Lina Wertmüller (Italian: [ˈliːna vertˈmuller]; born 14 August 1928) is an Italian screenwriter and film director. She was the first woman nominated for an Academy Award for Directing for Seven Beauties. She is also known for her films The Seduction of Mimi, Love and Anarchy and Swept Away.
|Born||Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Spañol von Braueich
14 August 1928
|Occupation||Screenwriter, film director|
|Spouse(s)||Enrico Job (died 4 March 2008)|
Wertmüller was born Arcangela Felice Assunta Wertmüller von Elgg Spañol von Braueich in Rome in 1928 to a devoutly Roman Catholic Swiss family of aristocratic descent. She was a rebellious child, and was expelled from more than a dozen Catholic schools. Though her father wanted her to become a lawyer she enrolled in theatre school.
After graduating from school, her first job was touring Europe in a puppet show. For the next ten years she worked as an actress, director and playwright in legitimate theatre. During this period she met Giancarlo Giannini, who later starred in many of her films.
Through her acquaintance with Marcello Mastroianni, she met Federico Fellini and, in 1962, Fellini offered her the assistant director position on 8½. The following year, Wertmüller made her directorial debut with The Lizards (I Basilischi). The film's subject matter—the lives of impoverished people in southern Italy—became a recurring motif in her later work. The Lizards was well received by critics and the art house crowd, but was little seen. After this, Wertmüller would consciously attempt to make popular movies. "It gives me more pleasure to entertain making movies that everybody sees, not the intellectuals. I couldn't give a shit about the intellectuals."
Several moderately successful films followed The Lizards, but not until the 1970s did Wertmüller achieve lasting international acclaim with a series of four movies starring Giancarlo Giannini. The last, and best-received of these, was 1975's Seven Beauties (Pasqualino Settebellezze), which earned four Academy Award nominations and was an international hit. Wertmüller was the first woman nominated for an Academy Award for Best Director. Jane Campion, Sofia Coppola, Kathryn Bigelow and Greta Gerwig are the only other female directors nominated (with Bigelow the only to win).
Her 1978 film, A Night Full of Rain, was entered into the 28th Berlin International Film Festival. Eight years later, her film Camorra (A Story of Streets, Women and Crime) was entered into the 36th Berlin International Film Festival.
In 1985, she received the Women in Film Crystal Award for outstanding women who, through endurance and the excellence of their work, have helped to expand the role of women within the entertainment industry.
She is known for her whimsically prolix movie titles. For instance, the full title of Swept Away is Swept away by an unusual destiny in the blue sea of August. These titles were invariably shortened for international release. She is entered in the Guinness Book of Records for the longest film title: Un fatto di sangue nel comune di Siculiana fra due uomini per causa di una vedova. Si sospettano moventi politici. Amore-Morte-Shimmy. Lugano belle. Tarantelle. Tarallucci e vino. That 1979 movie with 179 characters is better known under the international titles Blood Feud or Revenge.
Her 1983 film A Joke of Destiny was entered into the 14th Moscow International Film Festival. Wertmüller has had a prolific career since, and still actively directs, though none of her later films have had the same impact as her mid-1970s collaborations with Giannini. Wertmüller was married to Enrico Job (died 4 March 2008), an art designer who worked on several of her pictures.
In general, Wertmüller's films highly reflect her own political commitments, with main characters who are either dedicated anarchists, communists, feminists, or all those—and main action that centers on political or socioeconomic conflicts. Wertmüller self-identified as socialist. Swept Away tells the story of a rich, liberated industrialist's wife who finds erotic fulfillment only after being sado-masochistically "tamed" by a macho, communist private yacht deck-hand. The film earned the ire of orthodox feminists, one of whom asked in a review whether Wertmüller had now become "one of the boys".
- Peter Biskind. "Lina Wertmuller: The Politics of Private Life" in Film Quarterly 28, pp. 10–16 (1974–75)
- Bullaro, Grace Russo. Man in Disorder - The Cinema of Lina Wertmüller in the 1970s. ISBN 978-1-905886-39-5
- Déléas, Josette. Lina Wertmüller - Un rire noir chaussé de lunettes blanches - a critical biography filled with delightful anecdotes and Lina's irresistible humour. ISBN 978-1-4251-2755-8
- William R. Magretta and Joan Magretta. "Lina Wertmuller and the Tradition of Italian Carnivalesque Comedy" in Genre 12, pp. 25–43. (1979)
- Tiziana Masucci, "I chiari di Lina" -her new and sparkling biography- (Edizioni Sabinae, Roma 2009)ISBN 978-88-96105-22-1
- NOTE: Wertmüller's year of birth had been given as 1926 for many years. However, a majority of references now cite 1928, including , , , , , and 
A few sources (, ) continue to cite 1926.
- Giorgio Dell'Arti, Massimo Parrini, Catalogo dei viventi 2009 - voce Wertmüller Lina, Venezia, Marsilio Editori, 2008; ISBN 978-88-317-9599-9.
- Women and the cinema : a critical anthology. Kay, Karyn., Peary, Gerald. (1st ed ed.). New York: Dutton. 1977. ISBN 0525474595. OCLC 3315936.
- "The 49th Academy Awards (1977) Nominees and Winners". oscars.org. Retrieved 25 March 2012.
- Cieply, Michael; Barnes, Brooks (8 March 2010), "'The Hurt Locker' Wins Big at Oscars", The New York Times, p. C1, retrieved 14 August 2015
- "IMDB.com: Awards for A Night Full of Rain". imdb.com. Retrieved 7 August 2010.
- "Berlinale: 1986 Programme". berlinale.de. Retrieved 14 August 2015.
- bea_xx. "Past Recipients". Archived from the original on 30 June 2011. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- "14th Moscow International Film Festival (1985)". MIFF. Archived from the original on 16 March 2013. Retrieved 17 February 2013.