List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America

  (Redirected from List of South American countries)
South America (orthographic projection).svg

This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America. It includes both fully recognized states and dependent territories of both South American and non-South American states. It lists 12 sovereign states and 4 non-sovereign territories.

South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean. North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. South America has an area of approximately 17,840,000 square kilometres (6,890,000 sq mi), or almost 3.5% of Earth's surface. As of 2018, its population is more than 430 million, according to estimates of population in The World Factbook. South America ranks fourth among all continents in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America).[1]

The border between North and South America is at some point in the Isthmus of Panama. The most common demarcation in atlases and other sources follows the Darién Mountains watershed that divides along the Colombia–Panama border where the isthmus meets the South American continent (see Darién Gap). Virtually all atlases list Panama as a state falling entirely within North America and/or Central America.[2]

Sovereign statesEdit

A sovereign state is a political association with effective sovereignty over a population for whom it makes decisions in the national interest.[3] According to the Montevideo Convention, a state must have a permanent population, a defined territory, a government, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[4] The following states are all members of the United Nations[5] and current or former members of the Union of South American Nations.[6]

Flag Map English short and formal names, and ISO code[7][8][9] Domestic short and formal names
[7][8]
Capital
[9][10][11]
Population
[12]
Area
[13]
Argentina 

Argentine Republic

ARG 
Spanish: Argentina — República Argentina Buenos Aires

Spanish: Ciudad de Buenos Aires
45,545,849 2,780,400 km2 (1,073,518 sq mi)
Bolivia 

Plurinational State of Bolivia

BOL 
Spanish: Bolivia — Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia

Quechua: Buliwya

Aymara: Wuliwya
Sucre (official)
and La Paz (seat of government)

Spanish: Sucre[n 1]
11,806,725 1,098,581 km2 (424,164 sq mi)
Brazil 

Federative Republic of Brazil

BRA 
Portuguese: Brasil — República Federativa do Brasil Brasília

Portuguese: Brasília
213,923,995 8,514,877 km2 (3,287,612 sq mi)
Chile [n 2]

Republic of Chile

CHL 
Spanish: Chile — República de Chile Santiago[n 3]

Spanish: Santiago
19,359,923 756,102 km2 (291,933 sq mi)
Colombia 

Republic of Colombia

COL 
Spanish: Colombia — República de Colombia Bogotá / Santa Fe de Bogotá

Spanish: Bogotá
51,583,992 1,138,910 km2 (439,736 sq mi)
Ecuador 

Republic of Ecuador

ECU 
Spanish: Ecuador — República del Ecuador

Quechua: Ikwadur
Quito

Spanish: Quito
17,906,810 283,561 km2 (109,484 sq mi)
Guyana 

Co-operative Republic of Guyana

GUY 
English: Guyana — Co-operative Republic of Guyana Georgetown

English: Georgetown
789,580 214,969 km2 (83,000 sq mi)
Paraguay 

Republic of Paraguay

PRY 
Spanish: Paraguay — República del Paraguay

Guarani: Paraguai — Tetã Paraguai
Asunción

Spanish: Asunción
7,206,914 406,752 km2 (157,048 sq mi)
Peru 

Republic of Peru

PER 
Spanish: Perú — República del Perú

Quechua: Piruw

Aymara: Piruw
Lima

Spanish: Lima
33,470,092 1,285,216 km2 (496,225 sq mi)
Suriname 

Republic of Suriname

SUR 
Dutch: Suriname — Republiek Suriname Paramaribo

Dutch: Paramaribo
591,187 163,820 km2 (63,251 sq mi)
Uruguay 

Eastern Republic of Uruguay[n 4]

URY 
Spanish: Uruguay — República Oriental del Uruguay Montevideo

Spanish: Montevideo
3,484,256 176,215 km2 (68,037 sq mi)
Venezuela 

Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

VEN 
Spanish: Venezuela — República Bolivariana de Venezuela Caracas

Spanish: Caracas
27,859,494 912,050 km2 (352,144 sq mi)

Non-sovereign territoriesEdit

External territoriesEdit

Flag Map English name[7][9] Legal status Domestic name Capital[10] Population[12] Area[13]
Bouvet Island[n 5]

BVT
Dependency of Norway Norwegian: Bouvetøya N/A No permanent population 49 km2 (19 sq mi)
Falkland Islands

FLK
British overseas territory English: Falkland Islands
Spanish: Islas Malvinas
Stanley

English: Stanley
3,398[14] 12,173 km2 (4,700 sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands[n 5]

SGS
British overseas territory English: South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands King Edward Point

English: King Edward Point
No permanent population[n 6] 3,903 km2 (1,507 sq mi)

Internal territoryEdit

Flag Map English name and ISO code[7][9] Legal status Domestic name Capital[10] Population[12] Area[13]
French Guiana


