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List of Jewish Nobel laureates

Sign on Nobel Laureates Boulevard in Rishon LeZion saluting Jewish Nobel Laureates.

The Nobel Prize is an annual, international prize first awarded in 1901 for achievements in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace. An associated prize in Economics has been awarded since 1969.[1] Nobel Prizes have been awarded to 892 individuals,[2] of whom 201[3] were people of Jewish descent,[Note 1] or 22.5%, although people of Jewish descent comprise less than 0.2% of the world's population.[4]

As of 2017, people of Jewish descent constituted 36.71% of economics, 25.23% of medicine, 26.21% of physics, 19.77% of chemistry, 13.27% of literature and 8.65% of individual peace awards. As of 2017, as a percentage of years in which said prize has been awarded a person of Jewish descent has been award in 48.98% of economics, 38.89% of medicine, 38.74% of physics, 25.69% of chemistry, 12.73% of literature and 8.86% of individual peace awards.

Laureates Elie Wiesel and Imre Kertész survived the extermination camps during the Holocaust,[5] while François Englert survived by being hidden in orphanages and children's homes.[6] Others, such as Walter Kohn, Otto Stern, Albert Einstein, Hans Krebs and Martin Karplus had to flee Nazi Germany to avoid persecution.[7][8][9] Still others, including Rita Levi-Montalcini, Herbert Hauptman, Salvador Luria, Robert Furchgott, Arthur Kornberg, and Jerome Karle experienced significant antisemitism in their careers.[8][10]The oldest person ever to receive a Nobel Prize was Leonid Hurwicz, a Polish-American Jew who received the 2007 prize in Economics when he was 90 years old.[11]

Contents

ChemistryEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1905   Adolf von Baeyer[12][13][14][15] Germany "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"[16]
2 1906   Henri Moissan[12][13][14][15][17] France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[18]
3 1910   Otto Wallach[12][13][14][15] Germany "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[19]
4 1915   Richard Willstätter[12][13][14][15] Germany "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[20]
5 1918   Fritz Haber[12][13][14][15][21] Germany "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[22]
6 1943   George de Hevesy[12][13][14][15] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[23]
7 1961   Melvin Calvin[12][13][14][15] United States "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"[24]
8 1962   Max Perutz[12][13][14][15][25] United Kingdom "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[26]
9 1972   Christian B. Anfinsen[12][15][27] United States "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence and the biologically active conformation"[28]
10 William Howard Stein[12][13][15] United States "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[28]
11 1977 Ilya Prigogine[12][13][15][29] Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[30]
12 1979 Herbert C. Brown[12][13][15][31] United States "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[32]
13 1980   Paul Berg[12][13][15][33] United States "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[34]
14   Walter Gilbert[12][13][15] United States "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[34]
15 1981   Roald Hoffmann[12][13][15] United States "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[35]
16 1982   Aaron Klug[12][13][15] United Kingdom "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[36]
17 1985   Jerome Karle[10][12][13][15][37][38] United States "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[39]
18   Herbert A. Hauptman[8][12][13][15][40][41] United States
19 1989   Sidney Altman[12][13][15] Canada
United States
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[42]
20 1992   Rudolph A. Marcus[12][13][15] United States "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[43]
21 1994   George Andrew Olah[44][12][15] Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[45]
22 1996   Harry Kroto[15][46] United Kingdom "for the discovery of fullerenes"[47]
23 1998   Walter Kohn[7][8][12][15][48] United States "for his development of the density-functional theory"[49]
24 2000   Alan J. Heeger[12][13][15][50] United States "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"[51]
25 2004   Aaron Ciechanover[15][52][53] Israel "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[54]
26   Avram Hershko[15][52] Israel
27   Irwin Rose[15][55][56] United States
28 2006   Roger D. Kornberg[52][57][58] United States "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[59][60]
29 2008   Martin Chalfie[61] United States "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[62]
30 2009   Ada Yonath[52] Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"[63]
31 2011   Dan Shechtman[64] Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[65]
32 2012   Robert Lefkowitz[66] United States "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[67]
33 2013   Arieh Warshel[9][68] Israel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[69]
34   Michael Levitt[9][68] United States, Britain, Israel [70][71]
35   Martin Karplus[9][68] United States, Austria [72]

Physiology or MedicineEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1908   Élie Metchnikoff[14][15][73] Russia "in recognition of their work on immunity"[74]
2   Paul Ehrlich[14][15][73] Germany
3 1914   Robert Bárány[14][15][73] Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[75]
4 1922   Otto Fritz Meyerhof[14][15][73] Germany "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the metabolism of lactic acid in the muscle"[76]
5 1930   Karl Landsteiner[14][15][73] Austria "for his discovery of human blood groups"[77]
6 1931   Otto Heinrich Warburg[14][15] Germany "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[78]
7 1936   Otto Loewi[14][15][73] Austria "for their discoveries relating to chemical transmission of nerve impulses"[79]
8 1944   Joseph Erlanger[14][15][73][80] United States "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single nerve fibres"[81]
9 1945   Ernst Boris Chain[14][15][73] United Kingdom "for the discovery of penicillin and its curative effect in various infectious diseases"[82]
10 1946   Hermann Joseph Muller[14][15][73] United States "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of X-ray irradiation"[83]
11 1947   Gerty Cori[15][73] United States "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[84]
12 1950   Tadeusz Reichstein[14][15][73] Switzerland / Poland "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"[85]
13 1952   Selman Waksman[14][15][73] United States "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"[86]
14 1953   Hans Adolf Krebs[8][14][15][73] United Kingdom "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[87]
15   Fritz Albert Lipmann[73] United States "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[87]
16 1958   Joshua Lederberg[14][15][73] United States "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"[88]
17 1959   Arthur Kornberg[10][14][15][73] United States "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"[89]
18 1964   Konrad Emil Bloch[14][15][73][90] United States "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"[91]
19 1965   François Jacob[14][15][73] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[92]
20   André Michel Lwoff[14][15][73]
21 1967   George Wald[14][15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[93]
22 1968   Marshall Warren Nirenberg[14][15][73] United States "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"[94]
23 1969   Salvador Luria[14][15][73] United States, Italy "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"[95]
24 1970   Julius Axelrod[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[96]
25 Bernard Katz[14][15][73] United Kingdom
26 1972   Gerald Edelman[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"[97]
27 1975   David Baltimore[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[98]
28 Howard Martin Temin[15][73] United States
29 1976   Baruch Samuel Blumberg[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"[99]
30 1977   Rosalyn Sussman Yalow[15][33][73] United States "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[100]
31 1978 Daniel Nathans[15][73] United States "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[101]
32 1980 Baruj Benacerraf[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"[102]
33 1984   César Milstein[15][33][73] Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[103]
34 1985   Michael Stuart Brown[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"[104]
35   Joseph L. Goldstein[15][73] United States
36 1986   Stanley Cohen[15][33][73] United States "for their discoveries of growth factors"[105]
37   Rita Levi-Montalcini[15][73][106] Italy
38 1988   Gertrude B. Elion[15][73] United States "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[107]
39 1989   Harold E. Varmus[15][33][73] United States "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"[108]
40 1994   Alfred G. Gilman[15][73] United States "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[109]
41   Martin Rodbell[15][73]
42 1997   Stanley B. Prusiner[15][73] United States "for his discovery of prions – a new biological principle of infection"[110]
43 1998   Robert F. Furchgott[8][15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[111]
44 2000   Paul Greengard[15][73] United States "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"[112]
45   Eric Kandel[15][73] United States
46 2002 Sydney Brenner[15][73] United Kingdom "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"[113]
47 H. Robert Horvitz[15][73] United States
48 2004   Richard Axel[15][73][80][114] United States "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[115]
49 2006   Andrew Fire[73] United States "for his discovery of RNA interference – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[116]
50 2011 Ralph M. Steinman[64][73][117][118][119] Canada for "his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity"[120]
51   Bruce Beutler[64][73][121] United States "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
52 2013 James E. Rothman[9][122][123] United States for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[124]
53   Randy Schekman[9][122][123] United States
54 2017 Michael Rosbash United States "for his discovery of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[124]

PhysicsEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1907   Albert A. Michelson[13][14][125] United States "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[126]
2 1908   Gabriel Lippmann[13][14][125] France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[127]
3 1921   Albert Einstein[13][14][125][128] Germany "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect"[129]
4 1922   Niels Bohr[13][14][125] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[130]
5 1925   James Franck[13][125] Germany "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom"[131]
6   Gustav Hertz[13][14] Germany
7 1943   Otto Stern[13][125] United States "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the magnetic moment of the proton"[132]
8 1944   Isidor Isaac Rabi[13][14][125] United States "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[133]
9 1945   Wolfgang Pauli[125][134] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[135]
10 1952   Felix Bloch[13][14][125] United States "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[136]
11 1954   Max Born[13][14][125] United Kingdom "for his fundamental research in quantum mechanics, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[137]
12 1958   Ilya Frank[125] Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[138]
13 1959   Emilio Gino Segrè[13][14][125] Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[139]
14 1960   Donald A. Glaser[13][14][125] United States "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[140]
15 1961   Robert Hofstadter[13][14][125] United States "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[141]
16 1962   Lev Landau[13][14][125][142] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for condensed matter, especially liquid helium"[143][144]
17 1963   Eugene Wigner[125][145] United States "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[146]
18 1965   Richard Feynman[13][14][125][147] United States "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[148]
19   Julian Schwinger[13][14][125] United States
20 1967   Hans Bethe[125] United States "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in stars"[149]
21 1969   Murray Gell-Mann[13][14][125][150] United States "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[151]
22 1971 Dennis Gabor[13][125] United Kingdom "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[152]
23 1972   Leon Cooper[125][125][153][154] United States "for his jointly developed theory of superconductivity, usually called the BCS-theory"[155]
24 1973   Brian David Josephson[13] United Kingdom "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[156]
25 1975   Ben Roy Mottelson[13][125] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[157]
26 1976   Burton Richter[13][125] United States "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[158]
27 1978   Arno Allan Penzias[13][125] United States "for his discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation"[159]
28 1979   Sheldon Lee Glashow[13][125] United States "for their contributions to the theory of the unified weak and electromagnetic interaction between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[160]
29   Steven Weinberg[13][125] United States
30 1981   Arthur Leonard Schawlow United States "for their contribution to the development of laser spectroscopy"[161]
31 1987   Karl Alexander Müller[125] Switzerland "for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[162]
32 1988   Leon M. Lederman[13][33][125] United States "for the neutrino beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the leptons through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[163]
33 Melvin Schwartz[13][125] United States
34   Jack Steinberger[13][125] United States
35 1990   Jerome Isaac Friedman[125] United States "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[164]
36 1992   Georges Charpak[125] France / Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[165]
37 1995   Martin Lewis Perl[125] United States "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[166]
38   Frederick Reines[125] United States "for the detection of the neutrino" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to lepton physics"[166]
39 1996   David Morris Lee[44][125] United States "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[167]
40   Douglas D. Osheroff[44] United States
41 1997   Claude Cohen-Tannoudji[125] France "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[168]
42 2000   Zhores Alferov[44][125] Russia "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[169]
43 2003   Alexei Alexeyevich Abrikosov[125] Russia
United States
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of superconductors and superfluids"[170]
44   Vitaly Ginzburg[125] Russia
45 2004   David Gross[52][125][171] United States "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the strong interaction"[172]
46 H. David Politzer[125] United States
47 2005   Roy J. Glauber[125] United States "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[173]
48 2011   Adam Riess[64][125][174][175][176] United States "for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"[177]
49   Saul Perlmutter[64][125][178][179] United States
50 2012   Serge Haroche[180] France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[181]
51 2013   François Englert[6][9][182][183] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[184]
52 2016   J. Michael Kosterlitz[185] United Kingdom "for discoveries in condensed-matter physics that have transformed the understanding of matter that assumes strange shapes."
53 2017   Rainer Weiss[186] United States "for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves."
54   Barry Barish[187][188][189] United States "for decisive contributions to the LIGO detector and the observation of gravitational waves."

LiteratureEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1910   Paul Heyse[44][190] Germany "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[191]
2 1927   Henri Bergson[190] France "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[192]
3 1958 Boris Pasternak[190] Soviet Union "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[193]
4 1966   Shmuel Yosef Agnon[190] Israel "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[194]
5   Nelly Sachs[190] Sweden "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[194]
6 1976   Saul Bellow[190] United States "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[195]
7 1978   Isaac Bashevis Singer[190] United States "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[196]
8 1981   Elias Canetti[190] United Kingdom "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[197]
9 1987   Joseph Brodsky[190] United States "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[198]
10 1991   Nadine Gordimer[190] South Africa "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[199]
11 2002   Imre Kertész[190][200][201] Hungary "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[202]
12 2004   Elfriede Jelinek[203] Austria "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[204]
13 2005   Harold Pinter[190][205] United Kingdom "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[206]
14 2014   Patrick Modiano[207]

[208]

France "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"[209]
15 2016   Bob Dylan United States "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"

EconomicsEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1970   Paul Samuelson[210][211] United States "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"

[212]

2 1971 Simon Kuznets[210][213] United States "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[214]
3 1972   Kenneth Arrow[210][215] United States "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[216]
4 1973 Wassily Leontief[210] Russia
Germany
United States
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[217]
5 1975   Leonid Kantorovich[210] Soviet Union "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[218]
6 1976   Milton Friedman[210][215][219] United States "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[220]
7 1978 Herbert A. Simon[210][221] United States "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[222]
8 1980 Lawrence Klein[210][221] United States "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[223]
9 1985   Franco Modigliani[210][211] Italy
United States
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[224]
10 1987   Robert Solow[210] United States "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[225]
11 1990 Harry Markowitz[210][221] United States "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[226]
12 Merton Miller[210][221] United States
13 1992   Gary Becker[210][221] United States "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[227]
14 1993   Robert Fogel[210][221] United States "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[228]
15 1994 John Harsanyi[210][221][229] Hungary "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[230]
16

 

Reinhard Selten[231] Germany
17 1997   Myron Scholes[210][221][232] Canada "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[233][234]
18 2001   Joseph Stiglitz[210][221] United States "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[235]
19   George Akerlof[236] United States
20 2002   Daniel Kahneman[210][221] Israel
United States
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[237]
21 2005   Robert Aumann[210][238] Israel
United States
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through game-theory analysis"[239]
22 2007   Leonid Hurwicz[210][240][241][242][243] United States
Poland
"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[244]
23   Eric Maskin[210][243][245] United States
24   Roger Myerson[210][243] United States
25 2008   Paul Krugman[210][246] United States "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[247]
26 2010   Peter Diamond[248][249] United States "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[250]
27 2012   Alvin E. Roth[251] United States "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"[252]
28 2016   Oliver Hart[253] United States "contributions to contract theory."
29 2017   Richard Thaler United States "contributions to behavior economics."[254]

PeaceEdit

# Year Laureate Country Rationale
1 1911   Tobias Michael Carel Asser[255] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[256]
2   Alfred Hermann Fried[257] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[256]
3 1968   René Cassin France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[258]
4 1973   Henry A. Kissinger[259] United States "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[260][261]
5 1978   Menachem Begin[262] Israel "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[263]
6 1986   Elie Wiesel[264] United States "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[265]
7 1994   Yitzhak Rabin Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[266]
8   Shimon Peres Israel
9 1995   Joseph Rotblat United Kingdom
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[267]

Forced to decline prizeEdit

Boris Pasternak, a Russian Jew, winner of the 1958 prize for literature, initially accepted the award, but—after intense pressure from Soviet authorities—subsequently declined it.[268][269][270][271]

Nobel Laureates BoulevardEdit

 
Monument and plaque honoring 2002 Economics Laureate Daniel Kahneman on Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade in Rishon LeZion Israel.

The Israeli city of Rishon LeZion has an avenue dedicated to honoring all Jewish Nobel laureates. The street, called Tayelet Hatanei Pras Nobel (Nobel Laureates Boulevard/Promenade), has a monument with attached plaque for each Nobel laureate. The scientific adviser of the project was Prof. Israel Hanukoglu[272]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Nobel Prize" (2007), in Encyclopædia Britannica, accessed 14 November 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online:

    An additional award, the Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, was established in 1968 by the Bank of Sweden and was first awarded in 1969

  2. ^ https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/all/index.html
  3. ^ https://www.jinfo.org/Nobel_Prizes.html
  4. ^
    • "A remarkable week for Jewish Nobel Prize winners". The Jewish Chronicle. October 10, 2013. Jews have won more than 20 per cent of the 850-plus prizes awarded, despite making up just 0.2 per cent of world’s population. 
    • "One-of-five Nobel Prize Laureates are Jewish". Israel High-Tech & Investment Report. December 2004. Retrieved 2010-02-15. 
    • "Jews make up less than 0.32% of mankind". ynetnews. October 0012. 
    • Brooks, David (January 11, 2010). "The Tel Aviv Cluster". The New York Times. p. A23. Jews are a famously accomplished group. They make up 0.2 percent of the world population, but 54 percent of the world chess champions, 27 percent of the Nobel physics laureates and 31 percent of the medicine laureates. Jews make up 2 percent of the U.S. population, but 21 percent of the Ivy League student bodies, 26 percent of the Kennedy Center honorees, 37 percent of the Academy Award-winning directors, 38 percent of those on a recent Business Week list of leading philanthropists, 51 percent of the Pulitzer Prize winners for nonfiction. 
    • Dobbs, Stephen Mark (October 12, 2001). "As the Nobel Prize marks centennial, Jews constitute 1/5 of laureates". j. Retrieved January 23, 2009. Throughout the 20th century, Jews, more so than any other minority, ethnic or cultural group, have been recipients of the Nobel Prize – perhaps the most distinguished award for human endeavor in the six fields for which it is given. Remarkably, Jews constitute almost one-fifth of all Nobel laureates. This, in a world in which Jews number just a fraction of 1 percent of the population. 
    • Ted Falcon, David Blatner (2001). "28". Judaism for dummies. John Wiley & Sons. Similarly, because Jews make up less than a quarter of one percent of the world's population, it's surprising that over 20 percent of Nobel prizes have been awarded to Jews or people of Jewish descent. 
    • Lawrence E. Harrison (2008). The Central Liberal Truth: How Politics Can Change a Culture and Save It. Oxford University Press. p. 102. That achievement is symbolized by the fact that 15 to 20 percent of Nobel Prizes have been won by Jews, who represent two tenths of one percent of the world's population. 
    • Jonathan B. Krasner, Jonathan D. Sarna (2006). The History of the Jewish People: Ancient Israel to 1880's America. Behrman House, Inc. p. 1. These accomplishments account for 20 percent of the Nobel Prizes awarded since 1901. What a feat for a people who make up only .2 percent of the world's population! 
    • Murray, Charles (April 2007). "Jewish Genius". Commentary. In the first half of the 20th century, despite pervasive and continuing social discrimination against Jews throughout the Western world, despite the retraction of legal rights, and despite the Holocaust, Jews won 14 percent of Nobel Prizes in literature, chemistry, physics, and medicine/physiology. In the second half of the 20th century, when Nobel Prizes began to be awarded to people from all over the world, that figure rose to 29 percent. So far, in the 21st century, it has been 32 percent. Jews constitute about two-tenths of one percent of the world’s population. 
  5. ^ "Winfrey selects Wiesel's 'Night' for book club", Associated Press, January 16, 2006.
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    • Magnus Ramage, Karen Shipp (2009). Systems Thinkers. Springer. p. 277. "Prigogine was born in January 1917 in Moscow... His family 'had a difficult relationship with the new regime' (Prigogine 1977), being both Jewish and merchants...
    • Jean Maruani, Roland Lefebvre, Erkki Brändas (eds.) (2003). Advanced Topics in Theoretical Chemical Physics, Springer, p. xv. "Ilya Prigogine was born on January 25, 1917, in Moscow, Russia, the second boy in a middle-class, Jewish family."
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  175. ^ Wedding: Drs. Gail Michele Riess and Leonard Bruce Saltz
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  1. ^ The definition of a Jew here includes anyone with at least one Jewish parent regardless of religious affiliation as well as those who converted to Judaism at any stage of life. (See Who is a Jew?)

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