Open main menu

List of French forts in North America

The Citadelle of Quebec is a National Historic Site of Canada,[1] and also forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada.[1] The fortress is located within the "Historic District of Old Québec", which was designated a World Heritage Site in 1985.[2]

This is a list of forts in New France built by the French government or French Chartered companies in what later became Canada, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, and the United States. They range from large European-type citadels like at Quebec City to tiny fur-trade posts.[3]

CanadaEdit

The French forts in Canada were located west from Alberta to the Atlantic Ocean and as far north as James Bay. Built between the 1640s and the 1750s, a few were captured from rival British fur trading companies like Hudson's Bay Company. The forts were located on waterways to provide transport of fur back east to Montreal or Quebec City. A few have survived or been re-built, but most are ruins or simply disappeared after abandonment.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location Province Image
Fort Anne 1636 Annapolis Royal   Nova Scotia  
Fort Bas de la Rivière 1750 Fort Alexander   Manitoba  
Fort Boishébert 1749 Grand Bay   New Brunswick  
Fort Beauséjour 1751 Aulac  
Fort Bourbon (West) 1741 Grand Rapids   Manitoba
Fort Bourbon (North) 1697 York Factory  
Fort Charlesbourg Royal 1541–1543 Cap-Rouge   Quebec  
Fort Chambly 1665 Chambly  
Citadelle of Quebec 1693 Quebec City  
Citadelle of Montreal 1690–1821 Montreal  
Fort Dauphin 1741 Winnipegosis   Manitoba
Fort de la Corne 1753 Fort à la Corne Provincial Forest   Saskatchewan  
Fort de la Montagne 1685 Montreal   Quebec  
Fort Douville 1720 Toronto   Ontario
Fort Dumoine 1730 Pontiac Regional County Municipality   Quebec  
Fort du Moulin 1749 Trois-Rivières
Fort du Sault Saint-Louis 1725 Kahnawake
Fort Frontenac 1673 Kingston   Ontario  
Fort Gaspareaux 1751 Port Elgin   New Brunswick  
Fort Kaministiquia 1717 Thunder Bay   Ontario  
Fort Lachine 1669–1695 Lachine   Quebec  
Fort Laprairie 1687 Laprairie  
Fort La Reine 1738 Portage la Prairie   Manitoba  
Fort Le Jonquiere 1751 Saskatchewan River Forks (near Prince Albert)   Saskatchewan
Fortress of Louisbourg 1719 Louisbourg   Nova Scotia  
Fort Maurepas 1733 Selkirk   Manitoba
Fort Menagoueche 1751 Saint John   New Brunswick  
Fort Paskoya 1741 The Pas (on Cedar Lake)   Manitoba  
Fort Plaisance 1662 Placentia   Newfoundland and Labrador
Fort Pointe-aux-Trembles 1670 Pointe-aux-Trembles   Quebec  
Fort Richelieu 1641 near Sorel-Tracy  
Fort Rouge 1738 Winnipeg   Manitoba
Fort Rouillé / Fort Toronto 1750 Toronto   Ontario  
Fort Royal (Newfoundland) 1687 Placentia   Newfoundland and Labrador  
Fort Sainte Anne (Hudson Bay) 1670 (1686) Fort Albany   Ontario  
Fort Sainte Anne 1629–1641 Englishtown   Nova Scotia
Fort Saint-François 1660 Trois-Rivières   Quebec  
Fort Saint Jacques 1686–1693 and 1697–1713 Waskaganish, Quebec (Fort Rupert)
Fort Saint-Jean 1746 Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu  
Fort Saint Louis 1690–1713 Placentia   Newfoundland and Labrador  
Fort St. Louis 1620–1834 Quebec   Quebec  
Fort St. Louis 1623–1930 Cape Sable Island   Nova Scotia  
Fort St. Louis 1670s (1686) Moose Factory   Ontario  
Fort St. Pierre 1731 Fort Frances (near mouth of the Rainy River meets with Rainy Lake)  
Fort Sainte Thérèse 1665 Carignan   Quebec  
Fort Senneville 1671 Montreal  
Fort Témiscamingue 1679 Ville Marie  
Fort Ville-Marie 1642–1688 Montreal  
Port-la-Joye 1720 Charlottetown   Prince Edward Island  

Saint Pierre and MiquelonEdit

United StatesEdit

The French forts built in what is now the United States, were part of a series of forts built from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi delta; as far west as the Dakotas, as far east as Maine.

