List of Pokémon
The Pokémon franchise revolves around 812 fictional species of collectible monsters, each having unique designs and skills. Conceived by Satoshi Tajiri in early 1989, Pokémon are creatures that inhabit the fictional Pokémon World. The designs for the multitude of species can draw inspiration from anything, such as inanimate objects, real-world animals, or mythology. Many Pokémon are capable of evolving into more powerful species, while others can undergo form changes and achieve similar results. Originally, only a handful of artists led by Ken Sugimori designed Pokémon. However, by 2013 a team of 20 artists worked together to create new species designs. Sugimori and Hironobu Yoshida lead the team and determine the final designs. Each iteration of the series has brought about praise and criticism over the numerous creatures.
The vast array of creatures is commonly divided into "Generations", with each division primarily encompassing new titles in the main video game series and often a change of handheld platform. Generation I refers to Red, Green, Blue and Yellow; Generation II refers to Gold, Silver, and Crystal; Generation III refers to Ruby, Sapphire, and Emerald; Generation IV refers to Diamond, Pearl, and Platinum; Generation V refers to Black, White, Black 2, and White 2, Generation VI refers to X and Y; and Generation VII refers to Sun, Moon, Ultra Sun, and Ultra Moon, plus the two Mythical Pokémon introduced in Let's Go, Pikachu!, and Let's Go, Eevee!. Each Generation is also marked by the addition of new Pokémon: 151 in Generation I in the Kanto Region, 100 in Generation II in the Johto region, 135 in Generation III in the Hoenn region, 107 in Generation IV in the Sinnoh region, 156 in Generation V in the Unova region, 72 in Generation VI in the Kalos region, and 88 in Generation VII in the Alola and Kanto regions.
Due to the large number of Pokémon, listing of each species is divided into articles by generation. The 809 Pokémon are organized by their number in the National Pokédex—an in-game electronic encyclopedia that provides various information on Pokémon. The National Pokédex is subdivided into regional Pokédex series, each revolving around species introduced at the time of their respective generations along with older generations. For example, the Johto Pokédex, Generation II, covers the 100 species introduced in Gold and Silver in addition to the original 151 species. The encyclopedias follow a general ordering: starter Pokémon are listed first, followed by species obtainable early in the respective games, and are concluded with Legendary and Mythical Pokémon. Generation V is a notable exception, as Victini is the first Pokémon in the Unova Pokédex and is also uniquely numbered as number 0.
The premise of Pokémon in general was conceived by Satoshi Tajiri—who later founded Game Freak—in 1989, when the Game Boy was released. The creatures that inhabit the world of Pokémon are also called Pokémon. The word "Pokémon" is a romanized contraction of the Japanese brand Pocket Monsters (ポケットモンスター Poketto Monsutā). The concept of the Pokémon universe, in both the video games and the general fictional world of Pokémon, stems most notably from Tajiri's childhood hobby of insect collecting. Other influences on the concept include Ultraman, anime, and playing video games in general. Throughout his early life, Tajiri saw his rural, nature-filled hometown (Machida, Tokyo) transform into an urban center. The urbanization of his town drove away wildlife and he and others living in the area were eventually unable to collect insects. Through Pokémon, Tajiri sought to bring back this outdoor pastime and share it with the world. The first games in the franchise, Red and Green, were released on 27 February 1996 in Japan for the Game Boy; the games saw an international release as Red and Blue in September 1998. The ability to capture, battle, trade, and care for numerous creatures catapulted Pokémon to international popularity and it has become a multibillion-dollar franchise and the second-best selling video game series, only behind the Mario franchise.
At the start of a main series Pokémon game, the player character receives one of three "starter" Pokémon, with which they can battle and catch other Pokémon. Each Pokémon has one or two "types", such as Fire, Water, or Grass. In battle, certain types are strong against other types. For example, a fire-type attack will do more damage to a grass-type Pokémon than a water-type attack. This form of gameplay is frequently compared to that of rock-paper-scissors, though players have to strategize which Pokémon and which of their attacks to use against various opponents.
Many species of Pokémon are capable of evolving into a larger and more powerful creature. The change is accompanied by stat changes, generally a modest increase, and access to a wider variety of attacks. There are multiple ways to trigger an evolution including reaching a particular level, using a special stone, or learning a specific attack. For example, at level 16 Bulbasaur is capable of evolving into Ivysaur. Most notably, the Normal-type Eevee is capable of evolving into eight different Pokémon: Jolteon (Electric), Flareon (Fire), Vaporeon (Water), Umbreon (Dark), Espeon (Psychic), Leafeon (Grass), Glaceon (Ice), and Sylveon (Fairy). In Generation VI, a new mechanic called Mega Evolution—as well as a subset of Mega Evolution called Primal Reversion—was introduced into the game. Unlike normal evolution, Mega Evolution and Primal Reversion last only for the duration of a battle, with the Pokémon reverting to its normal form at the end. Forty-eight Pokémon are capable of undergoing Mega Evolution or Primal Reversion as of the release of Sun and Moon. In contrast, some species such as Castform, Rotom, Unown, and Lycanroc undergo form changes that may provide stat buffs or changes and type alterations but are not considered new species. Some Pokémon have differences in appearance due to gender. Pokémon can be male or female, male-only, female-only, or genderless.
