Linimo (リニモ Rinimo), formally the Aichi High-Speed Transit Tobu Kyuryo Line (愛知高速交通東部丘陵線 Aichi Kōsoku Kōtsū Tōbu Kyūryō-sen) is a magnetic levitation train line in Aichi Prefecture, Japan, near the city of Nagoya. While primarily built to serve the Expo 2005 fair site, the line now operates to serve the local community.
Linimo train approaching Banpaku Kinen Koen, in the direction of Fujigaoka Station
|Other name(s)||Aichi High-Speed Transit Tobu Kyuryo Line|
|Native name||Rinimo (リニモ), formally Aichi Kōsoku Kōtsū Tōbu Kyūryō-sen (愛知高速交通東部丘陵線)|
|Locale||Aichi Prefecture, Japan|
|Opened||6 March 2005|
|Owner||Aichi Rapid Transit Co., Ltd. (愛知高速交通株式会社 Aichi Kōsoku Kōtsū Kabushiki Gaisha)|
|Line length||8.9 km (5.5 mi)|
|Number of tracks||2|
|Minimum radius||75 m (246 ft 1 in)|
|Electrification||1500 V DC Third rail|
|Operating speed||100 km/h (62 mph)|
Linimo is owned and operated by Aichi Rapid Transit Co., Ltd. (愛知高速交通株式会社 Aichi Kōsoku Kōtsū Kabushiki Gaisha) and is the first commercial maglev in Japan to use the High Speed Surface Transport (HSST) type technology. It is also the world's first unmanned commercial urban maglev. There are some sources that ambiguously describe "unmanned" as "automated" or ignore the condition while making such a claim but Linimo was actually the fourth commercial urban maglev operated in the world, predated by the Birmingham Maglev (1984–1995), the Berlin M-Bahn (1989–1991) and the Shanghai Maglev (opened in 2004).
The linear motor magnetic-levitated train has a top speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph), floating 8 millimetres (0.31 in) above the track when in motion, and is intended as an alternative to conventional metro systems, not high-speed operation. The line has nine stations and is 8.9 kilometres (5.5 mi) long, with a minimum operating radius of 75 metres (246 ft) and a maximum gradient of 6%. The line uses automatic train control (ATC) and automatic train operation (ATO). Construction of the track cost ¥60 billion (US$575 million) while the Linimo trains themselves, built by Nippon Sharyo, cost ¥40.5 billion (US$380 million). The construction cost came to roughly $65 million per km without rolling stock.
The trains for the line were designed by the Chubu HSST Development Corporation, which also operates a test track in Nagoya. They were built by Nippon Sharyo, cost ¥40.5 billion (US$380 million). The trains are fixed 3-car train sets (Mc1+M+Mc2). The end cars (Mc Car) are 14.0 metres (45 ft 11 in) long and the middle car (M Car) 13.5 metres (44 ft 3 in), giving a total train set length of 43.3 metres (142 ft 1 in). The cars are 2.6 metres (8 ft 6 in) wide. The Mc car has a capacity of 34 seated and 46 standing, and the M car 36 seated and 48 standing, for a total capacity per train set of 244. The cars have a semi-monocoque construction of welded aluminum, with two emergency doors at each car end and two 1,200-millimetre (47 in) doors per side.
Technical and financial difficultiesEdit
This section needs to be updated.October 2017)(
Being the first commercial implementation of a new type of transport system, the line suffered a number of highly publicized technical breakdowns during the Expo, with far higher demand during peak hours than the line's carrying capacity of 4,000 passengers per direction per hour. On March 19, 2005 and again on March 24, the number of people inside the trains exceeded the design capacity of 244 passengers and the train was unable to levitate. The line also has to be shut down for safety reasons when wind speed exceeds 25 m/s (56 mph), a relatively common occurrence in the area.
During the Expo, the line carried an average of 31,000 passengers per day, but ridership dropped to only 12,000 in the first six months after the Expo, and the line lost over ¥3 billion in 2006. While ridership gradually increased to 16,500 passengers per day in 2008, the line still made a financial loss of ¥2.1 billion in fiscal year 2009.
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- October 3, 2001 – Permission to build the line granted
- March 6, 2005 – Line opened to the public
- July 3, 2005 – Ten millionth passenger
- April 1, 2006 – Stations L07 and L09 renamed
|L01||Fujigaoka||藤が丘||0.0||Nagoya Municipal Subway Higashiyama Line (H22)||Meito-ku, Nagoya||Aichi Prefecture|
|L07||Aichikyūhaku-kinen-kōen ("Expo Memorial Park")[Note 1]||愛・地球博記念公園||7.0|
|L09||Yakusa[Note 2]||八草||8.9||Aichi Loop Line(18)|
- Formerly named Banpaku-kaijo Station ("Expo Site")
- Formerly named Banpaku-Yakusa Station
Cancelled plan in TaiwanEdit
- Yasuda, Yoshihide; Fujino, Masaaki; Tanaka, Masao; Ishimoto, Syunzo (2004). "The first HSST maglev commercial train in Japan" (PDF). Proceedings of the 18th international conference on magnetically levitated systems and linear drives (MAGLEV 2004). Retrieved 2016-04-29.
- 韓国独自技術で開発 仁川空港リニアが３日開通
- "Magnetbahnforum | Linimo Urban Maglev". Archived from the original on September 21, 2013. Retrieved September 20, 2013.
- "Nagoya builds Maglev Metro". International Railway Journal. May 2004. Archived from the original on 2007-01-29.
- "Linimo(リニモ)愛知高速交通株式会社" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-03. Retrieved 2011-03-24.
- "Linimo(リニモ)愛知高速交通株式会社" (PDF).
- 磁浮捷運 開進信義商圈? Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine (Will manglev metro expand the commercial zone of Xinyi?), a report on China Times, June 23, 2006. The news was cited on the Institute of Transportation official website, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, the Republic of China, retrieved on November 12, 2008. (in Chinese)
- 信義區輕軌捷運 市府否決 Archived 2011-10-03 at the Wayback Machine (The city council rejects Xinyi LRT), a report on China Times, August 9, 2007. The news was cited on the Institute of Transportation official website, Ministry of Transportation and Communications, the Republic of China, retrieved on November 12, 2008. (in Chinese)