List of Japanese coinage patterns

The following is a list of Japanese pattern coins from the yen based currency system started under the Meiji Restoration.[1] The first patterns of the yen based system were made from 1869 to 1870 as presentation pieces to the Emperor. The new currency system was eventually adopted by the Meiji government in an Act signed on June 27, 1871.[2] Pattern coins are almost never released into circulation as they are made for evaluation purposes only. Once a pattern is approved by government officials, it then goes to the minting process.[3] Most of the patterns listed below are very rare, and sell for considerable amounts at auctions. The market value and rarity of any given coin is dependent on supply and demand.

Experimental Japanese coins were struck in porcelain towards the end of World War II. These pattern coins were never issued for circulation, though some privately made ones circulated unofficially.

Selected termanologyEdit

The following terms appear on the list below:

Legend(s) - In numismatic terminology "legends" refer to inscriptions on any given coin. Common inscriptions for these coins include; "Great Japan" (Dai Nippon, 大日本), the reigning Emperor's name, the value of the coin, and the year of the Emperor's reign.

Obverse/Reverse - These refer to the front and back side of a coin.

Variety - Struck coins with minor changes to the initial design are called "varieties".

MeijiEdit

  • Note: Early Japanese coins are read clockwise from right to left, while modern coins are read counterclockwise from right to left.

Early proposalsEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
1 Fun 02 2nd
(undated)
1869
(undated)
KM-Pn2 The obverse (front) side of this coin has two crossed Japanese flags on poles with Mount Fuji in the background, while the reverse (back) side shows the coin's value. This pattern was struck in copper, and holed in the center.[4]
5 Fun KM-Pn3 Obverse has two crossed Japanese flags on poles with Mount Fuji in the background, while the reverse shows the coin's value. This pattern was struck in copper, and is holed in the center.[5] Only 2 coins have been certified as genuine by PCGS, while a 3rd resides in the Smithsonian Institution.[6][7]
1 Momme KM-Pn4 Obverse has two crossed Japanese flags on poles with Mount Fuji in the background, while the reverse shows the coin's value. This pattern was struck in copper, and is holed in the center.[8] An example sold for 182,000 (JPY) at auction in 2018.[9]

RinEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
1 Rin 02 2nd 二 (undated) 1869 (undated) KM-Pn5 This pattern is holed in the middle with a sunburst design on both sides pointing outwards from the center. The Emperor's name is on the obverse, and "1 RIN" in Kanji on the reverse.[10] The coin is described as "extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions.[11]
1 Rin 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn7 The obverse features the Chrysanthemum seal in its center surrounded by the Emperor's name and legends. The reverse has a sunburst on it with the value "1 RIN" in Kanji.[12] This coin is described as "very rare".[13]
1 Rin 06 6th 1873 KM-Pn21 Virtually identical to the adopted Rin design, the main difference being "1 MIL" instead of "1 RIN" in arabic.[14] This coin is described as "extremely rare" by the American Numismatic Society.[15]
2 Rin 18 18th 八十 1885 KM-Pn27 Virtually identical to the adopted Rin design. The main differences include "2 RIN" instead of "1 RIN" in Arabic, and 2 lines (二) above the Japanese symbol for Rin (厘) on the reverse. This coin has been described as a "rare pattern" by Heritage Auctions.[16][17]
5 Rin 32 32nd 二十三 1899 KM-Pn30 The obverse features a paulownia crest within a wreath above the chrysanthemum seal. The reverse has the value written in Kanji within a beaded circle. "5 RIN" is written in Arabic around this circle alongside other legends. This coin is described as "extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions.[18][19]
5 Rin 39 39th 九十三 1906 KM-Pn33 Unknown design struck in copper, 2,850 pieces were recorded as being issued.[20][21]
5 Rin 42 42nd 二十四 1909 KM-Pn35 This pattern is virtually identical to the 1899 dated 5 rin pattern (KM-Pn30), except the reverted obverse has the chrysanthemum seal appear at the top.[22][23] One example was donated to the ANS in 1983.[24]

SenEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
12s - (Half sen) 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn8 The obverse is virtually identical to the adopted design, but "12 SEN" is written in Kanji (半銭).[b] The reverse features a sunburst design in a beaded circle surrounded by legends next to the Chrysanthemum Seal above, and a decorative wreath below.[25] These coins found their way into circulation making the few survivors well worn.[26]
1 Sen 02 2nd 1869 KM-Pn6 The obverse is virtually identical to the 1st adopted design, but "1 SEN" is written in Kanji.[b] The reverse features a sunburst design with the inscription "Exchange 100 coins for 1 Yen" (圓ー換枚百以) written in Kanji.[27][28] This coin is described as "very rare" by Heritage Auctions.[29]
1 Sen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn9 The obverse of this pattern is the same as the preceding one, with a reverse similar to KM-Pn8.[30][28] One of these coins sold for $15,600 (USD) at auction in March, 2019.[31]
1 Sen 10 10th 1877 KM-PnA27 Not much is known about this pattern other than a dragon design which is featured on the obverse. This particular coin was minted in silver, while all the other sen coins of the Meiji era were struck in copper.[32]
1 Sen 41 41st 一十四 1908 KM-Pn34 This pattern is holed in the center, with the obverse featuring a wreath and "1 SEN" written in Kanji. The reverse has a sunburst which surrounds the central hole, legends and "1 SEN" are written in Arabic around the sunburst.[33]
1 Sen 44 44th 四十四 1911 KM-Pn36 The design for this copper coin is unknown.[34]
1 Sen 44 44th 四十四 1911 KM-Pn37 Obverse features a wreath with "1 SEN" written in Kanji, while the reverse features a large sunburst with legends surrounding it. "1 SEN" is written in Arabic at the bottom.[35]
5 Sen 21 21st 一十二 1888 KM-Pn28 Similar to the 4th adopted 5 sen design used in the following year (1889).[36] This pattern is described as "extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions, and an example sold for $9,200 at auction in 2011.[37]
5 Sen 28 28th 八十二 1895 KM-Pn29 This copper nickel pattern has a sunburst in a circle surrounded by legends and "5 SEN" written both in Arabic and Kanji on the obverse. The reverse meanwhile features a symbol within a wreath. Both sides of the coin additionally feature a rope design near the border rim.[38][39]

YenEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
01 120 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn10 Nothing is known about this coin other than it was struck in white metal. The adoption of a 120 yen coin would have made it the lowest ever valued in Yen. It was ultimately rejected in favor of the 5 sen coin.[40]
02 110 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn11
KM-Pn12
The design of this coin is unknown. Two varieties were struck, one in copper and the other in white metal. Both were rejected in favor of the 10 sen coin.[41]
03 14 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn13
KM-Pn14
The design of this coin is unknown. Two varieties were struck, one in copper and the other in white metal. While these coins were rejected, another proposal was later made during the Taishō era for a 25 sen coin.[42]
04 12 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn15 The obverse of this copper coin is virtually identical to the adopted 1st silver yen design. The reverse features a sunburst surrounded by a floral pattern towards the rim. The half yen coin was rejected in favor of the 50 sen coin.[43][44]
05 1 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn16[c] Virtually identical to the adopted 1st silver yen design.[45] “Only a handful of examples extant,” one such coin sold for $195,500 (USD) in 2011.[46]
06 1 yen 06 6th 1873 KM-Pn22 Virtually identical to the adopted 2nd silver yen design. The main difference is "1873" written in Arabic below the reverse bow.[47]
07 1 yen 07 7th 1874 KM-Pn23 Virtually identical to the adopted 2nd silver design.[48]
08 1 yen 34 34th 四十三 1901 KM-Pn31 The obverse has a sunburst surrounded by a circle with legends around it, "1 YEN" is in Arabic. There is nothing on the reverse except 1 Yen written in Kanji. This coin was struck in copper.[49]
09 1 yen 34 34th 四十三 1901 KM-Pn32 Obverse has the value written in Kanji within a wreath, and has a chrysanthemum seal located above. The reverse features a sunburst surrounded by a circle with legends around it which include "1 YEN" in Arabic.[50] One example of this rare coin sold for $80,500 (USD) in 2011.[46]
10 212 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn17 This rejected proposed pattern was struck in both gold and copper. While the gold design for this coin is unknown, at least one copper example survived with a design similar to KM-Pn15.[51][52]
10 5 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn18 Struck in gold, design unknown.[53]
11 5 yen 07 7th 1874 KM-Pn26 The obverse features a dragon with legends around the border, on the reverse is a sunburst crest superimposed on the sacred mirror within the wreath. The chrysanthemum seal is located above this design.[54]
12 10 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn19 Virtually identical to the 1st adopted 10 yen design.[55] An example of this coin sold for $276,000 (USD) in 2011, only 3 examples (total) are known.[46][56]
13 10 yen 03 3rd 1870 KM-Pn20 Struck in gold, design unknown.[57] This coin is possibly non-extant given the status of the previous pattern.

