List of Christian Nobel laureates

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901-2000 about 65.4% of Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1] Here is a non exhaustive list of some of the prize winners who publicly identified themselves as Christians.


By one estimate made by Weijia Zhang from Arizona State University and Robert G. Fuller from University of Nebraska–Lincoln, between 1901 to 1990, 60% of Physics Nobel prize winners had Christian backgrounds.[2] In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 65.3% of Physics Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1904   Lord Rayleigh   United Kingdom Anglican[3][need quotation to verify][4][need quotation to verify] "for his investigations of the densities of the most important gases and for his discovery of argon in connection with these studies"[5]
1906   Joseph John Thomson   United Kingdom Anglican[6] "for his theoretical and experimental investigations on the conduction of electricity by gases"[7]
1909   Guglielmo Marconi  Italy Roman Catholic[8] "for his contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy"[9]
1914   Max von Laue  Germany Roman Catholic[10][11][12] "for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals",[13] an important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy.
1917   Charles Glover Barkla   United Kingdom Methodist[14][15][16] "for his discovery of the characteristic Röntgen radiation of the elements",[17] another important step in the development of X-ray spectroscopy
1923   Robert Andrews Millikan   United States Christian[18][19][20][21] He dealt with this in his Terry Lectures at Yale in 1926–7, published as Evolution in Science and Religion.[22] "for his work on the elementary charge of electricity and on the photoelectric effect"[23]
1927   Arthur Holly Compton   United States Presbyterian[24][25] "for his discovery of the effect named after him"[26]
1932   Werner Heisenberg   Weimar Republic Lutheran[27][28] "for the creation of quantum mechanics, the application of which has, inter alia, led to the discovery of the allotropic forms of hydrogen"[29]
1936   Victor Francis Hess  Austria Roman Catholic[30] He wrote on the topic of science and religion in his article "My Faith".[31] "for his discovery of cosmic radiation"[32]
1951   Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton   Ireland Methodist[33] "for his pioneer work on the transmutation of atomic nuclei by artificially accelerated atomic particles"[34]
1964   Charles Hard Townes   United States Protestant (United Church of Christ)[35] "for fundamental work in the field of quantum electronics, which has led to the construction of oscillators and amplifiers based on the maserlaser principle"[36]
1974   Antony Hewish   United Kingdom Christian[37] "for his pioneering research in radio astrophysics: Ryle for his observations and inventions, in particular of the aperture synthesis technique, and Hewish for his decisive role in the discovery of pulsars"[38]
1997   William Daniel Phillips   United States Protestant (United Methodist Church)[39] "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light."[40]
2007   Peter Grünberg   Germany Roman Catholic[41][42] "for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance"[43]


In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 72.5% of Chemistry Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1918   Fritz Haber   Germany Converted to Protestantism from Judaism[44] "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[45]
1996 Richard E. Smalley   United States Christian[46] "for the discovery of fullerenes"[47]
2007   Gerhard Ertl   Germany Christian[48] "for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"[49]
2019 John B. Goodenough Germany Christian[50] “for the development of lithium-ion batteries”.[51]

Physiology or MedicineEdit

In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 62% of Medicine Nobel prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1906   Santiago Ramón y Cajal   Spain Roman Catholic[52] "in recognition of his work on the structure of the nervous system"
1909   Emil Theodor Kocher   Switzerland Protestant (Moravian Church)[53] "for his work on the physiology, pathology and surgery of the thyroid gland"[54]
1912   Alexis Carrel   France Roman Catholic[55] "[for] his work on vascular suture and the transplantation of blood vessels and organs"[56]
1930   Karl Landsteiner   Austria-Hungary converted to Roman Catholicism from Judaism in 1890[57] "for his discovery of human blood groups"[58]
1947   Gerty Theresa Cori, née Radnitz   United States converted to Roman Catholicism from Judaism in 1920[59]
1963   Sir John Carew Eccles   Australia Roman Catholic[60] "for his discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"[61]
1978   Werner Arber   Switzerland Protestant[62] "for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"[63]
1998   Ferid Murad   United States Christian[64]
2012   Sir John B. Gurdon   United Kingdom Protestant (Anglican)[65] "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent"[66]


