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This list of Antarctic expeditions is a chronological list of expeditions involving Antarctica. Although the existence of a southern continent had been hypothesized as early as the writings of Ptolemy in the 1st century AD, the South Pole was not reached until 1911.

Terra Australis
Typus Orbis Terrarum drawn by Abraham Ortelius.jpg
Terra Australis is the large continent on the bottom of this 1570 map.

Contents

Pre-exploration theoriesEdit

Pre-19th centuryEdit

19th centuryEdit

 
Expeditions in Antarctica before the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration, 1897

20th centuryEdit

21st centuryEdit

  • 2000–2001- Norwegian Liv Arnesen and the American Ann Bancroft crossed Antarctica on ski-sail from Blue 1 Runaway 13 November reaching after 94 days of expedition McMurdo, passing through the South Pole.[12]
  • 2001/2 – First and longest sea kayak expedition by New Zealanders Graham Charles, Marcus Waters and Mark Jones paddle unsupported from Hope Bay to Adelaide Island in 35 days.
  • 2004 – Scot100 First ever Scottish Expedition to South Pole[13] began in October 2004 – a century after a historic expedition led by William Speirs Bruce, Edinburgh's "unknown" explorer, who Craig Mathieson views as "truly the greatest polar explorer of all time".
  • 2004 – Together to the Pole – a Polish four-man expedition led by Marek Kamiński, with Jan Mela (a teenage double amputee, who in the same year reached also the North Pole)
  • 2004–2005 – Chilean South Pole Expedition.
  • 2004–2005 – Tangra 2004/05 created Camp Academia.
  • 2005 – Ice Challenger Expedition travelled to the South Pole in a six-wheeled vehicle.[14]
  • 2005–2006 – Spanish Trans-Antarctic Expedition, led by Ramon Larramendi, reached the Southern Pole of Inaccessibility using kite-sleds.[15]
  • 2006 Hannah McKeand sets coast-to-pole solo/unsupported record of 39 days, 9 hours and 33 minutes[16]
  • 2006–2007 – Jenny and Ray Jardine 57-day ski trek to South Pole[17]
  • 2007 – Pat Falvey leads an Irish team to reach the South Pole, skiing 1140 km only weeks after completing an unsupported Ski traverse of the Greenland Ice Cap in August 2007 in honour of Irish Polar Explorers such as Shakelton and Tom Crean. Clare O'Leary becomes the first Irish female to reach the South Pole.
  • 2007–2008 – Norwegian-U.S. Scientific Traverse of East Antarctica.[18]
  • 2007–2008 – British Army Antarctic Expedition 2007–2008[19]
  • 2008 – Todd Carmichael sets coast-to-pole solo/unsupported record of 39 days, 7 hours and 49 minutes[20]
  • 2008 – First Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2008–2009 – Impossible 2 Possible (i2P) unsupported South Pole quest by Ray Zahab, Kevin Vallely and Richard Weber.[21]
  • 2009 – Azerbaijan Scientific Expedition
  • 2009 – Kaspersky Commonwealth Antarctic Expedition, largest and most international group of women to ski to South Pole.
  • 2009 – Second Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2009–2010 – Unsupported/Unassisted Antarctica Ski Traverse from Berkner Island to South Pole to Ross Sea by Cecilie Skog and Ryan Waters.
  • 2010 – Moon Regan Transantarctic Crossing, first wheeled transantarctic crossing and first bio-fuelled vehicle to travel to the South Pole.[22]
  • 2010 – Third Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2011 – Fourth Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2011–2012 – From Novolazarevskaya to Pole of Inaccessibility to South Pole to Hercules inlet by Sebastian Copeland and Eric McNair Landry by kites and skis.[23]
  • 2011–2012 – British Services Antarctic Expedition 2012[24]
  • 2011–2012 – Expedition by Ramon Hernando de Larramendi, by Inuit WindSled.[25]
  • 2012 – Felicity Aston becomes the first person to ski alone across Antarctica using only personal muscle power, as well as the first woman to cross Antarctica alone.[26][27] Her journey began on 25 November 2011, at the Leverett Glacier, and continued for 59 days and a distance of 1,084 miles (1,744 kilometers).[28]
  • 2012 – Fifth Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2012–2013 – Aaron Linsdau becomes the second American to ski solo from the Hercules Inlet to the South Pole. His original plan was to make a round trip but through a series of problems, like all other expeditions this year, was unable to make the return journey.[29]
  • 2012 – Eric Larsen attempts a bicycle ride from coast to South Pole. Completes a quarter of the distance.
  • 2012 – Grant Korgan becomes the first person with a spinal cord injury to literally "push" himself to the geographic South Pole![30][31][32][33][34]
  • 2012–2013 – Shackleton's centenary re-enactment expedition of the journey of the James Caird aboard the replica Alexandra Shackleton. Six British and Australian Explorers completed the "double journey" on 10 February 2013 after the 800-mile journey from Elephant Island to South Georgia and the mountain crossing.[35]
  • 2013 – Sixth Venezuelan Scientific Expedition to Antarctica.