Trade dollarsEdit

Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
7th 1874 KM-Pn24 This pattern features the final accepted design used to strike trade dollars from 1875 to 1877. It is described as "possibly unique", if not then "very few" are known.[58][59]
KM-Pn25 The obverse is similar to the adopted trade dollar design, but there is no beaded circle around the dragon. Other differences include "420 GRAINS. 900 FINE" being under the dragon rather than around the rim with "TRADE DOLLAR", and larger inscriptions. The reverse side is virtually identical to the adopted reverse design (Value within wreath, chrysanthemum above).[60] This pattern is described as "very rare" as only a few pieces are known to have survived.[61][62]

TaishōEdit

  • Note: Early Japanese coins are read clockwise from right to left, while modern coins are read counterclockwise from right to left.

Rin and SenEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
5 Rin 5th 1916 KM-Pn39 This pattern was struck in copper. The obverse features the value within a circle surrounded by a floral wreath, the reverse features a sunburst with legends.[63] Another variety shows the value within a circle surrounded by legends with 5 RIN written in Kanji, the reverse is a simple sunburst.[64]
5 Rin 5th 1916 KM-Pn40 This pattern was struck in copper. The obverse features a large paulownia crest in the center flanked by cherry blossoms, the reverse has the value within a circle surrounded by legends.[65][66] An example sold for 210,000 (JPY) in 2017.[67]
1 Sen 4th 1915 KM-Pn38 The obverse features the value flanked by a floral design which includes the paulownia crest featured below. The reverse includes the legends with the value written as "1 Sn." all imposed over a sunburst design. One or both sides of this coin has a decorated rim.[68] Described as "rare" by Heritage Auctions.[69]
1 Sen 5th 1916 KM-Pn41 The obverse features a sunburst, while the reverse has the value within a circle surrounded by the legends.[70] An example sold for $12,650 (USD) in 2011.[71]
1 Sen 5th 1916 KM-Pn42 Virtually identical to the adopted 1 sen design with minor differences.[72][d] Only one "1 sen" design was issued for circulation during Taishō's reign.
1 Sen 5th 1916 KM-Pn43 The obverse is ornamental with the value superimposed on the sacred mirror with the chrysanthemum seal featured above. The reverse is identical to the one used on KM-Pn38.[73] This coin is described as "rare" by Heritage Auctions.[74][e]
5 Sen 5th 1916 KM-Pn44 Similar to the adopted 5 sen design.[75] Only one "5 sen" design was issued for circulation during Taishō's reign, and all were struck in copper-nickel. An example sold for $26,450 (USD) in 2011.[76]
10 Sen 7th 1918 KM-Pn45[f] The obverse features the value in Kanji flanked by two birds with chrysanthemum seal above.[g] The reverse has a sunburst with a bird in the center surrounded by legends including "10 SEN" written in Arabic.[78] Only a few pieces are known, an example sold for $11,500 (USD) in 2011.[77]
10 Sen 8th 1919 KM-Pn49 Virtually identical to KM-Pn45 with minor detail changes, this pattern is described as "Extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions.[79][80]
20 Sen 7th 1918 KM-Pn46 The obverse features the value in Kanji flanked by two birds with chrysanthemum seal above.[g] The reverse has a sunburst with a bird in the center surrounded by legends including "20 SEN" written in Arabic.[81] A very rare example dated 1920 (year 9) also exists which is counter stamped "mihon" (specimen).[82]
20 Sen 8th 1919 KM-Pn50 The design for this pattern is unknown, it was struck in silver.[83]
20 Sen 8th 1919 KM-Pn51 The design for this pattern is unknown, it was struck in silver.[84]
20 Sen 10 10th 1921 KM-Pn54 The design for this pattern is similar to KM-Pn46, and is also counter stamped "mihon" (specimen). Both of these patterns are described as "very rare".[85][86]
25 Sen 9th 1920 KM-Pn52 The design was struck in silver, and is similar in design to KM-Pn46 with "25 SEN" now written in Arabic. Like the others this "very rare" coin is also counter stamped "mihon" (specimen).[87][88] This was the final attempt at proposing a coin equal to a quarter yen.
50 Sen 7th 1918 KM-Pn47 The obverse features the value in Kanji flanked by two birds with chrysanthemum seal above.[g] The reverse has a sunburst surrounded by legends including "50 SEN" written in Arabic.[89] Like the previous coins, this "very rare" pattern is counter stamped "mihon" (specimen).[90]
50 Sen 7th 1918 KM-Pn48 The obverse features the value in a beaded circle surrounded by a wreath with chrysanthemum seal above. The reverse has a sunburst with legends surrounding it.[91]
50 Sen 9th 1920 KM-Pn53 The design for this pattern is unknown, it was struck in silver.[92]
50 Sen 12th 十二 1923 KM-Pn55 Virtually identical to the adopted 50 sen 2nd design. The main difference being the coin is struck in tin rather than silver.[93]
50 Sen 15th 五十 1926 KM-Pn56 While the obverse design is unknown, the reverse features the value flanked by a floral design with other legends on the top and bottom. This coin was struck in tin rather than silver.[94]