In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 49.5% of Literature Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902   Theodor Mommsen   Germany Protestant[67] "the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A History of Rome"[68]
1903   Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson   Norway Protestant[69] "as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit"[70]
1904   Frédéric Mistral   France Roman Catholic[71] "in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist"[72]
  José Echegaray   Spain Roman Catholic[73] "in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama"[72]
1905   Henryk Sienkiewicz   Poland Roman Catholic[74] "because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer"[75]
1909   Selma Lagerlöf   Sweden Christian[76] "in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings"[77]
1910   Paul von Heyse   Germany Protestant of Jewish descent[78] "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[79]
1916   Verner von Heidenstam   Sweden Christian[80] "in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature"[81]
1923   William Butler Yeats   Ireland Anglican[82] "for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation"[83]
1924   Władysław Reymont   Poland Roman Catholic[84] "for his great national epic, The Peasants"[85]
1926   Grazia Deledda   Italy Roman Catholic[86] "for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general"[87]
1928   Sigrid Undset   Norway
(Born in   Denmark)
Roman Catholic[88] "principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages"[89]
1929   Thomas Mann   Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[90][91] "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature"[92]
1933   Ivan Bunin   France (Born in   Russia) Eastern Orthodox[93] "for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing"[94]
1938   Pearl S. Buck   United States Protestant (Southern Presbyterian)[95] "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces"[96]
1945   Gabriela Mistral   Chile Roman Catholic[97] "for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world"[98]
1946   Hermann Hesse   Switzerland
(Born in   Germany)
Christian[99][100] "for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style"[101]
1947   André Gide   France Protestant[102] "for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight"[103]
1948   T. S. Eliot   United Kingdom
(Born in the   United States)
Anglican[104][105] "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry"[106]
1949   William Faulkner   United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[107] "for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel"[108]
1952   François Mauriac   France Roman Catholic[109] "for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life"[110]
1953   Sir Winston Churchill   United Kingdom Anglican[111] "for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values"[112]
1954   Ernest Hemingway   United States Converted to Roman Catholicism[113] "for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style"[114]
1955   Halldór Laxness   Iceland Converted to Roman Catholicism[115] "for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland"[116]
1956   Juan Ramón Jiménez   Spain Roman Catholic[117] "for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity"[118]
1958   Boris Pasternak   Soviet Union Converted to Eastern Orthodoxy from Judaism[119] "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[120]
1961   Ivo Andrić   Yugoslavia
(Born in   Austria-Hungary)
Roman Catholic[121][122] "for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country"[123]
1962   John Steinbeck   United States Episcopalian[124] "for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception"[125]
1963   Giorgos Seferis   Greece
(Born in the   Ottoman Empire)
Greek Orthodox[126] "for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture"[127]
1967   Miguel Ángel Asturias   Guatemala Roman Catholic[128] "for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America"[129]
1970   Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn   Soviet Union Eastern Orthodox[130] "for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature"[131]
1972   Heinrich Böll   Germany (West) Roman Catholic[132] "for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature"[133]
1979   Odysseas Elytis   Greece Greek Orthodox[134] "for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man's struggle for freedom and creativeness"[135]
1980   Czesław Miłosz   Poland/  United States Roman Catholic[136] "who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man's exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts"[137]
1982   Gabriel García Márquez   Colombia Roman Catholic[138] "for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent's life and conflicts"[139]
1989   Camilo José Cela   Spain Roman Catholic[140] "for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man's vulnerability"[141]
1990   Octavio Paz   Mexico Roman Catholic[142] "for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity"[143]
1992   Derek Walcott   Saint Lucia Protestant (Methodist)[144] "for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment"[145]
1993   Toni Morrison   United States Roman Catholic[146] "who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality"[147]
1995   Seamus Heaney   Ireland (born Northern Ireland) Roman Catholic[148] "for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past"[149]
1999   Günter Grass   Germany (born Free City of Danzig now Gdansk) Roman Catholic[150][151] "whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history"[152]
2009   Herta Müller   Germany
(Born in   Romania)
Roman Catholic[153] "who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed"[154]
2011   Tomas Tranströmer   Sweden Christian[155] "because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality"[156]
2016   Bob Dylan   United States Born-again Christian[157][158][159] "for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition"[160]
2019   Peter Handke   Austria Serbian Orthodox Church[161] "for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience."[162]