Though the Pokémon franchise is primarily intended for younger players, each Pokémon has various complex attributes such as natures, characteristic traits, Individual Values (IVs), and Effort Values (EVs). These, according to Game Freak Board Director Junichi Masuda, are intended for people "who enjoy battling and want to go more in depth". These individual statistics were also included because the basic concept of the franchise is to train one's Pokémon. Designer Takeshi Kawachimaru stated that IVs and EVs "help to make each Pokemon in the game individual", as it adds unique aspects to them. Each Pokémon game introduces a few "Legendary" and "Mythical" Pokémon that are powerful, rare, and hard to catch. Pokémon Sun and Moon introduced "Ultra Beasts", which are described as "beings from another dimension" that appeared in the Alola region and are similarly powerful and rare.
Design and developmentEdit
Throughout development of Red and Green, all Pokémon were designed by Ken Sugimori, a long-time friend of Tajiri, and a team of fewer than ten people, including Atsuko Nishida who is credited as the designer of Pikachu. By 2013 a team of 20 artists worked together to create new species designs. A committee of five people determine which designs are incorporated into the games, with Sugimori and Hironobu Yoshida finalizing the look of each creature. Furthermore, Sugimori is responsible for the boxart legendary Pokémon and all of the official artwork for the games. According to Yoshida, the number of rejected Pokémon designs is five to ten times more than the number that are finalized in each game. In rare cases, rejected designs are brought back and released in a later generation. Shigeru Ohmori, director of Sun and Moon, admitted that creating new Pokémon has become a difficult task with the sheer number of creatures designed over the franchise's 20-year history. Each iteration of the series has brought about praise and criticism over the numerous creatures.
The designs for Pokémon are often highly analogous to real-life creatures, but also encompass inanimate objects. Director Junichi Masuda and graphic designer Takao Unno have stated that inspiration for Pokémon designs can come from anything. The variety of animals and culture across the world provide the basis for countless ideas to be incorporated into the franchise. The environment a Pokémon would live in is taken into account when they are designed. The lei-like Comfey fits appropriately in the Hawaii-inspired Alola region of Sun and Moon. Masuda has stated that each element of a design has a functioning reason. In some cases, the design team creates a footprint that a Pokémon could make and designs a creature around that. Some designers look to game mechanics for inspiration, seeing where particular typing combinations could be interesting. Typing assignment varies during the design process, sometimes a Pokémon receives a type after it is created and other times they are designed around a particular type. Each Pokémon has a specific height and weight.
The simpler roots of designs in Generation I prompted greater complexity in later games. Designs, in general, have become increasingly complex and thematic in newer games. Sneasel, for example, draws inspiration from the Japanese yōkai kamaitachi, mythical creatures with fast, razor-sharp claws that hunt in packs. These elements are all found in Sneasel's design and characteristics. New Pokémon introduced in Generation VI, for example, are heavily influenced by the culture and fauna of Europe (namely France). However, by the release of X and Y in 2013, Sugimori stated he wishes for Pokémon design to return to the simpler roots of the franchise.
Masuda considers the starter Pokémon to be among the most important in the franchise; Yoshida goes further and calls them "the face of that generation" and says that "they're the ones that should be on the packaging". The three starter Pokémon of each generation are Grass-, Water-, and Fire-types, a trio that Masuda considers to be the easiest to understand for new players. In an interview with GamesRadar in 2009, Masuda stated that simple Pokémon take around six months to design and develop, whereas Pokémon that play a more important part in the games (such as starter Pokémon) may take over a year. Masuda added, "We also want the designer to have as much freedom as possible, we don't want to narrow down their imagination by saying 'We want this kind of Pokemon.' When we talk to the designer we always stress that they shouldn't think of Pokemon necessarily, but should instead just be as creative as they can." After the Pokémon is designed it is sent to the "Battle Producer", who decides which moves and stats the Pokémon should have.