ShōwaEdit

  • Note: Early Japanese coins (until 1945-1946) are read clockwise from right to left, while modern coins are read counterclockwise from right to left.

SenEdit

Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
1 Sen 13th 三十 1938 KM-Pn66 Obverse has the value surrounded by a floral wreath with the Chrysanthemum seal featured above. The reverse features a bird within a circle surrounded by legends. This pattern was struck in aluminum.[95]
1 Sen 18th
(undated)
八十
(undated)
1943
(Dated: 2603)
KM-Pn70 This pattern coin was struck in a tin alloy, and was intended for later use in occupied territories. The obverse features a puppet head, while on the reverse are the legends, date, and a large "1" (1 sen).[96]
1 Sen 18th 八十 1943 KM-Pn71 Unknown design struck in fiber, this was intended to be used as occupation coinage.[97]
1 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn73 Identical to the final 1 sen design that was made for circulation in 1945. The only difference is that this pattern was struck in brass rather than tin and zinc.[98][99]
1 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn74 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h] Common themes include the Chrysanthemum seal, paulownia crest, and legends which include the value.[100] At least 3 examples have been graded by PCGS.[101]
1 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn75 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h] The same applies here with regards to the design features, at least 2 have been graded by PCGS.[102][103]
1 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-PnA74 The obverse features a small sunburst, while the obverse has the value 1 SEN written in Kanji. This coin does not have the Emperor's name nor seal on it, and was struck in porcelain.[104]
5 Sen 8th 1933 KM-Pn62 This holed pattern was struck in nickel. On the obverse is a garnished center with legends including two small flowers. The reverse features an Imperial eagle at the bottom, the value written in kanji towards the top, and the Chrysanthemum seal at the top.[105] Described as "extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions.[106]
5 Sen 12th 二十 1937 KM-Pn64 Unknown design struck in brass.[107]
5 Sen 13th 三十 1938 KM-Pn67 Nothing is known about this coin other than the value and date.[108]
5 Sen 18th
(undated)
八十
(undated)
1943
(Dated: 2603)
KM-Pn72 This tin alloy struck pattern was intended for later use in occupied territories. The obverse features a stick puppet, on the reverse are the legends, date, and a large "5" (5 sen).[109]
5 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn76 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h] Common themes include the Chrysanthemum seal, paulownia crest, and legends which include the value.[110]
5 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn77 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h][111]
10 Sen 8th 1933 KM-Pn63 More than one variety exists for this pattern which uses elements of the adopted design.[112] Described as "extremely rare" by Heritage Auctions.[113]
10 Sen 12th 二十 1937 KM-Pn65 Unknown design struck in brass.[114]
10 Sen 13th 三十 1938 KM-Pn68 Nothing is known about this coin other than the value and date.[115]
10 Sen 18th
(undated)
八十
(undated)
1943
(Dated: 2603)
KM-PnA73 This silver struck pattern coin was intended for later use in occupied territories. The obverse features a stick puppet, on the reverse are the legends, date, and a large "10" (10 sen). An example sold for $12,650 (USD) in 2011.[116][117]
10 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn78 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h] Common themes include the Chrysanthemum seal, paulownia crest, and legends which include the value.[118][119]
10 Sen 20th 十二 1945 KM-Pn79 All of these patterns were struck in porcelain, and have numerous different designs.[h] At least 1 example has been graded by PCGS.[120][121]
10 Sen 21st 一十二 1946 KM-Pn80[i] Virtually identical to the final adopted 10 sen design, but struck in brass (small sized).[123] Only a few pieces are known to have survived.[124][122]
50 Sen 2nd 1927 KM-Pn57 Obverse design is virtually identical to the adopted 50 sen version (two birds). The reverse has an empty circle in the center surrounded by legends. This pattern was struck in brass.[125]
50 Sen 2nd 1927 KM-Pn58 Unknown design struck in silver.[126]
50 Sen 2nd 1927 KM-Pn59 Obverse design is virtually identical to the adopted 50 sen version (two birds). The reverse has an empty center, with legends below and a wheat stalk above. This pattern was struck in brass.[127]
50 Sen 2nd 1927 KM-Pn60 Unknown design struck in silver.[128]
50 Sen 3rd 1928 KM-Pn61 Unknown design struck in tin.[129]
50 Sen 13th 三十 1938 KM-Pn69 Virtually identical to the 1st adopted 50 sen design (two birds) under Shōwa. This pattern has been described to have been struck in "white metal" and "aluminum" rather than the circulation issued silver alloy. The total mintage of these coins remains unknown.[130][131]

YenEdit

 
KM-Pn83 (shown here) and KM-Pn85 were struck but never released.
Denomination Year of reign Japanese date Gregorian date Name[a] Description
1 yen 25th 二十五 1950 KM-Pn81 Unknown design struck in brass.[132]
5 yen 26th 二十六 1951 KM-Pn84 Virtually identical to the adopted 5 yen "old script" design, but struck in aluminum. This coin is described as "very rare" by Heritage Auctions.[133][134]
5 yen 33rd 三十三 1958 KM-Pn86 Virtually identical to the adopted 2nd design which uses an "old script" for the value. There are added Japanese characters on the reverse side (gear design around hole).[135]
10 yen 25th 二十五 1950 KM-Pn82 Unknown design struck in aluminum.[136]
10 yen 25th 二十五 1950 KM-Pn83 The obverse features the value flanked by a floral design, the reverse has legends surrounded by a decorative center. This pattern coin was struck in copper-nickel and is holed in the middle.[137] An example sold for $2,530 (USD) in 2011.[138]
10 yen 26th 二十六 1951 KM-Pn85 The obverse features the value flanked by a floral design, the reverse has legends surrounded by a decorative center. This pattern coin was struck in copper-nickel and is holed in the middle.[139] An example sold for $2,990 (USD) in 2011.[140]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h The codes given for the "name" are catalog numbers used by major coin grading services. These numbers are shared with other currencies, and are only distinct by adding Japan (日本, or formerly: 日本国) when looking them up for reference.
  2. ^ a b The design of the dragon in the beaded circle was altered for the final adopted coin.
  3. ^ Two sub-varieties exist, one privately struck and the other a local copy.
  4. ^ An example being the absence of two small flowers on the obverse.
  5. ^ Heritage Auctions uses the wrong first image for the coin, the correct coin is shown in its holder in the 2nd image provided by H.A.
  6. ^ It's possible that this was an issue that was originally meant for general circulation, but was ultimately abandoned for unknown reasons.[77]
  7. ^ a b c The obverse is very similar to the adopted second 50 sen design during Taishō's reign.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Porcelain sen patterns differ from clay baked coins which circulated unofficially.
  9. ^ This pattern coin may have been intended for circulation as allegedly bags of these coins were witnessed at the mint. Two examples were said to have been given to collectors before the rest were melted.[122]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ A. Piatt Andrew, Quarterly Journal of Economics, "The End of the Mexican Dollar", 18:3:321–356, 1904, p. 345
  2. ^ A. Piatt Andrew, Quarterly Journal of Economics, "The End of the Mexican Dollar", 18:3:321–356, 1904, p. 345
  3. ^ Lustig, Andy; Teichman, Saul, uspatterns.com, Society of U.S. Pattern Collectors
  4. ^ "Japan Fun KM# Pn2 - (1869)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  5. ^ "Japan 5 Fun KM# Pn3 - (1869)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  6. ^ "(nd(1869) P5 Fun KM-Pn3, BN) (Special Strike)Last Update". Professional Coin Grading Service. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  7. ^ "5 Fun (fen), Pattern coin". 3d.si.edu. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  8. ^ "Japan 1 Momme KM# Pn4 - (1869)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Archived from the original on August 20, 2019. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  9. ^ "Pattern Crossed flag&Mt. Fuji 1Momme Copper ND(1869?)". www.numisbids.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2020. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  10. ^ "Japan Rin KM# Pn5 - Yr.2 (1869)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  11. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper Pattern 1 Rin Year 2 (1869)". Heritage Auctions. Archived from the original on January 21, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  12. ^ "Japan Rin KM# Pn7 - Yr.3 (1870)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Archived from the original on August 14, 2019. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  13. ^ Seaby's coin and medal bulletin, Issues 617-628. B.A. Seaby, Limited. 1970. p. 352.
  14. ^ "Japan Rin KM# Pn21 - Yr.6 (1873)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  15. ^ Annual Report of the American Numismatic Society (1992). American Numismatic Society. 1992. p. 17.
  16. ^ "Japan 2 Rin KM# Pn27 - Yr.18 (1885)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  17. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper Pattern 2 Rin Year 18 (1885)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  18. ^ "Japan 5 Rin KM# Pn30 - Yr.32 (1899)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  19. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper Pattern 5 Rin Year 32 (1899)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  20. ^ "Japan 5 Rin KM# Pn33 - Yr.39 (1906)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  21. ^ Ōkurashō (1907). Financial and Economic Annual of Japan, Issue 7. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 4.
  22. ^ "Japan 5 Rin KM# Pn35 - Yr.42 (1909)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  23. ^ "((1909) M42 P5 Rin KM-Pn35 Paulownia, BN) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  24. ^ Annual Report of the American Numismatic Society (1983). American Numismatic Society. 1983. p. 18.
  25. ^ "Japan 1/2 Sen KM# Pn8 - Yr.3 (1870) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  26. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper Pattern 1/2 Sen Year 3 (1870)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  27. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn6 - Yr.2 (1869)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  28. ^ a b Annual Report of the American Numismatic Society (1985). American Numismatic Society. 1985. p. 17.
  29. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper Pattern 1 Sen Year 2 (1869)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  30. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn9 - Yr.3 (1870)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  31. ^ "((1870) M3 P1 Sen KM-Pn9 Lined Sun, BN) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  32. ^ "Japan Sen KM# PnA27 - Yr. 10 (1877)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  33. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn34 - Yr.41(1908)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  34. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn36 - Yr.44 (1911)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  35. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn37 - Yr.44 (1911)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  36. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn28 - Yr.21 (1888)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  37. ^ "Japan: Meiji copper-nickel Pattern 5 Sen Year 21 (1888)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  38. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn29 - Yr.28 (1895)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  39. ^ "((1895) M28 P5 Sen KM-Pn29) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 23, 2020.
  40. ^ "Japan 1/20 Yen KM# Pn10 - Yr.2 (1870)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  41. ^ "Japan 1/10 Yen". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  42. ^ "Japan 1/4 Yen". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  43. ^ "Japan 1/2 Yen KM# Pn15 - Yr.3 (1870) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  44. ^ "((1870) M3 P1/2 Yen, RB) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  45. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn16 - Yr.3 (1870)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  46. ^ a b c Jeff Starck (September 29, 2011). "Jacobs Collection stuns, nets $6.8 million". Coin World. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  47. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn22 - Yr.6 (1873) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  48. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn23 - Yr.7 (1874)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  49. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn31 - Yr.34 (1901)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  50. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn32 - Yr.34 (1901)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  51. ^ "Japan 2-1/2 Yen KM# Pn17 - Yr.3 (1870) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  52. ^ "((1870) M3 P2 1/2 Y KM-Pn17 Var Copper, BN) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  53. ^ "Japan 5 Yen KM# Pn18 - Yr.3 (1870)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  54. ^ "Japan 5 Yen KM# Pn26 - Yr.7 (1874) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  55. ^ "Japan 10 Yen KM# Pn19 - Yr.3 (1870) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  56. ^ "Japan: Meiji gold Pattern 10 Yen Year 3". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  57. ^ "Japan 10 Yen KM# Pn20 - Yr.3 (1870) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  58. ^ "Japan Trade Dollar KM# Pn24 - Yr.7 (1874) KM-Pn24". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  59. ^ "Japan: Meiji silver Pattern Trade Dollar Year 7 (1874)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  60. ^ "Japan Trade Dollar KM# Pn25 - Yr.7 (1874) Rare". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  61. ^ "Japan Trade Dollar KM# Pn24 - Yr.7 (1874)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 23, 2019.
  62. ^ "Japan: Meiji silver Pattern Trade Dollar Year 7 (1874) KM-Pn25". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 24, 2020.
  63. ^ "Japan 5 Rin KM# Pn39 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  64. ^ "((1916) T5 P5 Rin KM-Pn39 Char. Sun, BN) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  65. ^ "Japan 5 Rin KM# Pn40 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 14, 2019.
  66. ^ "((1916) T5 P5 Rin KM-Pn40 Paulownia, BN) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  67. ^ "Pattern 5 Rin Copper Taisho year(1916) 2.19g". www.numisbids.com. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  68. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn38 - Yr.4 (1915)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  69. ^ "Japan: Taisho copper Pattern 1 Sen Year 4 (1915)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  70. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn41 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  71. ^ "((1916) T5 P1 Sen KM-Pn41, BN) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  72. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn42 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  73. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn43 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  74. ^ "Japan: Taisho copper Pattern 1 Sen Year 5 (1916)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  75. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn44 - Yr.5 (1916)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  76. ^ "((1916) T5 P5 Sen KM-Pn44) (Special Strike)". Professional Coin Grading Service. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
  77. ^ a b "Japan: Taisho silver Pattern 10 Sen Year 7 (1918)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  78. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn45 - Yr.7 (1918)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  79. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn49 - Yr.8 (1919)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  80. ^ "Japan: Showa silver Pattern 10 Sen Year 8 (1919)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  81. ^ "Japan 20 Sen KM# Pn46 - Yr.7 (1918)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  82. ^ "Taisho silver Pattern 20 Sen Year 9 (1920)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  83. ^ "Japan 20 Sen KM# Pn50 - Yr.8 (1919)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  84. ^ "Japan 20 Sen KM# Pn51 - Yr.8 (1919)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  85. ^ "Japan 20 Sen KM# Pn54 - Yr.10 (1921)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  86. ^ "Taisho silver Pattern 20 Sen Year 10 (1921)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  87. ^ "Japan 25 Sen KM# Pn52 - Yr.9 (1920)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  88. ^ "Taisho silver Pattern 25 Sen Year 9 (1920)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  89. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn47 - Yr.7 (1918)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  90. ^ "Taisho silver 50 Sen Year 7 (1918)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  91. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn48 - Yr.7 (1918)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  92. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn53 - Yr.9 (1920)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  93. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn55 - Yr.12 (1923)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  94. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn56 - Yr.15 (1926)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  95. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn66 - Yr.13 (1938)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  96. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn70 (1943)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  97. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn71 (1943)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  98. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn73 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  99. ^ "((1945) S20 P1 Sen KM-Pn73) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 27, 2020.
  100. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn74 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  101. ^ "((1945) H20 P1 Sen KM-Pn74) (Regular Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  102. ^ "Japan Sen KM# Pn75 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  103. ^ "((1945) S20 P1 Sen KM-Pn75) (Regular Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  104. ^ "Japan Sen KM# PnA74 - (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  105. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn62 - Yr.8 (1933)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  106. ^ "Showa nickel Proof Pattern 5 Sen Year 8 (1933) PR64 NGC". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  107. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn64 - Yr.12 (1937)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  108. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn67 - Yr.13 (1938)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  109. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn72 - Yr.2603 (1943)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  110. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn76 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  111. ^ "Japan 5 Sen KM# Pn77 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  112. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn63 - Yr.8 (1933)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  113. ^ "Showa nickel Proof Pattern 10 Sen Year 8 (1933) PR64 NGC". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  114. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn65 - Yr.12 (1937)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  115. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn68 - Yr.13 (1938)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  116. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# PnA73 - Yr.2603 (1943)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 26, 2019.
  117. ^ "((1943) 2603 P10 Sen KM-PnA73) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  118. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn78 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  119. ^ "((1945) S20 P10 Sen KM-Pn78) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  120. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn79 - Yr.20 (1945)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  121. ^ "((1945) S20 P10 Sen KM-Pn79) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  122. ^ a b "Showa brass 10 Sen Year 21 (1946), KM-Pn80, MS63 NGC". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  123. ^ "Japan 10 Sen KM# Pn80 - Yr.21 (1946)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  124. ^ "Showa brass Specimen Pattern 10 Sen Year 21 (1946) SP63 PCGS". www.numisbids.com. Retrieved August 22, 2019.
  125. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn57 - Yr.2 (1927)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  126. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn58 - Yr.2 (1927)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  127. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn59 - Yr.2 (1927)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  128. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn60 - Yr.2 (1927)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  129. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn61 - Yr.3 (1928)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  130. ^ "Japan 50 Sen KM# Pn69 - (1938)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  131. ^ "Showa aluminum Pattern 50 Sen Year 13 (1938) MS61 NGC". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  132. ^ "Japan Yen KM# Pn81 - Yr.25 (1950)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  133. ^ "Japan 5 Yen KM# Pn84 - Yr.26 (1951)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  134. ^ "Japan: Showa aluminum Pattern 5 Yen Year 26 (1951)". Heritage Auctions. Retrieved August 19, 2019.
  135. ^ "Japan 5 Yen KM# Pn86 - Yr.33 (1958)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  136. ^ "Japan 10 Yen KM# Pn82 - Yr.25 (1950)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  137. ^ "Japan 10 Yen KM# Pn83 - Yr.25 (1950)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  138. ^ "(1950 (S25) P10 Yen KM-Pn83) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
  139. ^ "Japan 10 Yen KM# Pn85 - Yr.26 (1951)". Numismatic Guaranty Corporation. Retrieved August 18, 2019.
  140. ^ "((1951) S26 P10 Yen KM-Pn85) (Special Strike)". PCGS. Retrieved January 28, 2020.