In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 78.3% of Peace Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1902   Élie Ducommun    Switzerland Protestant[citation needed] "for his role as the first honorary secretary of the International Peace Bureau"[163]
  Charles Albert Gobat Protestant[citation needed] "for his role as the first Secretary General of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"
1903   William Randal Cremer   United Kingdom Methodist[164] "for his role as the 'first father' of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[165]
1905   Bertha von Suttner   Austria-Hungary Roman Catholic[166] for authoring Lay Down Your Arms and contributing to the creation of the Prize[167][168]
1906   Theodore Roosevelt   United States Protestant (Dutch Reformed Church)[169] "for his successful mediation to end the Russo-Japanese war and for his interest in arbitration, having provided the Hague arbitration court with its very first case"[167][170]
1907   Ernesto Teodoro Moneta   Italy Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his work as a key leader of the Italian peace movement"[167][171]
  Louis Renault   France Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his work as a leading French international jurist and a member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague"
1909   Auguste Beernaert   Belgium Roman Catholic[172] "for being a representative to the two Hague conferences, and a leading figure in the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[167][173]
  Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant   France Protestant (Calvinist)[174] "for combined diplomatic work for Franco-German and Franco-British understanding with a distinguished career in international arbitration"[167][173]
1912   Elihu Root[A]   United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[175] "for his strong interest in international arbitration and for his plan for a world court"[167][176]
1919   Woodrow Wilson   United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[177] "for his crucial role in establishing the League of Nations"[167][178]
1921   Hjalmar Branting   Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[179] "for his work in the League of Nations"[167][180]
  Christian Lange   Norway Lutheran (Church of Norway)[181] "for his work as the first secretary of the Norwegian Nobel Committee" and "the secretary-general of the Inter-Parliamentary Union"[167][180]
1925   Austen Chamberlain[A]   United Kingdom Unitarian[182] "for work on the Locarno Treaties."[167][183]
  Charles G. Dawes[A]   United States Protestant (Congregationalist)[citation needed] "for work on the Dawes Plan for German reparations which was seen as having provided the economic underpinning of the Locarno Pact of 1925"[167][183]
1926   Gustav Stresemann   Germany Protestant[184] "for work on the Locarno Treaties."[167][185]
1927   Ferdinand Buisson   France Protestant[186] "for contributions to Franco-German popular reconciliation"[167][187]
1930   Nathan Söderblom   Sweden Lutheran (Church of Sweden)[188] "for his efforts to involve the churches not only in work for ecumenical unity, but also for world peace"[167][189]
1931   Jane Addams   United States Protestant (Presbyterian)[190] "for her social reform work and leading the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[167][191]
  Nicholas Murray Butler Protestant (Episcopalian)[192] "for his promotion of the Briand-Kellogg pact" and for his work as the "leader of the more establishment-oriented part of the American peace movement"[167][191]
1934   Arthur Henderson   United Kingdom Protestant (Methodist)[193] "for his work for the League, particularly its efforts in disarmament"[167][194][195]
1935   Carl von Ossietzky[B]   Germany Protestant (Lutheran)[196] "for his struggle against Germany's rearmament"[167][197]
1945   Cordell Hull   United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[198] "for his fight against isolationism at home, his efforts to create a peace bloc of states on the American continents, and his work for the United Nations Organization"[199]
1946   Emily Greene Balch   United States Quaker[200] "for her work with the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom"[201]
  John Raleigh Mott Protestant (Methodist)[202] "for establishing and strengthening international Protestant Christian student organizations that worked to promote peace"[201]
1947   Friends Service Council   United Kingdom Quaker[203] "for their work in assisting and rescuing victims of the Nazis"[204]
American Friends Service Committee   United States Religious Society of Friends (Quaker)[205]
1949   The Lord Boyd-Orr   United Kingdom Protestant (Free Church of Scotland)[206] "for his scientific research into nutrition and his works as the first Director-General of the Food and Agriculture Organization"[207]
1950   Ralph Bunche   United States Protestant (Baptist)[208] "for his works in resolving the Arab-Israeli conflict in Palestine"[209]
1952   Albert Schweitzer   France Christian[210] "for his propagation for the reverence of life, the very foundations of a lasting peace between individuals, nations, and races"[211]
1953   George Catlett Marshall   United States Protestant (Episcopalian)[212] "for his work on the post-war European recovery"[213]