  • 2013–2014 – Ben Saunders and Tarka L'Herpiniere make the first ever completion of the Terra Nova Expedition first taken by Robert Falcon Scott in January 1912. Their 1,801-mile, 105-day return journey to the South Pole is the longest ever polar journey on foot.[36]
  • 2013 – Parker Liautaud and Douglas Stoup attempt in December 2013 the Willis Resilience Expedition[37] to set a "coast to Pole" speed record[38] by reaching the geographical South Pole on skis in the fastest miles per hour ever recorded from an interior of continent start while being followed by a support vehicle.
  • 2013 – Antony Jinman will walk to the South Pole solo for the 2013 ETE Teachers South Pole Mission, during which he will be in daily contact with schoolchildren from across the United Kingdom and will make films using the world's first drone flights at the South Pole.
  • 2013 – Maria Leijerstam becomes the first person to cycle from the Antarctic coast to South Pole. She also set the human powered speed record in 10 days, 14 hours and 56 minutes.
  • 2013−14 – Lewis Clarke (aged 16 years and 61 days) guided by Carl Alvey (aged 30) became the youngest person to trek from the Antarctic coast at Hercules Inlet to the South Pole. His expedition was in support of the Prince's Trust and his achievement is recognised by Guinness World Records.
  • 2013-14 – Married couple Christine (Chris) Fagan and Marty Fagan became the first American married couple (and second married couple in history) to complete a full unguided, unsupported, unassisted ski from the Antarctic coast to the South Pole. They join just over 100 people in history who have traveled to the South Pole in this manner. Their expedition took 48 days. Their achievement is recognized by Guinness World Records. Learn more at www.3belowzero.com and www.christinefagan.com. A book about the expedition is forthcoming.
  • 2013−14 – Daniel P. Burton completes the first bicycle ride from coast to the South Pole.
  • 2013−14 – Chris Turney led an expedition, entitled "Spirit of Mawson", aimed at highlighting the decline in sea ice due to climate change. The expedition was abandoned when its Russian ship became stuck in unusually large amounts of sea ice.
  • 2013 – In December 2013 the Expeditions 7 Team led by Scott Brady made a successful east-to-west crossing in four-wheel drive vehicles from Novolazarevskaya to the Ross Ice Shelf via the Scott-Amundsen South Pole Station. Expeditions 7's logistic plan included providing assistance to the Walking With The Wounded expedition, which was required at latitude 88°S. From the Ross Ice Shelf the Expeditions 7 team returned to Novolazarevskaya via the same route.
  • 2015−16 – Henry Worsley died while attempting to complete the first solo and unaided crossing of the Antarctic.[39]
  • 2016−17 – Spear17, a six-man team from the British Army Reserves successfully completed a full traverse of Antarctica. They set off on 16 November from Hercules Inlet, arrived at the South Pole on Christmas Day, and completed a full traverse reaching Ross Ice Shelf on 20 January 2017. The aim of the expedition was to raise the profile of the army reservists, and to honour the memory of fellow explorer Henry Worsley. The team was led by Capt. Lou Rudd, MBE[40][41]
  • 2016-17 - Eric Philips (guide), Keith Tuffley and Rob Smith ski a new route to the South Pole from the Ross Ice Shelf through the Transantarctic Mountains following the Reedy Glacier. The expedition covers 605 km in 33 days setting off 8 December 2017 and arriving 10 January 2017.
  • 2016−17 – 7 February Mike Horn completes first ever solo, unsupported north-to-south traverse of Antarctica from the Princess Astrid Coast (lat -70.1015 lon 9.8249) to the Dumont D'urville Station (lat -66.6833 lon 139.9167) via the South Pole. He arrived at the pole on 7 February 2017. A total distance of 5100 km was covered utilizing kites and skis in 57 days.[42]
  • 2016-17 - Eric Philips (guide), Heath Jamieson (guide), Jade Hameister, Paul Hameister and Ming D'Arcy ski a new route to the South Pole from the Ross Ice Shelf through the Transantarctic Mountains following the Reedy Glacier then Kansas Glacier. The expedition covers 605 km in 33 days, setting off 6 December 2017 and arriving 11 January 2018.
  • 2017–2018 – Astrid Forhold (Norway), supported by Jan Sverre Sivertsen, skies the longest part of the original Roald Amundsen route from Bay of Whales to the South Pole.[citation needed]
  • 2018 – Colin O'Brady (USA) completed an unsupported (no resupplies or supply drops) solo crossing of Antarctica (not including the ice shelves). He started inland at the end of the Ronne Ice Shelf on 3 November 2018, passed through the South Pole and arrived inland at the start of the Ross Ice Shelf on 26 December 2018.[43][44][45] Louis Rudd (UK), who started on the same day as Brady and took a similar route, completed his unsupported solo trek two days later, arriving at Ross Ice Shelf on 28 December 2018[46]
  • 2018-19 — 13 January, Matthieu Tordeur (France) becomes the first French and youngest in the world (27 years and 40 days) to ski solo, unsupported (no resupply) and unassisted (no kiting) from the coast of Antarctica (Hercules Inlet) to the South Pole.[47]

AgreementsEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ O'Connor, Tom Polynesians in the Southern Ocean: Occupation of the Auckland Islands in Prehistory in New Zealand Geographic 69 (September–October 2004): 6–8
  2. ^ Anderson, Atholl J., & Gerard R. O'Regan To the Final Shore: Prehistoric Colonisation of the Subantarctic Islands in South Polynesia in Australian Archaeologist: Collected Papers in Honour of Jim Allen Canberra: Australian National University, 2000. 440–454.
  3. ^ Anderson, Atholl J., & Gerard R. O'Regan The Polynesian Archaeology of the Subantarctic Islands: An Initial Report on Enderby Island Southern Margins Project Report. Dunedin: Ngai Tahu Development Report, 1999
  4. ^ Anderson, Atholl J. Subpolar Settlement in South Polynesia Antiquity 79.306 (2005): 791–800
  5. ^ David McGonigalm Antarctica: Secrets of the Southern Continent Frances Lincoln Ltd., 2009 ISBN 0-7112-2980-5 page 288-289
  6. ^ http://www.southpolestation.com/trivia/history/skiers.html
  7. ^ https://www.goodreads.com/book/show/501235.Antarctica
  8. ^ https://www.amazon.com/Crossing-Antarctica-Will-Steger/dp/0897328965
  9. ^ a b Hoare, James E. (2012). "Antarctic Exploration". Historical Dictionary of Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-0-8108-7987-4.
  10. ^ https://www.amazon.com/Snotsicle-Traverse-True-Antarctic-Adventure/dp/B0006QDGJK
  11. ^ Brown, Ian (1999). 'Extreme South' Struggles & triumph of the first Australian team to the Pole. Australian Geographic.
  12. ^ No Horizon is so far. Two women and their historic journey across Antarctica. Liv Arnesen, Ann Bancroft & Cheryl Dahle. Penguin Books.
  13. ^ Brent, Michel. "Polar Challenges / UK / Expeditions / Arctic Expeditions – Archives". v1.explorapoles.org.
  14. ^ IceChallenger.co.uk Archived 8 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine, 2005. Retrieved on 2008-10-14[self-published source]
  15. ^ Tierraspolared.es, Transantarctica 2005–06 at Tierras Polares Archived 7 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ Aislinn Simpson (29 December 2006), "Woman treks alone to South Pole in 39 days", The Guardian, retrieved 12 March 2013
  17. ^ Jardine, Ray. "Skiing to the South Pole in 59 days : Ray & Jenny Jardine". www.rayjardine.com.
  18. ^ Traverse.npolar.no[self-published source]
  19. ^ Conor J. Ryan Joys and Hardships of Antarctic Fieldwork, retrieved 2011 Aug 24
  20. ^ Martin, Peter (Dec * 2008 - Norwegian Team "Happy Feet" - Christian Eide, Mads Agerup, Morten Andvig and Rune Midtgaard sets new record Cost Line to Pole unsupported at 24 days, 8 hours and 57 mins, 26th Dec 2008. 2011), "Todd Carmichael, American", Esquire: 202, retrieved 2013-03-13 Check date values in: |date= (help)
  21. ^ Southpolequest.com[self-published source]
  22. ^ Moon Regan transantarctic crossing[self-published source]
  23. ^ "ExWeb interview Sebastian Copeland and Eric McNair-Landry (part 1/2): The battle of body and gear across 2 South Poles". www.explorersweb.com.
  24. ^ [http://www.bsae2012.co.uk/ BSAE 2012 – Spirit of Scott[self-published source]
  25. ^ "Inuit WindSled".
  26. ^ "Long Day's Journey into White | Adventure". Reader's Digest Asia. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  27. ^ Michael Warren. "First woman to cross Antarctica solo sets two records". The Globe and Mail. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  28. ^ "British adventurer Felicity Aston caps first ski crossing of Antarctica by woman". ESPN. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
  29. ^ "Amazon.com: Antarctic Tears: Determination, adversity, and the pursuit of a dream at the bottom of the world eBook: Aaron Linsdau: Kindle Store". www.amazon.com.
  30. ^ "The Push Documentary – A Film About Overcoming Adversity With Love". Push.
  31. ^ "Sit-skier Grant Korgan has pushed his way across Antarctica". espn.com.
  32. ^ PRESS, THE ASSOCIATED. "Paralyzed Nevada man Grant Korgan reaches South Pole  – NY Daily News". nydailynews.com.
  33. ^ "Paralyzed athlete Grant Korgan achieves polar goal". sfgate.com. 29 January 2012.
  34. ^ "Korg Movement – Choose Positivity Now". Korg Movement.
  35. ^ Shackleton Epic[self-published source]
  36. ^ "The Scott Expedition".
  37. ^ "Willis Resilience Expedition".
  38. ^ Explorersweb (13 January 2011). "Breaking news: Christian Eide bags the South Pole solo speed ski world record". explorersweb.com. Retrieved 13 January 2011.
  39. ^ "Explorer dies in Antarctic crossing". 3 December 2018 – via www.bbc.com.
  40. ^ "SPEAR17". Louis Rudd MBE. 1 April 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  41. ^ "一括査定を活用してバイクの買取を依頼するメリットとデメリット". www.spear17.org.
  42. ^ "Mike Horn a dompté l'Antarctique en solitaire – L'illustré". archive.org. 13 February 2017.
  43. ^ "O'Brady's Antarctic Crossing: Was It Really Unassisted?". Explorersweb. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  44. ^ January 2019, Maria Dombrov22 (22 January 2019). "An Impossible First: Colin O'Brady Completes Solo Trek Across Antarctica - GlacierHub %". GlacierHub. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  45. ^ "Explorer completes historic Antarctic trek". Exploration & Adventure. 26 December 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  46. ^ "Second explorer completes Antarctic crossing". Exploration & Adventure. 28 December 2018. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  47. ^ "Antarctica 2018-2019: Final Recap". Explorersweb. Retrieved 11 June 2019.

ReferencesEdit

  • Savatyugin, L. M.; Preobrazhenskaya, M. A. (1999). Российские исследования в Антарктике [Russian Exploration of Antarctica] (in Russian). Saint Petersburg: Gidrometeoizdat, Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI), Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring of Russian Federation (Roshydromet). ISBN 5-286-01265-5.
  • "Soviet Antarctic Expedition". Information Bulletin. Amsterdam: Elsevier Pub. Co. 1958–1974. ISSN 0038-5271.
  • 'Extreme South' Struggles & triumph of the first Australian team to the Pole by Ian Brown, Published by Australian Geographic 1999. ISBN 1 86276 031 4.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit