bretislaus I and Judith of Schweinfurt
10 January 1055 – 1056 9 June 1087
aged 41/2
Znojmo Euphemia of Hungary
before 1073
two children
28 January 1061 – 9 June 1087 Olomouc
First son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
9 June 1087 – 11 August 1091 11 August 1091
aged 28/9
Olomouc Unmarried
Bretislaus II
(Břetislav II)
  c. 1060
Son of Vratislaus II and Adelaide of Hungary (I)
6 September 1092 – 22 December 1100 22 December 1100
aged 39/40
Bohemia Lukarta of Bogen
one child
Ulrich (II)
  c. 1070/80?
First son of Conrad I and Wirpirk of Tengling
6 September 1092 – 5 January 1113 5 January 1113
aged c. 33/43?
(with Znojmo since 1112)
two children
Children of Conrad I, divided the inheritance:
  • Luitpold received Znojmo;
  • Ulrich inherited Brno.

Despite having heirs, Luitpold's land came to Ulrich's possession after his death. Conrad II, Luitpold's heir, would come to power in 1123.

Luitpold (I)
(Litold znojemský)
  c. 1070/80?
Second son of Conrad I and Wirpirk of Tengling
6 September 1092 – 15 March 1112 15 March 1112
aged c. 32/42?
Znojmo Ida of Austria
one child
Bořivoj II   c. 1064
First son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
25 December 1100 – May 1107

December 1117 – 16 August 1120
2 February 1124
aged 39/40
Bohemia Helbirga of Austria
October 1100
no children
Ruled twice. Retired in 1120.
Svatopluk (I) the Lion
(Svatopluk Olomoucký)
Second son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
11 August 1091 – 21 September 1109 21 September 1109
aged 33/4
Olomouc Unknown
one child
May 1107 – 21 September 1109 Bohemia
Vladislaus I
(Vladislav I)
  c. 1065
Second son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
21 September 1109 – December 1117

16 August 1120 – 12 April 1125
12 April 1125
aged 59/60
Bohemia Richeza of Berg
four children
Ruled twice.
Sobeslaus I   c. 1075
Third son of Vratislaus II and Świętosława of Poland
5 January 1113 – 1123 14 February 1140
aged 64/5
(with Znojmo)
Adelaide of Hungary (II)
five children
Ruled Brno and Znojmo,[8] which split after his resign:
  • Znojmo returned to its heir, Conrad II;
  • Brno was absorbed by Olomouc, the other Moravian feud.
12 April 1125 – 14 February 1140 Bohemia
Otto II the Black
(Ota II. Černý)
Third son of Otto I and Euphemia of Hungary
21 September 1109 – 18 February 1126 18 February 1126
aged 40/1
(with Brno)
Sophia of Berg
three children
Ruled in Olomouc, since 1091 with his brother Svatopluk. Acquired Brno in 1123.
Conrad II
(Konrád II)
  c. 1100/10?
Son of Luitpold I and Ida of Austria
1123 – 1161 1161
aged c. 50/51 or c. 60/61?
Znojmo Maria of Serbia
four children
Received his heritage in 1123.[9]
Wenceslaus Henry
(Václav Jindřich)
Son of Svatopluk (I)
18 February 1126 – 1 March 1130 1 March 1130
aged 22/3
Olomouc Unmarried Heirs of previous rulers of their portions, after Otto II's death inherited their respective inheritances.
Vratislaus (II)
c. 1100/11
Son of Ulrich (II) and Adelaide
18 February 1126 – 6 August 1156 6 August 1156
aged 45/6
Brno A Russian princess
three children
Luitpold (II)
(Lupolt Olomoucký)
Son of Bořivoj II and Helbirga of Austria
1 March 1130 – 1137 1143
aged 40/1
Olomouc Unmarried Appointed and deposed by Sobeslaus, then the senior duke in Bohemia, who replaced him in Olomouc with his own son.
First son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1137 – 1140 1165 Olomouc Daughter of Albert the Bear
no children
Probably resigned, waiting for succeed in Bohemia; however it was another Vladislaus who ended up ascending the seniority position in Bohemia.
Vladislaus II
(Vladislav II)
  c. 1110
Son of Vladislaus I and Richeza of Berg
14 February 1140 – 11 January 1158
(as Duke)

11 January 1158 – 1172
(as King)
18 January 1174
aged 63/4
Bohemia Gertrude of Austria
six children

Judith of Thuringia
three children
Resigned in 1172.
Otto III
(Ota III)
Son of Otto II and Sophia of Berg
1140 – 12 May 1160[10] 12 May 1160
aged 37/8
Olomouc Durancia
five children
Spytihněv (II) ?
Son of Vratislaus (II)
6 August 1156 – 1182 1199 Brno Umarried In 1182, abdicated for Conrad Otto of Znojmo
Brno annexed to Znojmo
Son of Vladislaus II and Gertrude of Austria
12 May 1160 – 1173 25 March 1189 Olomouc Elizabeth of Hungary
six children
1172 – 1173

1178 – 25 March 1189
Ulrich (III) 1134
Second son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1173 – 18 October 1177 18 October 1177
aged 42/3
Olomouc Cecilia of Thuringia
no children

Sophia of Meissen
no children
Sobeslaus II the Prince of the Peasants
(Soběslav II. kníže sedláků)
Third son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
1173 – 1178 29 January 1180
aged 51/2
Bohemia Elisabeth of Greater Poland
no children
Wenceslaus II 1137
Fourth son of Sobeslaus I and Adelaide of Hungary (II)
18 October 1177 – 1178 after 1192 Olomouc Unmarried Abdicated for Conrad III.
9 September 1191 – 1192 Bohemia
Olomouc annexed to Znojmo
Conrad III Otto
(Konrád III. Ota)
  c. 1136
Son of Conrad II and Maria of Serbia
1161 – 1182 9 September 1191
aged 54/5
Znojmo Hellicha of Wittelsbach
before 1176
no children
Son of Conrad II. United Znojmo and Olomouc. Brno joined in 1182, when he also became the first Margrave of Moravia.
1182 – 9 September 1191 Moravia
1189 – 9 September 1191 Bohemia
Bretislaus III Henry
(Břetislav III. Jindřich)
Son of Henry and Margaret (?)
1193 – 15/19 June 1197 15/19 June 1197 Bohemia Unmarried Son of Henry, brother of King Vladislaus II. Also Bishop of Prague (1182–97).
Vladislaus III Henry
(Vladislav III. Jindřich)
Second son of Vladislaus II and Judith of Thuringia
22 June – 6 December 1197 12 August 1222
Bohemia Heilwida
no children
Left no descendants. After his death, Moravia became an appanage of Bohemian princes.
December 1197 – 12 August 1222 Moravia
Premislaus Ottokar I
(Přemysl Otakar I)
First son of Vladislaus II and Judith of Thuringia
1192 – 1193

6 December 1197 – 1198
(as Duke)

1198 – 15 December 1230
(as King)
15 December 1230
aged 74/5
Bohemia Adelaide of Meissen
(annulled 1199)
one child

Constance of Hungary
nine children
First king of hereditary royal title, confirmed by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor in 1212 by issuing the Golden Bull of Sicily.
Wenceslaus I the One-Eyed
(Václav I. Jednooký)
Son of Premislaus Ottokar I and Constance of Hungary
15 December 1230 – 23 September 1253 23 December 1253
Králův Dvůr
aged 47/8
Bohemia Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen
five children
Premislaus Ottokar II The Iron and Golden King
(Přemysl Otakar II. král železný a zlatý)
Městec Králové
Son of Wenceslaus I and Kunigunde of Hohenstaufen
23 December 1253 – 26 August 1278 26 August 1278
aged 44/5
Bohemia Margaret of Austria
11 February 1252
Hainburg an der Donau
(annulled 1261)
no children

Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych
25 October 1261
three children
Also Duke of Austria, Styria, Carinthia and Friuli and margrave of Carniola.
Regencies of Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych (1278–1285) and Otto V, Margrave of Brandenburg (1278–1283) Also Duke of Cracow (from 1291) and King of Poland (1300–1305).
Wenceslaus II
(Václav II)
27 September 1271
PragueSon of Premislaus Ottokar II and Kunigunda Rostislavna of Halych
26 August 1278 – 21 June 1305 21 June 1305
aged 33
Bohemia Judith of Austria
January 1285
ten children

Elizabeth Richeza of Poland
26 May 1303
one child
Wenceslaus III
(Václav III)
  6 October 1289
Son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
21 June 1305 – 4 August 1306 4 August 1306
aged 16
Bohemia Viola of Cieszyn
5 October 1305
no children
Uncrowned (as Bohemian king). Also King of Hungary (1301–1305) and King of Poland.
(Anna Přemyslovna)
10 October 1290
Daughter of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
4 August 1306 – 1306
3/4 July 1307 – 3 December 1310
3 September 1313
aged 16
Bohemia Henry
no children
Heiresses of Bohemia, they were the true inheritors of the power claimed by their husbands during the succession crisis. Of the three, Rudolf had the weakest claim, and also the lowest popularity. The conflict was settled when, in 1310, Elizabeth and John invaded Prague, and defeated their opponents, Anna and Henry.
Henry of Carinthia[Note 1]
(Jindřich Korutanský)
Son of Meinhard, Duke of Carinthia and Elisabeth of Bavaria
2 April 1335
aged 69/70
no children

Adelaide of Brunswick-Lüneburg
two children

Beatrice of Savoy
no children
Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
  1 September 1288
Daughter of Przemysł II of Poland and Richeza of Sweden
1306 – 3/4 July 1307 19 October 1335
aged 47
Bohemia Wenceslaus II
26 May 1303
one child

16 October 1306
no children
Rudolf of Habsburg the Good
(Rudolf Habsburský, Rudolf Dobrý)
  c. 1281
Eldest son of Albert I of Germany and Elisabeth of Gorizia-Tyrol
Blanche of France
25 May 1300
one child

Elisabeth Richeza
16 October 1306
no children
3/4 July 1307
aged 26
(Eliška Přemyslovna)
  20 January 1292
Daughter of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Austria
3 December 1310 – 28 September 1330 28 September 1330
aged 38
Bohemia John
1 September 1310
seven children
John of Luxembourg the Blind
(Jan Lucemburský, Jan Slepý)
  10 August 1296
Son of Henry VII, Holy Roman Emperor and Margaret of Brabant
3 December 1310 – 26 August 1346 26 August 1346
aged 50
1 September 1310
seven children

Beatrice of Bourbon
December 1334
one child

The Late Kingdom of Bohemia: from the House of Luxembourg to Austria-Hungary (1310–1918) edit

Kings of Bohemia
House of Luxembourg
John the Blind
(Jan Lucemburský)
1310–1346 Son-in-law of Wenceslaus II.
Charles IV
(Karel I.)
1346–1378 Son of John. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles IV.
Wenceslaus IV
(Václav IV.)
1378–1419 Son of Charles I. Also King of the Romans until 1400.
1419–1437 Brother of Wenceslaus IV. Ruled effective 1436–1437 only (because of the Hussite Revolution). Also Holy Roman Emperor and King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
(Albrecht Habsburský)
1437–1439 Son-in-law of Sigismund. Also King of the Romans and of Hungary.
Interregnum 1440–1453 The succession of Albert's son was not recognized by the Czech nobility for most of this era; the land was administered by the Landfrieden (provincial and territorial).
  Ladislaus the Posthumous
(Ladislav Pohrobek)
1453–1457 Son of Albert born after his father's death. Also King of Hungary.
  George of Podebrady
(Jiří z Poděbrad)
1458–1471 Elected king from the Czech noble family House of Kunštát. Although he had descendants, the succession devolved to the prince from Polish kingdom.
  Matthias I
(Matyáš I. Korvín)
1469–1490 King of Hungary, elected by the insurgent Catholic Czech aristocrats as anti-king in 1469, but never crowned. In 1479, he agreed to limit his rule to Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia, while retaining his title.
House of Jagiellon
Vladislaus II the Jagiellonian
(Vladislav II. Jagellonský)
1471–1516 Nephew of Ladislaus the Posthumous; elected on request of his predecessor George. Also King of Hungary after 1490.
  Louis the Jagiellonian
(Ludvík Jagellonský)
1516–1526 Son of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary.
House of Habsburg
  Ferdinand I 1526–1564 Brother-in-law of Louis; elected king. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor-elect from 1558.
  Maximilian I
(Maxmilián I.)
1564–1576 Son of Ferdinand I, grandson of Vladislaus II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Rudolph II
(Rudolf II.)
1576–1612 Son of Maximilian I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Matthias II
(Matyáš II.)
1612–1615 Brother of Rudolph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Ferdinand II 1615–1619,1620-1637 Cousin of Matthias. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
House of Wittelsbach
  Frederick I
(Fridrich I.)
1619–1620 Elected by the Crown's Estates at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War, but after losing the Battle of White Mountain, he fled the country.
House of Habsburg
  Ferdinand III 1637–1657 Son of Ferdinand II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor. From this time on, Bohemia no longer had an elective monarchy, with the Habsburgs having imposed their exclusive rule at the Battle of the White Mountain.
Ferdinand IV 1646–1654 Son of Ferdinand III. Junior co-monarch during his father's reign. Also King of Hungary and King of the Romans.
  Leopold I 1657–1705 Brother of Ferdinand IV. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Joseph I
(Josef I.)
1705–1711 Son of Leopold I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Charles II
(Karel II.)
1711–1740 Brother of Joseph I. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VI.
  Maria Theresa
(Marie Terezie)
1740-1741,1743-1780 Daughter of Charles II. Also Queen of Hungary.
House of Wittelsbach
  Charles Albert
(Karel Albrecht)
1741–1743 Son-in-law of Joseph I. Anti-king to Maria Theresa during the War of the Austrian Succession. Also Holy Roman Emperor as Charles VII.
House of Habsburg-Lorraine
  Joseph II
(Josef II.)
1780–1790 Son of Maria Theresa. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Leopold II 1790–1792 Brother of Joseph II. Also King of Hungary and Holy Roman Emperor.
  Francis I
(František I.)
1792–1835 Son of Leopold II. Also King of Hungary, Holy Roman Emperor to 1806, Emperor of Austria from 1804.
  Ferdinand V 1835–1848 Son of Francis I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Last crowned King of Bohemia. Forced to abdicate during the Revolution of 1848.
  Franz Joseph I
(František Josef I.)
1848–1916 Nephew of Ferdinand V. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary.
  Charles III
(Karel III.)
1916–1918 Grandnephew of Francis Joseph I. Also Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary. Ruled briefly during World War I; in November 1918 renounced participation in state affairs but did not abdicate.

Family tree edit

From Bořivoj I, its first Duke, to the end of the Habsburg domination.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Most frequently cited year of birth; other cited years are 908[5] or 911.[6]
  1. ^ VI as duke of Carinthia.

References edit

  1. ^ According to a bold hypothesis by historian Jaroslav Zástěra, the Premyslid dynasty was a possible direct descendant of the ruling family of Great Moravia, being Borivoj a son of Rastislav of Moravia. See Hypotheses and citations of articles by J. Zástěry on the website of the Club of Friends of the Znojmo Rotunda (in Czech)
  2. ^ "Saint Ludmila Slavic saint". Encyclopaedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, inc. September 11, 2018.
  3. ^ "Wenceslas I". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  4. ^ "Sep 28 – St Wenceslaus (907–929) martyr". 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  5. ^ "Svatý Václav se narodil u nás, tvrdí obyvatelé Stochova na Kladensku" (in Czech). iDnes. 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  6. ^ "The Premyslids". Retrieved 2022-05-11.
  7. ^ According to legend. See page of the duke for details.
  8. ^ The intermission of other feudal lords of different branches could be seen as regencies, as it would happen, for example, in the 15-century Duchy of Austria, where Duke Frederick V exerted regency for his minor cousin, Ladislaus the Posthumous. However, these intermissions could be also similar, for example, to Kievan Rus', where rulers apparently "jumped" from place to place. Albeit this, nothing is proved.
  9. ^ The note referring to the regencies could apply here as well. The reason Conrad did not receive his duchy right after his father's death could be related to a possible minority that stopped him for assuming his power sooner.
  10. ^ The regency referred in previous notes may be proven here: in 1126, when his father died, he was too young to assume power. The rulers appointed by Sobeslaus I in the period 1126–40 could be functioning as regents.