Lists of PokémonEdit
Detailed lists by generationEdit
|Generation||Years||Main titles||Enhanced remakes||Platforms||Number of Pokémon|
|Generation I||1996–1999||Red, Green, Blue and Yellow||None||Game Boy, Nintendo 3DS[a]||151||151|
|Generation II||1999–2002||Gold, Silver, and Crystal||None||Game Boy Color, Nintendo 3DS[a]||100||251|
|Generation III||2002–2006||Ruby, Sapphire, and Emerald||FireRed and LeafGreen||Game Boy Advance||135||386|
|Generation IV||2006–2010||Diamond, Pearl, and Platinum||HeartGold and SoulSilver||Nintendo DS||107||493|
|Generation V||2010–2013||Black, White, Black 2, and White 2||None||Nintendo DS||156||649|
|Generation VI||2013–2016||X and Y||Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire||Nintendo 3DS||72||721|
|Generation VII||2016–2019||Sun and Moon||Nintendo 3DS||81||802|
|Ultra Sun and Ultra Moon||5||807|
|Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee!||Nintendo Switch||2[b]||809|
|Generation VIII||2019||Sword and Shield||None||Nintendo Switch||≥3||≥812|
List of speciesEdit
|Color / symbol||Meaning||Description|
|Starter Pokémon||The first Pokémon a player is able to obtain in the main series games|
|~||Fossil Pokémon||Ancient Pokémon only obtained by resurrecting fossils|
|※||Baby Pokémon||Infant Pokémon primarily obtained by breeding their evolved forms|
|+||Eeveelution||Evolutions of the Eevee Pokemon|
|Legendary Pokémon||Powerful Pokémon associated with the legends and lore of the Pokémon world|
|♭||Mythical Pokémon||Pokémon only obtainable through distribution events|
|^||Pokémon with gender differences||Pokémon that look different depending on which sex they are|
|*||Pokémon with form differences||Pokémon that can change between forms or have aesthetic variants|
|%||Mega-evolved Pokémon||Pokémon that can go through Mega Evolution|
|!||Primal Reversion||Pokémon that can go through Primal Reversion|
|&||Pokémon with regional variants||Pokémon that look different in other regions|
|♯||Ultra Beast||Pokémon from another dimension|
In the Game Boy Pokémon games, Pokémon Red, Green, Blue, and Yellow, players were able to access a set of 105 glitch Pokémon. These species were not designed by the games' designers, but could be encountered in a small area of the game. Among these species is a glitch dubbed MissingNo., which became highly notorious.
- The Generation I and II main series games were later re-released via the Nintendo 3DS eShop in 2016–2018, with the Generation I titles being in celebration of the franchise's 20th anniversary.
- Two new Pokémon, Meltan and Melmetal, are introduced in a 2018 update to the spin-off mobile game Pokémon Go. Let's Go, Pikachu! and Let's Go, Eevee! include Meltan and Melmetal as playable Pokémon only through being transferred over from Pokémon Go.
- Pikachu is the only starter Pokémon in Pokémon Yellow and its remake Pokémon: Let's Go, Pikachu!.
- Eevee is the starter Pokémon in the Pokémon Yellow remake Pokémon: Let's Go, Eevee!, as it was only available for the rival in the original game.
- Tajiri, Satoshi (22 November 1999). "The Ultimate Game Freak". Time (Interview). Interviewed by Time magazine. New York, New York. Archived from the original on 1 February 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- King, Sharon R. (26 April 1999). "Mania for 'Pocket Monsters' Yields Billions for Nintendo". The New York Times. Langhorne, Pennsylvania. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "ポケットモンスター 赤・緑" [Pocket Monsters Red and Green] (in Japanese). The Pokémon Company. 2017. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- "Game Boy's Pokémon Unleashed on September 28!". Redmond, Washington: Nintendo. 28 September 1998. Archived from the original on 1 May 1999. Retrieved 13 July 2017.
- Jarvis, Matthew (2 December 2014). "Margin Makers: Guide to Pokémon merchandise". MCV. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 11 February 2016.
- "Type Matchup Chart" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 December 2017. Retrieved 7 January 2018.
- Loveridge, Sam (25 July 2016). "Pokémon Go Types explained: how to win Pokémon Go Gym battles". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 25 December 2016.
- Julien-Rohman, Damion (24 November 2014). "'Pokémon Alpha Sapphire and Omega Ruby' deliver". The State Press. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016.
- "The new gender politics of 'Pokémon Go' are sexist as hell". Retrieved 28 March 2018.
- Grimm, Michael (20 March 2009). "How Pokemon are born". GamesRadar. Archived from the original on 10 March 2016.
- Martinez, Phillips (18 November 2016). "'Pokemon Sun And Moon': How To Catch Every Legendary In Alola". iDigitalTimes. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Martinez, Phillip (18 November 2016). "'Pokémon Sun And Moon' Ultra Beasts: Everything You Need To Know". iDigitalTimes. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 24 December 2016.
- Drake, Audrey (14 February 2013). "Pokémon X and Y's New Eeveelution Revealed". IGN. Ziff Davis. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
- Plunkett, Luke (24 May 2011). "The Man Who Creates Pokémon For a Living". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 25 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Sarkar, Samit (29 May 2013). "Harvest Moon creator's Hometown Story leads Natsume's E3 slate". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Bailey, Kat (16 September 2015). "The New Zygarde Form is a Reminder of How Hard it is to Design a Good Pokémon". USGamer.net. Gamer Network. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Nutt, Christian (10 October 2013). "How Pokemon are born: Designing the series' iconic monsters". Gamasutra. UBM plc. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Watts, Steve (23 October 2013). "How Europe inspired Pokemon X and Y's creature designs". Shacknews. GameFly. Archived from the original on 19 July 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Masuda, Junichi; Yoshida, Hironobu (24 September 2013). "Pokémon X and Y Interview with Game Freak" (Interview). Interviewed by Justin Berube and Josh Max. Nintendo World Report. Archived from the original on 26 January 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Loveridge, Sam (20 October 2016). "Want to know how The Pokémon Company designs Pokémon?". Digital Spy. Archived from the original on 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2017.
- Hernandez, Patricia (17 December 2012). "Pokémon Designs Aren't Getting Worse, They May Be Getting Better". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 21 January 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Cundy, Matt (9 October 2012). "Pokémon developer confident it can keep making new pokémon forever". GamesRadar. Future plc. Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Masuda, Junichi; Yoshida, Hironobu (20 September 2013). "Junichi Masuda and Hironobu Yoshida Discuss Pokémon X and Y, Mega Evolutions and the 2DS" (Interview). Interviewed by Katy Ellis. Nintendo Life. p. 2. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Masuda, Junichi; Yoshida, Hironobu (19 September 2013). "Men are from Mars, Pokemon X and Y are from France". IGN (Interview). Interviewed by Heidi Kemps. Ziff Davis. Archived from the original on 15 December 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Hernandez, Patricia (25 September 2013). "Pokemon Hasn't Really Felt Exciting In A Long While...Until Now". Kotaku. Gawker Media. Archived from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 1 February 2013.
- Staff, Pokémon Company International; Whitehill, Simcha; Neves, Lawrence; Frang, Katherine; Silvestri, Chris (17 November 2016). "Encyclopedia". Hachette Children's Group. p. 30. Archived from the original on 8 January 2018. Retrieved 7 January 2018 – via Google Books.
- Sullivan, Lucas (4 February 2014). "17 Pokemon based on real-world mythology". GamesRadar. Future plc. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 18 June 2017.
- Sato (7 November 2013). "Pokémon Art Director Wants The Next Generation To Be Simpler". Siliconera. Curse. Archived from the original on 2 March 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2016.
- Frank, Allegra (24 October 2018). "Pokémon: Let's Go! legendary Meltan's evolution revealed". Polygon. Vox Media. Retrieved 24 October 2018.
- Staff, RPG Site. "Pokemon Ultra Sun & Moon Fossils Guide: How to get every Pokemon fossil and revive Pokemon from them - RPG Site". www.rpgsite.net. Archived from the original on 10 March 2018. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- Staff, Pokémon Company International; Whitehill, Simcha; Neves, Lawrence; Frang, Katherine; Silvestri, Chris (17 November 2016). "Encyclopedia". Hachette Children's Group. p. 151. Archived from the original on 3 February 2018. Retrieved 28 December 2017 – via Google Books.
- Averill, Alan; Incorporated, Nintendo of America; Inc, Nintendo of America (1 March 2001). "Official Nintendo Pokemon Stadium 2 Player's Guide". Nintendo of America. Retrieved 25 March 2019 – via Google Books.
- "What Eeveelutions could Pokémon Sword And Shield Introduce?". TheGamer. 23 March 2019. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "Pokémon: 20 Weird Things About The Elite Four That Everyone Forgets". TheGamer. 7 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
- Australia, Scholastic; Inc, Scholastic (1 October 2015). "Pokemon Deluxe Essential Handbook". Scholastic Australia – via Google Books.
- Fahey, Mike. "Here's How Pokemon X And Y's New Mega Evolutions Work".
- Hernandez, Patricia. "'Primal Reversion' Is Pokémon's New Type of Evolution". Kotaku. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
- Hernandez, Patricia. "Classic Pokémon Can Transform Into Something New In Pokémon Sun and Moon".
- "Pokédex". The Pokémon Company International. 2017. Archived from the original on 6 March 2017. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
- Hernandez, Patricia (4 February 2016). "Pokémon's Famous Missingno Glitch, Explained". Kotaku. Archived from the original on 24 January 2018. Retrieved 27 December 2017.