GUF
French overseas department and region[n 7] French: Guyane Cayenne

French: Cayenne
294,071[15] 83,534 km2 (32,253 sq mi)

Economic statisticsEdit

Country/Territory Currency GDP (PPP) per capita[n 8]
(2008 est. in U.S. dollars)
Notes
Argentina Argentine peso 14,200 [16]
Bolivia Boliviano 4,500 [17]
Bouvet Island (Norway) Norwegian Krone 0
Brazil Brazilian real 10,100 [18]
Chile Chilean peso 14,900 [19]
Colombia Colombian peso 8,900 [20]
Ecuador United States dollar 7,500 [21]
Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) Falkland Islands pound 35,400 (2002 est.) [22]
French Guiana (France) Euro 6,000 (2001 est.) [23][24]
Guyana Guyanese dollar 3,900 [25]
Paraguay Paraguayan guaraní 4,200 [26]
Peru Peruvian nuevo sol 8,400 [27]
South Georgia and the South
Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)
Falkland Islands Pound 0
Suriname Surinamese dollar 8,900 [28]
Uruguay Uruguayan peso 12,200 [29]
Venezuela Venezuelan bolívar 13,500 [30]

Geographically associated with Antarctica, but due to geopolitical reasons, the United Nations geoscheme has included Bouvet Island in South America instead.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ While Sucre is the constitutional capital, La Paz is the seat of the government.
  2. ^ Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania.
  3. ^ While Santiago is the constitutional capital of Chile, Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  4. ^ Also translated as "Oriental Republic of Uruguay".
  5. ^ a b Sometimes grouped with Antarctica rather than South America.
  6. ^ Present inhabitants are the British Government officer, deputy postmaster, scientists, and support staff from the British Antarctic Survey who maintain scientific bases on Bird Island and in the capital, King Edward Point, as well as museum staff at Grytviken.
  7. ^ The territory has been fully integrated into the French central state.
  8. ^ The CIA's estimate for GDP per capita (PPP) is used in the article. For the World Bank and International Monetary Fund's estimates, see List of countries by GDP (PPP) per capita.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference for the Curious Mind (2nd ed.), New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007, p. 598, ISBN 0-312-37659-6, OCLC 173243876
  2. ^ "National Geographic Education". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-05-12.
    National Geographic Atlas (list). National Geographic Society. 2010. p. 4.
    Webster's New Geographical Dictionary (list and map). Merriam-Webster Inc. 1984. pp. 856, 859.
    "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
    "North America" Archived 3 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine Atlas of Canada
    North America Atlas National Geographic
  3. ^ Ashley, Richard K (1 June 1988). "Untying the Sovereign State: A Double Reading of the Anarchy Problematique". Millennium - Journal of International Studies. Sage Journals Online. 4 (2): 227–262. doi:10.1177/03058298880170020901. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  4. ^ "Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States". Council on Foreign Relations. 26 December 1933. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  5. ^ "United Nations Member States". United Nations. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  6. ^ "Estados Miembros" (in Spanish). Secretaria General de UNASUR. Archived from the original on 27 June 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
  7. ^ a b c d "Field Listing :: Names". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  8. ^ a b "UNGEGN List of Country Names" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2007. Retrieved 2011-02-24.
  9. ^ a b c d "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  10. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Capital". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  11. ^ "UNGEGN World Geographical Names". United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 9 December 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  12. ^ a b c "Country Comparison :: Population". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  13. ^ a b c "Field Listing :: Area". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 7 February 2012.
  14. ^ "2016 Census Report". Policy and Economic Development Unit, Falkland Islands Government. 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 January 2018.
  15. ^ INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Années 1975 à 2021" (in French). Retrieved 2021-01-21.
  16. ^ "The World Factbook: Argentina". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  17. ^ "The World Factbook: Bolivia". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  18. ^ "The World Factbook: Brazil". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  19. ^ "The World Factbook: Chile". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  20. ^ "The World Factbook: Colombia". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  21. ^ "The World Factbook: Ecuador". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  22. ^ "The World Factbook: Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas)". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  23. ^ Americas Review 2003/2004: Economic and Business Report (21st ed.). London: Kogan Page. 2003. p. 79. ISBN 0-7494-4064-3. ISSN 1351-4571.
  24. ^ "Résultats régionaux des enquêtes de recensement de 2004 à 2007" (in French). INSEE. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  25. ^ "The World Factbook: Guyana". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  26. ^ "The World Factbook: Paraguay". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  27. ^ "The World Factbook: Peru". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  28. ^ "The World Factbook: Suriname". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  29. ^ "The World Factbook: Uruguay". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.
  30. ^ "The World Factbook: Venezuela". CIA Directorate of Intelligence. 2008-05-15. Retrieved 2008-06-12.