Name[4][5] Date constructed ca. Location State Image
Arkansas Post 1686 Arkansas County   Arkansas  
Fort des Alibamons 1717 Wetumpka   Alabama  
Fort Assumption 1739 Memphis   Tennessee  
Fort de la Balise 1722 Plaquemines Parish   Louisiana
Fort Beauharnois 1727 Goodhue County   Minnesota  
Fort De La Boulaye

(Fort Bayougoula,

Fort Iberville,

Fort Louisiana)

1700 Phoenix, Plaquemines Parish   Louisiana
Fort de Buade 1683 St. Ignace   Michigan  
Fort Carillon 1754–57 Ticonderoga   New York  
Fort Caroline 1564 Jacksonville   Florida  
Fort de Cavagnal 1744 Missouri River between Kansas City and Fort Leavenworth   Kansas  
Fort Charles 1562 Beaufort   South Carolina  
Fort de Chartres 1720 Randolph County   Illinois  
Fort Condé de la Mobille 1723 Mobile   Alabama  
Fort Conti 1679 Youngstown   New York
Fort Crèvecoeur 1680 Creve Coeur   Illinois  
Fort Denonville 1687 Youngstown   New York  
Fort Ponchartrain du Détroit 1701 Detroit   Michigan  
Fort Détour à l'Anglais 1722 Belle Chase   Louisiana
Fort Duquesne 1754 Pittsburgh   Pennsylvania  
Fort Dubreuil

(Côte des Allemands)

1740 Destrehan   Louisiana
Fort St. Jean 1708 New Orleans   Louisiana
Fort Kaskaskia 1759 Kaskaskia   Illinois  
Fort de La Présentation 1671 Ogdensburg   New York  
Fort Le Boeuf 1753 Waterford   Pennsylvania  
Fort Lévis 1759 Ogdensburg   New York  
Fort Louis de la Louisiane 1702 Le Moyne   Alabama  
Fort Machault 1754 Franklin   Pennsylvania
Fort Massac 1757 Massac County   Illinois  
Fort Maurepas 1699 Ocean Springs   Mississippi  
Fort Miami (Indiana) 1715 Fort Wayne   Indiana
Fort Miami (Michigan) 1679 St. Joseph   Michigan  
Fort Michilimackinac 1715 Mackinaw City  
Fort des Natchitoches 1714 Natchitoches   Louisiana  
Fort Niagara 1678 Youngstown   New York  
Fort Orleans 1723 Brunswick   Missouri  
Fort Ouiatenon 1717 West Lafayette   Indiana
Fort Pentagouet 1638 Castine   Maine  
Fort St. Philip 1761 Buras-Triumph   Louisiana
Fort Pimiteoui 1691 Peoria   Illinois  
Fort Presque Isle 1753 Erie   Pennsylvania  
Fort Prudhomme 1682 Memphis   Tennessee  
Fort Rosalie 1716 Natchez   Mississippi
Fort Ste. Anne 1666 Isle La Motte   Vermont  
Fort St. Charles 1732 Lake of the Woods County   Minnesota
Fort St. Frédéric 1729–1757 Crown Point   New York  
Fort St. Joseph 1691 Niles   Michigan
Fort St. Leon 1749 Belle Chase   Louisiana
Fort Saint Louis 1685 Inez   Texas  
Fort St. Louis-Le Rocher 1682 North Utica   Illinois  
Fort St. Marie 1746 English Turn   Louisiana
Fort Sandoské 1745 Sandusky Bay   Ohio  
Fort de Tombecbé 1735–37 Epes   Alabama
Fort Toulouse 1717 Wetumpka  
Fort Vincennes 1731–32 Vincennes   Indiana  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Québec Citadel. Canadian Register of Historic Places. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  2. ^ "Historic District of Old Québec". World Heritage Convention. UNESCO. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
  3. ^ Rene Chartrand (2013). French Fortresses in North America 1535–1763: Quebec, Montreal, Louisbourg and New Orleans. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0317-7.
  4. ^ a b Rene Chartrand (2013). The Forts of New France in Northeast America 1600–1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4728-0318-4.
  5. ^ a b René Chartrand (2010). The Forts of New France: The Great Lakes, the Plains and the Gulf Coast, 1600-1763. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-504-3.
  6. ^ "Landmarks and monuments Saint-Pierre and Miquelon". Archived from the original on 2010-07-25. Retrieved 2010-07-08.