1957   Lester Bowles Pearson   Canada Protestant (United Church of Canada)[214] "for his role in helping end the Suez conflict and trying to solve the Middle East question through the United Nations";[215][167]
1958   Dominique Pire   Belgium Roman Catholic[216] "for his work in helping refugees in the post-World War II Europe"[217]
1959   Philip Noel-Baker   United Kingdom Quaker[218] "for his lifelong work for international peace and cooperation"[219]
1960   Albert Lutuli   South Africa
(Born in Southern Rhodesia)
Protestant (Methodist)[220] "for his role in the non-violent struggle against apartheid in South Africa"[221][167]
1961   Dag Hammarskjöld[C]   Sweden Protestant (Lutheran)[222] "for strengthening the foundations of the United Nations Organization"[223][167]
1964   Martin Luther King, Jr.   United States Protestant (Baptist; Progressive National Baptist Convention)[citation needed] "for combating racial inequality through nonviolent resistance"[224]
1971   Willy Brandt   Germany (West) Protestant (Lutheran)[225] "for his efforts to strengthen cooperation in Western Europe through the European Economic Community and to achieve reconciliation between West Germany and the other countries of Eastern Europe."[226]
1974   Seán MacBride   Ireland
(Born in   France)
Roman Catholic[227] "for his strong interest in human rights by piloting the European Convention on Human Rights through the Council of Europe, helping found and then lead Amnesty International and serving as secretary-general of the International Commission of Jurists"[228][167]
1976   Betty Williams   United Kingdom Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for their works as cofounders of Community of Peace People, an organization dedicated to promoting a peaceful resolution to the Troubles in Northern Ireland"[229]
  Mairead Corrigan Roman Catholic[230]
1979   Mother Teresa   Albania (Born in Ottoman Kosovo)[231] Roman Catholic[232] "for her work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace"[233]
1980   Adolfo Pérez Esquivel   Argentina Roman Catholic[234] "for his efforts in the defense of human rights and for his opposition to Argentina's last civil-military dictatorship"[235][167]
1982   Alfonso García Robles   Mexico Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his magnificent work in the disarmament negotiations of the United Nations, where they have both played crucial roles and won international recognition"[236][237]
1983   Lech Wałęsa   Poland Roman Catholic[238] "for his contribution and considerable personal sacrifice to ensure the workers' right to establish their own organizations"[239]
1984   Desmond Tutu   South Africa Protestant (Anglican)[240] "for his role as a unifying leader-figure in the campaign to resolve the problem of apartheid in South Africa"[241]
1987   Óscar Arias   Costa Rica Roman Catholic[citation needed] "for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year"[242]
1993   Nelson Mandela   South Africa Protestant (Methodist)[243] "for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa"[244]
  Frederik Willem de Klerk Protestant (Reformed)[245]
1996   Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo   East Timor Roman Catholic[246] "for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor."[247]
  José Ramos-Horta Roman Catholic[248]
1998   John Hume   United Kingdom Roman Catholic[249] "for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland"[250]
  David Trimble Protestant (Presbyterian)[251][252]
2000   Kim Dae-jung   South Korea Roman Catholic[253] "for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular"[254]
2001   Kofi Annan   Ghana Protestant[255] "for his work for a better organized and more peaceful world"[256]
2002   Jimmy Carter   United States Protestant (Baptist)[257] "for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development"[258]
2004   Wangari Muta Maathai   Kenya Roman Catholic[259] "for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace"[260]
2007   Al Gore   United States Protestant (Baptist)[261] "for his efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change"[262]
2008   Martti Ahtisaari   Finland Protestant (Lutheran)[263] "for his efforts on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts"[264]
2009   Barack Obama   United States Protestant[265] "for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples."[266]
2011   Ellen Johnson Sirleaf   Liberia Protestant (Methodist)[267] "for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women's rights to full participation in peace-building work"[268]
  Leymah Gbowee Protestant (Lutheran)[269]
2016   Juan Manuel Santos   Colombia Roman Catholic[270][271] "his resolute efforts to bring the country's more than 50-year-long civil war to an end, a war that has cost the lives of at least 220 000 Colombians and displaced close to six million people"[272]
2018   Denis Mukwege   DRC Pentecostal[273] "for [his] efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict. Both laureates have made a crucial contribution to focusing attention on, and combating, such war crimes"[274]
2019   Abiy Ahmed Ali   Ethiopia Evangelical Pentecostal[275] "for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea"[276]


In an estimate by Baruch Shalev, between 1901 and 2000, about 54.0% of Economics Nobel Prize winners were either Christians or had a Christian background.[1]

Year Laureate Country Denomination Rationale
1975   Tjalling Koopmans   Netherlands
  United States
Protestant[277] "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[278]
1979 Theodore Schultz   United States Protestant[279] "for their pioneering research into economic development research with particular consideration of the problems of developing countries."[280]
W. Arthur Lewis   Saint Lucia
  United Kingdom
Roman Catholic[281]
1982 George Stigler   United States Christian[282] "for his seminal studies of industrial structures, functioning of markets and causes and effects of public regulation"[283]
1988   Maurice Allais   France Roman Catholic[284] "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources"[285]
1989   Trygve Haavelmo   Norway Protestant[286] "for his clarification of the probability theory foundations of econometrics and his analyses of simultaneous economic structures"[287]
1996 William Vickrey   Canada
  United States
Quaker [288] "for his fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives under asymmetric information"[289]
2009   Elinor Ostrom   United States Protestant[290] "for her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons"[291]
2010   Christopher A. Pissarides   Cyprus Eastern Orthodox[292] "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[293]
2013   Eugene F. Fama   United States Roman Catholic[294] "for their empirical analysis of asset prices."
  Robert J. Shiller Protestant (Methodist)[295]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f g Baruch A. Shalev, 100 Years of Nobel Prizes (2003), Atlantic Publishers & Distributors, p. 57: between 1901 and 2000 reveals that 654 Laureates belong to 28 different religions. Most (65.4%) have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference. ISBN 978-0935047370
  2. ^ Zhang, Weijia; Fuller, Robert (May 1998). "Nobel prize winners in physics from 1901 to 1990: Simple statistics for physics teachers". Physics Education. 33 (3): 196–203. doi:10.1088/0031-9120/33/3/023.
  3. ^ Peter J. Bowler (2014). "Reconciling Science and Religion: The Debate in Early-Twentieth-Century Britain", University of Chicago Press. p. 35
  4. ^ Sir William Gavin (1967). "Ninety Years of Family Farming: The Story of Lord Rayleigh's and Strutt & Parker Farms". Hutchinson, p. 37
  5. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1904". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  6. ^ "Essay on Thomson life and religious views". Archived from the original on 2015-12-01. Retrieved 2015-07-27.
  7. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1906". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  8. ^ Marconi, Maria Christina, Marconi My Beloved[1]. 2001. p. 19-24.
  9. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1909". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  10. ^ Max von Laue: Biographical The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914. Nobel Foundation.
  11. ^ Ewald, P. P. (1960). "Max von Laue 1879–1960". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society. 6: 134–156. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1960.0028. S2CID 71307727.
  12. ^ Magill, Frank Northen (1989) The Nobel Prize Winners, Salem Press. ISBN 0893565598. p. 198
  13. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1914". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  14. ^ School of Mathematics and Statistics. "Charles Glover Barkla" (2007), University of St Andrews, Scotland. JOC/EFR.
  15. ^ Allen, H. S. (1947). "Charles Glover Barkla. 1877-1944". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 5 (15): 341–366. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1947.0004. JSTOR 769087. S2CID 85334546.
  16. ^ Charles Glover Barkla, Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography (2008)
  17. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1917". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  18. ^ "Millikan, Robert Andrew", Who's Who in America v. 15, 1928–1929, p. 1486
  19. ^ The Religious Affiliation of Physicist Robert Andrews Millikan Archived 2017-07-04 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Nobel biography.
  21. ^ "Medicine: Science Serves God," Time, June 4, 1923. Accessed 19 Jan. 2013.
  22. ^ Evolution in Science and Religion (1927), 1973 edition: Kennikat Press, ISBN 0-8046-1702-3
  23. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1923". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  24. ^ "Physics and Society newsletter April 2003 Commentary". Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  25. ^ "Science: Cosmic Clearance". 13 January 1936. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  26. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1927". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  27. ^ Stewart, Ian (2008). Why Beauty Is Truth: A History of Symmetry. Basic. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-465-08237-7. Retrieved June 14, 2006.
  28. ^ The religion of Werner Heisenberg, physicist. Retrieved on 2012-02-01.
  29. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1932". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  30. ^ A Dictionary of Scientists. ISBN 9780192800862. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  31. ^ Victor Francis Hess. "My Faith". San Antonio Light Newspaper Archive. Sunday, November 3, 1946, p. 52
  32. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1936". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  33. ^ V. J. McBrierty: Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton, The Irish Scientist, 1903–1995 (Trinity College Dublin, 2003)
  34. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1951". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  35. ^ Harvard Gazette June 16, 2005 Laser's inventor predicts meeting of science, religion
  36. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1964". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  37. ^ J. C. Polkinghorne; John Polkinghorne; Nicholas Beale (16 January 2009). Questions of Truth: Fifty-One Responses to Questions about God, Science, and Belief. Westminster John Knox Press. p. 12. ISBN 978-0-664-23351-8. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
  38. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1974". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
  39. ^ "Founding Members of ISSR". Archived from the original on 7 March 2005. Retrieved 15 January 2015.
  40. ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved 2008-10-09.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit