List of herbaria in Turkey

The following is a list of herbaria in Turkey. Herbaria are established within faculties and institutes of credible universities. Those created in departments that are concerned with natural sciences such as botany, ecology, biogeography and climatology are mostly used to do research on the genetics of the plants, to examine their distribution on specific geographical locations and to protect them for future generations, while those affiliated with more practice-based departments such as pharmacy are used as a resource for drug production techniques.

The first herbarium in Turkey was opened in 1933 within the Faculty of Science at Ankara University. Founded by Kurt Krause and Hikmet Birand, this herbarium is the oldest among its counterparts in the country and has the most number of species within its 200,000-piece collection. Therefore, it is also called Herbarium Turcicum (Turkish Herbarium).[1][2] The Sugar Institute Herbarium, Atatürk University Faculty of Science Herbarium and Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium are closed to visitors and scientific researchers. However, thanks to a specially created website, it is possible to access all the data related to the Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium remotely.[3] Altınbaş University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium, which opened in 2018, is the first herbarium to be established by a private university. In addition, Anadolu, Ankara, Ege, Marmara, Onsekiz Mart and Siirt universities have two herbaria each, while Hacettepe, Istanbul and Yüzüncü Yıl universities have three herbaria each. As of 2020, there are 55 herbaria in 34 different provinces of Turkey.

Naming and abbreviationEdit

To create a herbarium, it is necessary to do a serious research, using archiving and preservation techniques. Although herbaria are usually established within universities' science and pharmacy faculties, institutions such as botanical gardens or natural history museums can also create their own collections. However, aside from preserving them for scientific studies and keeping records of them, it is important to share them with the universal scientific community. Therefore, information tags are assigned to recorded plant samples and the abbreviation of the herbarium within which they are stored is also included. The names and abbreviations of official herbaria are recorded in an international data system called Index Herbariorum, which has been in operation since 1935. While assigning international codes, the name of the city where the herbarium is located is taken into consideration, as well as the name of the institution to which it is affiliated. Herbarium abbreviations are always written in capital letters, consist of at least one and at most eight letters, and no period is added.[4]

Thanks to this system, all herbaria that are active in the world only have a descriptive code of their own and the collections they host are transferred to a common information pool. The system, managed by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy between 1952 and 1974, has been operated by the New York Botanical Garden since 1974. As of 2020, approximately 3,100 herbaria from various countries of the world and more than 390 million samples in total were recorded in this system.[5]

ListEdit

Name No. Specimens Code Affiliated institution Location Opening[a] Status
Kırıkkale University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Herbarium 1,000[6] ADO Kırıkkale University Kırıkkale 2000[6] Active
Ankara University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 25,000[7] AEF Ankara University Ankara 1978[7] Active
Abant Izzet Baysal University Herbarium 14,300[8] AIBU Abant Izzet Baysal University Bolu 1994[8] Active
Aksaray University Herbarium 5,000[9] AKSU Aksaray University Aksaray 2006[9] Active
Anadolu University Faculty of Science Herbarium 19,525[10] ANES Anadolu University Eskişehir 1994[10] Active
Ankara University Faculty of Science Herbarium 200,000[11] ANK Ankara University Ankara 1933[11] Active
Central Anatolia Forestry Research Institute Herbarium 5,830[12] ANKO General Directorate of Forestry Ankara 1959[12] Active
Artvin Çoruh University Herbarium 30,000[13] ARTH Çoruh University Artvin 2013[13] Active
Atatürk University Faculty of Science Herbarium 3,000[14] ATA Atatürk University Erzurum 1969[14] Closed[15]
Adnan Menderes University Botanical Garden and
Herbarium Application and Research Center
10,120[16] AYDN Adnan Menderes University Aydın 1998[16] Active
British Institute at Ankara Herbarium 6,000[17][18] BIA British Institute at Ankara Ankara 1970[17][18] Active
Uludağ University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Herbarium 55,000[19] BULU Uludağ University Bursa 1984[19] Active
Çanakkale Botanical Garden Herbarium 25,000[20] CBB Onsekiz Mart University Çanakkale 2015[20] Active
Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Herbarium 5,468[21] CNH Onsekiz Mart University Çanakkale 1999[21] Un­known
Çukurova University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 2,000[22] CUEF Çukurova University Adana 2015[22] Active
Cumhuriyet University Herbarium 25,000[23] CUFH Cumhuriyet University Sivas 1983[23] Active
Dicle Universitesi Herbarium 4,804[24] DUF Dicle University Diyarbakır 1974[24] Active
Düzce University Forestry Faculty Herbarium 5,400[25] DUOF Düzce University Düzce 2009[25] Active
Dumlupınar University Herbarium 11,000[26] DUP Dumlupınar University Kütahya 1992[26] Active
Trakya University Faculty of Arts and Sciences Herbarium 5,790[27] EDTU Trakya University Edirne 1983[28] Active
Ege University Faculty of Science Herbarium 35,000[29] EGE Ege University İzmir 1964[29] Active
Erciyes University Herbarium 7,308[30][31] ERCH Erciyes University Kayseri 1996[30][31] Active
Sugar Institute Herbarium 725[32] ESK Ankara Sugar Factory Ankara 1956[32] Closed[33]
Anadolu University Herbarium 13,983[34] ESSE Anadolu University Eskişehir 1979[34] Active
Fırat University Faculty of Science Herbarium 6,750[35] FUH Fırat University Elazığ 1987[36] Active
Gazi University Herbarium 30,929[37] GAZI Gazi University Ankara 1985[37] Active
Gaziosmanpaşa University Herbarium 8,300[38] GOPU Gaziosmanpaşa University Tokat Un­known Active
Gül Herbarium 25,000[39] GUL Süleyman Demirel University Isparta 2009[39] Aktif
Harran University Herbarium 7,000[40] HARRAN Harran University Şanlıurfa 2017[40] Active
Hacettepe University Biodiversity
Advanced Research Center Herbarium
5,000[41] HBH Hacettepe University BIOM Ankara 2008[42] Active
Altınbaş University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 500[43] HERA Altınbaş University İstanbul 2018[43] Active
Hacettepe University Herbarium 42,000[44] HUB Hacettepe University Ankara 1977[44] Active
Hacettepe University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 6,000[45] HUEF Hacettepe University Ankara 1975[45] Active
İnönü University Herbarium 8,000[46] INU İnönü University Malatya 2008[47] Active
Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 90,000[48] ISTE Istanbul University İstanbul 1956[48] Active
Istanbul University Faculty of Science Herbarium 40,000[49] ISTF Istanbul University İstanbul 1956[49] Active
Istanbul University Forestry Faculty Herbarium 41,500[50] ISTO Istanbul University İstanbul 1956[50] Active
Aegean Agricultural Research Institute Herbarium 21,500[51] IZ Aegean Agricultural Research Institute İzmir 1964[51] Active
Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 6,051[52] IZEF Ege University İzmir 1990[53] Closed[54][b]
Karadeniz Technical University Herbarium 23,240[56] KATO Karadeniz Technical University Trabzon 1973[56] Active
Selçuk University Faculty of Science Herbarium 24,000[57] KNYA Selçuk University Konya 1975[58] Active
Marmara University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 16,575[59] MARE Marmara University İstanbul 1985[59] Active
Mersin University Herbarium 7,810[60] MERA Mersin University Mersin 1996[60] Active
Centre for Implementation and Research of Plant Health Clinic Herbarium 250[61] MKUBK Hatay Mustafa Kemal University Hatay 2020[61] Active
Marmara University Herbarium 19,984[62] MUFE Marmara University İstanbul 1984[62] Active
Tekirdağ Namık Kemal University Herbarium 6,000[63] NAKU Namık Kemal University Tekirdağ 2012[63] Active
Nezahat Gökyiğit Botanical Garden Herbarium 8,500[64] NGBB Ali Nihat Gökyiğit Foundation İstanbul 2010[64] Active
Ondokuz Mayıs University Herbarium 7,500[65] OMUB Ondokuz Mayıs University Samsun 1985[65] Active
Pamukkale University Herbarium 5,000[66] PAMUH Pamukkale University Denizli 2008[66] Active
Siirt University Herbarium 2,000[67] SIIRT Siirt University Siirt 2015[67] Active
Siirt University Flora and Fauna Center Herbarium 2,000[68] SUFAF Siirt University Siirt 2015[68] Active
Yüzüncü Yıl University Herbarium 23,500[69] VANF Yüzüncü Yıl University Van 1982[69] Active
Van Flora Application and Research Center Herbarium 22,996[70] VHLV Yüzüncü Yıl University Van 1982[71] Active
Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium 1,200[72] VPH Yüzüncü Yıl University Van 2015[72] Active
Bülent Ecevit University Bryofit Herbarium 10,500[73] ZNG Bülent Ecevit University Zonguldak 2009[73] Active

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The years specified in the "Opening" column are indicated on the basis of the year in which the relevant herbarium received the international herbarium code. The date in question does not refer to the year in which the herbarium was actually or officially established, but the year in which it was scientifically registered in the international arena.
  2. ^ Although the Herbarium of the Ege University Faculty of Pharmacy Herbarium, which is coded with IZEF, is actually closed, it continues to exist interactively as all the samples of herbarium have been uploaded to the internet. In this context "IZEF" went down in history as Turkey's first virtual herbarium.[3][55]

MapEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit