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General elections were held in Lebanon on 6 May 2018. Although originally scheduled for 2013,[1] the election was postponed three times in 2013, 2014 and 2017 under various pretexts, including the security situation, the failure of the Parliament to elect a new President, and the technical requirements of holding an election.[2][3] A new electoral law adopted in 2017 provides a proportional representation system for the first time in the history of the country. Hezbollah and its allies performed well in the elections, while the Future Movement of Prime Minister Saad Hariri saw its bloc shrink by 40%, from 33 to 20 MPs. The parliamentary bloc of the Lebanese Forces almost doubled from eight MPs to 15 MPs, but it was the Free Patriotic Movement who emerged as the largest bloc with 29 MPs, including 18 party members, six pro-FPM independents, and five allies. FPM leader Gebran Bassil stated that FPM has won the elections in Lebanon by getting the largest bloc (a status previously held by Saad Hariri in the elections in 2009).

Lebanese general election, 2018

← 2009 6 May 2018

All 128 seats to the Parliament of Lebanon
65 seats needed for a majority
Turnout49.7% (Decrease ~ 5.5%)
  First party Second party Third party
  Gebran Bassil.jpg President of Russia Vladimir Putin & Prime Minister Lebanon Saad Hariri in Sochi, 13 September 2017 (3) (Cropped).jpg Nabih Berri.jpg
Leader Gebran Bassil Saad Hariri Nabih Berri
Party FPM Future Movement Amal
Leader's seat Batroun Beirut II Zahrany
Last election 18 33 13
Seats won 29 20 16
Seat change Increase 11 Decrease 13 Increase 3
Popular vote 276,610 256,092 204,199
Percentage 15.72% 14.56% 11.61%

  Fourth party Fifth party Sixth party
  Samir Geagea (cropped).jpg Sayyed Hassan Nasrallah.jpg Jumblatt.jpg
Leader Samir Geagea Hassan Nasrallah Walid Jumblatt
Party Lebanese Forces Hezbollah PSP
Leader's seat Did Not Stand Did Not Stand Did Not Stand
Last election 8 12 11
Seats won 15 13 9
Seat change Increase 7 Increase 1 Decrease 2
Popular vote 162,078 296,090 88,268
Percentage 9.21% 16.83% 5.02%

  Seventh party Eighth party Ninth party
  Miktai.jpg Sleiman Frangieh 2.jpg
Leader Najib Mikati Samy Gemayel Sleiman Frangieh
Party Azm Movement Kataeb Party Marada Movement
Leader's seat Tripoli Metn Did Not Stand
Last election 2 5 3
Seats won 4 3 3
Seat change Increase 2 Decrease 2 Steady 0
Popular vote 39,586 34,147 31,206
Percentage 2.25% 1.94% 1.77%

Prime Minister before election

Saad Hariri
Future Movement

Elected Prime Minister

Saad Hariri
Future Movement

Contents

BackgroundEdit

Following the last parliamentary election of 2009, it took several months to form a new government. Saad Hariri eventually became prime minister in a March 14 Alliance government formed in November 2009. About a year later, Walid Jumblatt's PSP broke away from the March 14 alliance and withdrew its ministers. Jumblatt then traveled to Syria for the first time in decades and met President Bashar al-Assad. After the government fell over the issue of the Special Tribunal for Lebanon, a new government was formed by Najib Mikati that consisted of March 8 Alliance parties, as well as the PSP.

Over the course of the Syrian Civil War, fissures started to grow in Lebanon as March 14 parties supported the opposition in Syria while March 8 parties were ostensibly supportive of the Syrian government, particularly in the early stages. The March 8 parties therefore faced accusation from the opposition and its affiliated media of kowtowing to the Syrian government. As the conflict started to spill over into Lebanon, both via refugees and Lebanon's own diverse demographics that are broadly reflective of Syria's own diversity, tensions started to grow. A spate of sectarian kidnappings and threats followed, some of which turned fatal.[4]

On 22 March 2013, Mikati resigned citing a negative climate over the appointment of a committee to oversee the election and the extension of Internal Security Forces (ISF) head Ashraf Rifi, who was expected to retire in April. On 5 April, a new March 14-backed consensus candidate for prime minister was announced, Tammam Salam.

PostponementEdit

A new President should have been elected by Parliament before the legislative elections took place. However, there was a deadlock which resulted in fourteen fruitless attempts to choose a head of state. Therefore, Parliament decided on November 5, 2014 to extend its term by 2 years and 7 months.[2] The deadlock was perceived to arise from failure to reach quorum due to the voluntary absence of members from the ex- March 8 alliance.[citation needed]

Electoral systemEdit

 
Electoral districts as per the 2017 vote law

In June 2017 a new electoral law was passed, replacing the previous system under which the 128 members of parliament were elected from 26 multi-member constituencies in which voters cast as many votes as there were seats in their constituency and the candidates with the highest number of votes within each religious community were elected [5] with a new electoral law instituting proportional representation in 15 multi-member constituencies while still maintaining the confessional distribution.[6] However, the 7 out of the 15 of the electoral districts are divided into 2 or more 'minor districts' (largely corresponding to the smaller electoral districts from the old electoral law).[7] Where applicable, preference vote is counted on the 'minor district' level.[8]

Individuals could submit their candidacy for parliament until midnight of March 6, 2018.[9] 976 candidates were registered, including 111 women.[10] Candidates were obliged to join lists, which had to be finalized by March 26, 2018.[10][11]

Electoral district under 2017 Election Law Registered voters Seats SU SH DR AL MA GO GC AO AC EV MI
Beirut I (East Beirut) 134,355 8 1 1 1 3 1 1
Beirut II (West Beirut) 353,164 11 6 2 1 1 1
Bekaa I (Zahle) 174,944 7 1 1 1 1 2 1
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 143,653 6 2 1 1 1 1
Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) 345,404 10 2 6 1 1
Mount Lebanon I (Jbeil-Kesrwan) 176,818 8 1 7
Mount Lebanon II (Metn) 179,789 8 4 2 1 1
Mount Lebanon III (Baabda) 166,157 6 2 1 3
Mount Lebanon IV (Aley-Chouf) 329,595 13 2 4 5 1 1
North I (Akkar) 887,090 7 3 1 1 2
North II (Tripoli-Minnieh-Dennieh) 350,147 11 8 1 1 1
North III (Bcharre-Zghorta-Batroun-Koura) 249,454 10 7 3
South I (Saida-Jezzine) 122,382 5 2 2 1
South II (Zahrany-Tyre) 304,217 7 6 1
South III (Marjaayoun-Nabatieh-Hasbaya-Bint Jbeil) 460,491 11 1 8 1 1
Total 3,665,514 128 27 27 8 2 34 14 8 5 1 1 1
Source: Daily Star, Daily Star
Electoral district under 2008 Election Law Electoral district under 2017 Election Law Notes
Beirut I Beirut I The former Beirut II constituency was split between the former Beirut I and Beirut III (now renamed 'Beirut II') electoral districts. Medawar was moved into the new Beirut I electoral district, Port and Bachoura were moved into the new Beirut II electoral district. The 2 Armenian Orthodox seats from the old Beirut II electoral districts were allocated to the new Beirut I electoral district, the Sunni and Shia seats of the old Beirut II electoral district were allocated to the new Beirut II electoral district. Furthermore, the Minorities seat was moved from the old Beirut III electoral district to the new Beirut I electoral district.
Beirut II abolished
Beirut III Beirut II
Zahle Bekaa I no change
West Bekaa-Rachaya Bekaa II no change
Baalbek-Hermel Bekaa III no change
Jbeil Mount Lebanon I The old Jbeil and Kesrwan electoral districts now constitute 2 minor districts in the new Mount Lebanon I electoral district.
Kesrwan
Metn Mount Lebanon II no change
Baabda Mount Lebanon III no change
Aley Mount Lebanon IV The old Aley and Chouf electoral districts now constitute 2 minor districts in the new Mount Lebanon IV electoral district.
Chouf
Akkar North I no change
Minnieh-Dennieh North II The old Minnieh-Dennieh and Tripoli electoral districts have been merged, but subdivided into 3 minor districts: Tripoli, Minnieh and Dennieh.
Tripoli
Batroun North III The old Batroun, Bcharre, Koura and Zgharta electoral districts now constitute 4 minor districts in the new North III electoral district.
Bcharre
Koura
Zgharta
Jezzine South I The old Saida and Jezzine electoral districts now constitute 2 minor districts in the new South I electoral district.
Saida
Tyre South II The old Tyre and Zahrani electoral districts now constitute 2 minor districts in the new South II electoral district.
Zahrani
Bint Jbeil South III The old Bint Jbeil, Marjayoun-Hasbaya and Nabatieh electoral districts now constitute 3 minor districts in the new South III electoral district.
Marjayoun-Hasbaya
Nabatieh

ElectorateEdit

 
Listing the largest community in the Lebanese electorate, per qada and/or "minor district".
Green = Sunni
Purple = Shia
Blue = Druze
Yellow = Maronite
Orange = Greek Orthodox
Red = Armenian Orthodox

The Shia electorate constituted the majority of registered voters in Bekaa III, South II and South III, together accounting for 79% of the total Shia electorate.[12]

The Sunni electorate constituted the majority of registered voters in three electoral districts (Beirut I, North I and North II); these three districts represent around two thirds of the total Sunni electorate.[12]

63% of all Druze voters were registered in the Mount Lebanon IV electoral district, which elected four out of the eight Druze parliamentarians.[12] 97% of the Druze voters were registered in districts from which Druze parliamentarians were elected.[13]

96% of Alawite voters were registered in either the North I or North II electoral districts, which elected one Alawite parliamentarian each.[12][13]

Maronite Christians constituted the majority of voters in Mount Lebanon I and North III; these two districts represented 42% of the Maronite electorate.[12]

North III also hosted the largest concentration of Greek Orthodox Christian voters (20.7%), representing around a fifth of all Greek Orthodox voters throughout the country.[12] According to 2017 data, the Greek Orthodox constituted 58% of the voters in the Koura minor district of North III.[13]

Bekaa I hosted the largest concentration of Greek Catholic voters, about a fifth of the nationwide Greek Catholic vote.[12]

Beirut I hosted the largest concentrations of Armenians, both Armenian Orthodox and Armenian Catholic voters, who elected 4 out of the 6 Armenian parliamentarians.[12]

The Minorities (Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic, Latin Catholic, Chaldeans, Assyrian Church and Copts) seat was now in Beirut I, which had the largest gathering of Minorities voters.[12]

Jewish voters were mainly found in Beirut II, where they constituted 1.31% of the electorate.[12] However, in the 2009 election only five Jews cast their votes in the Beirut III electoral district.[14]

Below is a summary of the demographics of the Lebanese electorate with data from 2017, divided by the qada administrative districts (or in the case of Beirut, the old 2008 vote law electoral districts).

Qada Electoral district (new law) Sunni Shia Druze Alawite Maronite Catholic Greek Orthodox Greek Catholic Armenian Orthodox Armenian Catholic Syriac Orthodox Syriac Catholic Other Minorities[a] Protestant Evangelical Jews "Others"[b] Total
No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % No. % No. % MPs No. % MPs No. % No. % No.
Akkar North I 186,541 67.30 3 3,289 1.19 16 0.01 13,711 4.95 1 30,617 11.05 1 37,541 13.54 2 3,414 1.23 174 0.06 67 0.02 151 0.05 52 0.02 264 0.10 809 0.29 520 0.19 277,166
Aley Mount Lebanon IV 2,602 2.07 4,254 3.38 67,304 53.44 2 6 0.00 28,685 22.78 2 14,615 11.61 1 4,725 3.75 845 0.67 191 0.15 295 0.23 274 0.22 654 0.52 976 0.78 41 0.03 466 0.37 125,933
Baabda Mount Lebanon III 10,867 6.61 40,470 24.60 2 28,359 17.24 1 19 0.01 56,467 34.33 3 12,704 7.72 8,753 5.32 1,600 0.97 761 0.46 727 0.44 636 0.39 1,740 1.06 697 0.42 2 0.00 691 0.42 164,493
Baalbek Bekaa III 41,685 16.16 2 174,295 67.56 6 31 0.01 21 0.01 22,070 8.55 1 2,695 1.04 15,386 5.96 1 210 0.08 44 0.02 146 0.06 62 0.02 164 0.06 109 0.04 1,079 0.42 257,997
Batroun North III 3,764 6.26 1,034 1.72 11 0.02 42 0.07 41,964 69.79 2 10,070 16.75 1,994 3.32 260 0.43 101 0.17 182 0.30 80 0.13 254 0.42 80 0.13 1 0.00 291 0.48 60,128
Bcharre North III 109 0.22 27 0.05 0.00 6 0.01 46,512 94.64 2 1,380 2.81 554 1.13 81 0.16 26 0.05 87 0.18 34 0.07 107 0.22 55 0.11 170 0.35 49,148
Beirut I Beirut I 7,214 7.78 2,401 2.59 316 0.34 32 0.03 17,541 18.92 1 22,014 23.74 1 11,776 12.70 1 14,610 15.76 3 3,991 4.30 1 1,445 1.56 3,441 3.71 4,766 5.14 1 2,186 2.36 49 0.05 939 1.01 92,721
Beirut II Beirut I/Beirut II 34,982 32.19 [c] 31,037 28.56 [c] 149 0.14 42 0.04 4,009 3.69 2,697 2.48 2,272 2.09 24,544 22.58 [d] 3,151 2.90 333 0.31 871 0.80 1,726 1.59 1,970 1.81 397 0.37 506 0.47 108,686
Beirut III Beirut II 180,600 64.49 6 44,722 15.97 2 4,839 1.73 1 87 0.03 7,114 2.54 14,953 5.34 1 5,702 2.04 4,613 1.65 1,008 0.36 4,667 1.67 1,423 0.51 2,118 0.76 2,720 0.97 1 4,056 1.45 1,428 0.51 280,050
Bint Jbeil South III 2,024 1.38 127,571 87.09 3 16 0.01 10 0.01 12,596 8.60 314 0.21 3,128 2.14 70 0.05 45 0.03 53 0.04 16 0.01 111 0.08 76 0.05 444 0.30 146,474
Chouf Mount Lebanon IV 58,223 29.14 2 5,984 2.99 62,238 31.14 2 10 0.01 54,401 27.22 3 3,179 1.59 12,666 6.34 1 246 0.12 155 0.08 308 0.15 175 0.09 487 0.24 761 0.38 12 0.01 993 0.50 199,838
Hasbaya South III 23,414 49.34 2 1,381 2.91 2 15,342 32.33 1 2 0.00 1,966 4.14 3,698 7.79 1 1,040 2.19 32 0.07 23 0.05 31 0.07 12 0.03 47 0.10 297 0.63 1 0.00 165 0.35 47,451
Hermel Bekaa III 1,678 3.27 [e] 48,820 95.08 [e] 5 0.01 91 0.18 609 1.19 [e] 14 0.03 19 0.04 [e] 4 0.01 2 0.00 1 0.00 7 0.01 8 0.02 5 0.01 82 0.16 51,345
Jbeil Mount Lebanon I 2,770 3.39 16,529 20.25 1 11 0.01 8 0.01 54,718 67.03 2 3,708 4.54 1,541 1.89 999 1.22 124 0.15 207 0.25 115 0.14 339 0.42 166 0.20 399 0.49 81,634
Jezzine South I 1,443 2.44 12,413 20.96 578 0.98 6 0.01 33,443 56.47 1,487 2.51 8,597 14.52 1 145 0.24 89 0.15 208 0.35 116 0.20 288 0.49 165 0.28 1 0.00 243 0.41 59,222
Kesrwan Mount Lebanon I 557 0.59 1,717 1.83 29 0.03 8 0.01 77,487 82.70 5 3,547 3.79 4,763 5.08 1,581 1.69 779 0.83 726 0.77 573 0.61 1,066 1.14 263 0.28 3 0.00 595 0.64 93,694
Koura North III 8,626 14.32 1,202 1.99 11 0.02 478 0.79 12,991 21.56 35,335 58.64 3 713 1.18 99 0.16 30 0.05 67 0.11 32 0.05 187 0.31 233 0.39 254 0.42 60,258
Marjayoun South III 4,303 3.83 [f] 90,771 80.85 [f] 1,001 0.89 [f] 5 0.00 5,557 4.95 6,138 5.47 [f] 2,908 2.59 69 0.06 31 0.03 51 0.05 27 0.02 341 0.30 899 0.80 1 0.00 165 0.15 112,267
Metn Mount Lebanon II 3,791 2.12 5,387 3.02 2,361 1.32 186 0.10 78,154 43.78 4 26,258 14.71 2 17,831 9.99 1 25,330 14.19 1 6,343 3.55 3,708 2.08 1,483 0.83 4,054 2.27 2,719 1.52 22 0.01 903 0.51 178,530
Minnieh-Dennieh[g] North II 101,971 85.93 3 312 0.26 3 0.00 74 0.06 7,449 6.28 8,171 6.89 176 0.15 16 0.01 6 0.01 17 0.01 7 0.01 37 0.03 42 0.04 390 0.33 118,671
Nabatieh South III 3,142 2.17 135,407 93.59 3 18 0.01 21 0.01 4,031 2.79 239 0.17 1,074 0.74 15 0.01 18 0.01 20 0.01 10 0.01 95 0.07 52 0.04 539 0.37 144,681
Rachaya Bekaa II 17,500 36.43 2 184 0.38 1 20,068 41.78 1 2,108 4.39 1 7,170 14.93 1 635 1.32 39 0.08 33 0.07 31 0.06 109 0.23 38 0.08 77 0.16 46 0.10 48,038
Saida South I 50,900 82.53 2 6,672 10.82 38 0.06 4 0.01 1,323 2.15 303 0.49 1,578 2.56 215 0.35 31 0.05 25 0.04 22 0.04 139 0.23 155 0.25 1 0.00 270 0.44 61,676
Tripoli North II 182,552 81.27 5 2,718 1.21 33 0.01 15,806 7.04 1 5,247 2.34 1 12,075 5.38 1 1,477 0.66 1,751 0.78 265 0.12 300 0.13 215 0.10 540 0.24 583 0.26 38 0.02 1,019 0.45 224,619
Tyre South II 16,194 8.67 157,863 84.53 4 19 0.01 14 0.01 2,880 1.54 807 0.43 6,260 3.35 1,072 0.57 149 0.08 57 0.03 17 0.01 391 0.21 475 0.25 564 0.30 186,762
West Bekaa Bekaa II 50,547 54.40 [h] 20,505 22.07 [h] 466 0.50 [h] 8,635 9.29 [h] 2,709 2.92 [h] 9,024 9.71 73 0.08 27 0.03 79 0.09 41 0.04 146 0.16 347 0.37 1 0.00 312 0.34 92,912
Zahle Bekaa I 48,610 28.17 1 27,665 16.03 1 915 0.53 16 0.01 28,509 16.52 1 16,768 9.72 1 30,043 17.41 2 8,683 5.03 1 1,803 1.04 5,253 3.04 1,071 0.62 1,151 0.67 1,403 0.81 74 0.04 591 0.34 172,555
Zahrani South II 4,538 4.08 80,990 72.82 2 49 0.04 5 0.00 11,607 10.44 767 0.69 11,963 10.76 1 100 0.09 49 0.04 88 0.08 38 0.03 167 0.15 482 0.43 374 0.34 111,217
Zgharta North III 9,976 12.88 151 0.19 11 0.01 76 0.10 61,121 78.92 3 4,378 5.65 868 1.12 135 0.17 167 0.22 82 0.11 45 0.06 172 0.22 97 0.13 164 0.21 77,443
Total: 1,061,123 28.79 27 1,045,771 28.37 27 204,237 5.54 8 30,786 0.84 2 719,811 19.53 34 255,734 6.94 14 170,880 4.64 8 87,611 2.38 5 19,509 0.53 1 19,345 0.52 11,004 0.30 21,597 0.59 1 18,899 0.51 1 4,700 0.13 14,602 0.40 3,685,609
  1. ^ The Minorities quota includes six different Christian sects Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic, Latin Catholics, Assyrians, Chaldeans and Copts.
  2. ^ Presumably consisting mainly of individuals whose sectarian affiliation has not been identified. In other accounts, people not belonging to any of the recognized sects constitute about a thousand voters.[15]
  3. ^ a b The Sunni and Shia seats of the old Beirut II electoral district were transferred to the new Beirut II electoral district
  4. ^ The 2 Armenian Orthodox seats of the old Beirut II electoral district were transferred to the new Beirut I electoral district
  5. ^ a b c d The qada of Baalbek and Hermel form an electoral district together (Bekaa III), the seats are listed under "Baalbek"
  6. ^ a b c d The qada of Hasbaya and Marjayoun constitute a minor district within the South III electoral district under the 2017 vote law.
  7. ^ The Minnieh-Dennieh qada was split into two separate minor districts within the North II electoral district under the 2017 vote law.
  8. ^ a b c d e The West Bekaa and Rachaya qada form an electoral district together, the seats are listed under "Rachaya"
Source: Lebanon Files[13]

PartiesEdit

AmalEdit

 
Amal Movement flag

Amal leader and Speaker of Parliament Nabih Berri held a press conference at his Ain al-Tineh residence on February 19, 2018, to present the electoral platform and the 16 candidates of the Amal Movement.[16] Berri highlighted the ongoing oil exploration project, calling for setting up a national oil company and a sovereign oil fund.[16] He reaffirmed the Amal Movement commitment to 'People, Army, Resistance' policy, urging steadfastness towards Israel.[16]

The Amal-Hezbollah bloc fielded joint 'Hope and Loyalty' lists in the Bekaa III, South II and South III electoral districts.[17][18][19][20] However, compared to the previous election, the Amal-Hezbollah bloc lacked an alliance with Michel Aoun and his Free Patriotic Movement.[21] But whilst FPM and Amal had parted ways nationally, they still managed to form alliances in Mount Lebanon III and Beirut II.[22] In Mount Lebanon III (Baabda) the joint list carried the label 'National Reconciliation'.[22] In Beirut II a joint list of Amal, Hezbollah, FPM and Al-Ahbash was formed, under the label 'Unity of Beirut'.[23] And whilst Berri and the Free Patriotic Movement leader Gebran Bassil had a public fall-out in early 2018, which sparked street riots, Berri's post as Speaker of the Parliament appeared to be fairly secured during the electoral campaign. Both the Hariri and Jumblatt camps affirmed their support to Berri's speakership in the run-up to the polls.[24] According to political analysts, the Amal-Hezbollah victory seemed probably in Berri's home constituency, South II, as opposition forces had failed to produce a strong list to challenge him in his home turf.[25]

In Bekaa II, Amal backed the 'Best Tomorrow' list.[18]

Free Patriotic MovementEdit

The electoral slogan of the party was 'A Strong [FPM] for a Strong Lebanon'.[26] The party formed a number of local coalitions with a wide array alliance partners around the country. In North III FPM fielded the ”Strong North” list, headed by Gebran Bassil, in alliance with the Independence Movement and the Future Movement.[27] In Mount Lebanon I (Jbeil-Kesrwan) FPM fielded the ”Strong Lebanon” list led by Chamel Roukoz.[28] In Mount Lebanon II (Metn) FPM fielded the ”Strong Metn” list together with the SSNP and Tashnaq.[29]

After the split between the Future Movement and the Lebanese Forces, a joint list for Beirut I of the Free Patriotic Movement, Tashnaq and the Hunchaks was conceived. supported by the Future Movement.[30] In Bekaa I FPM, Future, Tashnaq and independents fielded a joint list.[18] In North I (Akkar) and South II (Saida-Jezzine) FPM formed electoral alliances with al-Jamaat al-Islamiyya.[31][32][33] In North II FPM fielded a list in alliance with Kamal Kheir.[34]

Moreover, whilst FPM and the Amal-Hezbollah coalition parted ways nationally, joint lists were presented in Beirut II and in Mount Lebanon III (Baabda).[22][23]

In Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) FPM had hoped to form a list together with former speaker Hussein el-Husseini, but the project fell apart as el-Husseini withdrew from the electoral process.[18] In the end, the Free Patriotic Movement candidates joined the list led by the former regional secretary of the Baath Party, Faiz Shukr.[35]

In South III the Future Movement, the Free Patriotic Movement and the Lebanese Democratic Party supported a joint list called "The South is Worth It", with two FPM-supported independents.[20][36]

Future MovementEdit

At a ceremony in the Seaside Pavilion on March 11, 2018 the candidates and electoral platform of the Future Movement were presented.[37] The party fielded 37 candidates, out of whom 21 were newcomers.[38] The political newcomers included lawyer Roula Tabash Jaroudi in Beirut II and civil society activist Chadi Nacchabe in Tripoli.[39]

The electoral slogan of the party was 'Blue Talisman' (kharzé zar’a).[26] Commenting on the slogan party leader Saad Hariri stated that ”[the] Future Movement is a Talisman (blue bead) that you put in the ballot box, to protect the country. For that reason, our slogan is the protection of Lebanon and the symbol is the Talisman. You will draw the Talisman with your activity, with your energy, with your daily small and large contributions to the electoral machine, in your dialogue with people, in working for each candidate on the Future lists.”[37]

The Future Movement and the Lebanese Forces negotiated for weeks on forming an electoral alliance, but the effort failed as relations between Future leader Saad Hariri and LF leader Samir Geagea deteriorated on issues relating to Hariri's visit to Saudi Arabia.[40]

HezbollahEdit

 
Hezbollah parade

On February 19, 2018, Hezbollah general secretary Hassan Nasrallah presented the names of the 13 Hezbollah candidates.[41] Amongst the candidates there were five new faces.[41]

On March 22, 2018, Nasrallah issued a statement outlining the main priorities for the parliamentary bloc of the party, Loyalty to the Resistance, in the next parliament.[42] He stated that rooting out corruption would be the foremost priority of the Loyalty to the Resistance bloc.[42] He described the relation with FPM as 'normal', whilst reaffirming the claim that opponents to the Amal-Hezbollah bloc in Bekaa III had supported 'terrorist groups'.[42]

The electoral slogan of the party was 'We will construct and we will protect'.[26]

Overall, Hezbollah performed the best in the case of popular vote in the election, and had substantial electoral vote gains as well.

Kataeb PartyEdit

Kataeb ran the elections based on an attempt to re-brand the party as a reformist political force, and distance it from its right-wing conservative legacyThe electoral slogan of the party was 'A Pulse for Change'.[26] Its electoral platform was a comprehensive list of policies that included 131 points, including a range of long-demanded reforms. The party held the elections based on a discourse inspired by protest movements, and attempted to re-brand itself away. However, it failed to make any gains in the elections, losing two of its parliamentary seats and gaining only three seats, two of whom for party leader and Amine Gemayel's son Samy Gemayel, and Nadim Gemayel, son of late president-elect and Lebanese Forces leader Bashir Gemayyel.

Lebanese ForcesEdit

The Lebanese Forces announced the names of 19 party candidates and 20 allies on LF-supported lists at an event in Beirut on March 14, 2018 (the anniversary of the founding of the March 14 Movement). At the event LF leader Samir Geagea affirmed commitment to the cause of the March 14 Movement.[43]

The electoral slogan of the party for the election campaign was It has become necessary (sar badda).[26]

Progressive Socialist PartyEdit

At the ceremony marking the 40th anniversary of killing of Progressive Socialist Party founder Kamal Jumblatt in Moukhtara on February 19, 2017, Walid Jumblatt symbolically gave his keffiyeh to his son Taymour, symbolically marking the generational shift in the party leadership.[44]

The Democratic Gathering bloc, the parliamentary platform of the Progressive Socialist Party, fielded 10 candidates across the country. The number of candidates of the party was lower than in previous elections, in 2009 the bloc won 11 seats. For the first time since 1992 PSP chief Walid Jumblatt did not stand as a candidate, with Taymour taking over as the party leader. The party fielded candidates for 3 out of 4 Druze seats in Mount Lebanon IV, keeping with the tradition of leaving a seat uncontested to help LDP chief Talal Arslan get elected.[45]

PSP joined joint lists with the Future Movement in Beirut II, Bekaa II and Mount Lebanon IV and with Lebanese Forces in Mount Lebanon III and Mount Lebanon IV.[46]

Arab Democratic PartyEdit

In a statement issued on April 29, 2018 the Political Representative of the Arab Democratic Party Rifaat Eid called on his followers to vote for the Alawite candidates Hussein Saloum (on the list of Wajih Barini) in North I and Ahmed Omran in North II (on the list of Faisal Karami).[47]

Arab Socialist Ba'ath PartyEdit

Prior to the election the Arab Socialist Baath Party had suffered a split, with Regional Secretary Assem Qanso and Numan Shalq heading in different directions. Both factions had nominated candidates for the elections, but none was accepted into a list and were thus eliminated from the polls. Reportedly, the Syrian ambassador had lobbied against any list accepting Qanso's candidates, as his group is not recognized from Damascus. A Baathist politician, Kassem Hachem, was included in a list in South III as Amal candidate, but not on behalf of the party. Former Regional Secretary Fayez Shukr headed a list in Bekaa III.[48]

Lebanese Democratic PartyEdit

Talal Arslan's LDP gained only one seat in the new parliament, held by Erslan himself, as all other Druze seats were won by candidates from or supported by the Progressive Socialist Party. In Beirut II, LDP had hoped to get Nasib Jawari included as the Druze candidate on the Amal-Hezbollah, but Jawari was not included and LDP withdrew his candidature.[49] Likewise LDP withdrew its candidate from the race in the Bekaa II electoral district.[49]

Independence MovementEdit

The Moawad family's Independence Movement joined the FPM list in Zgharta.[50]

 
Sabaa Flag

Kulluna Watani AllianceEdit

The civil society alliance behind the "Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) ('Kulluna Watani') lists held a launching event on April 9, 2018 at Forum of Beirut.[51] The alliance gathered with a new Political Party ("Sabaa") and 10 different campaign and groups, most of which are connected to campaigns started in the protest movements of 2015 or the municipal elections of 2016.[39] The alliance included in addition to Sabaa which is a nationwide Secular Political Party few local political groups, namely Libaladi in Beirut 1 and Lihaqqi in Mount Lebanon 4. Speaking at inauguration event, Charbel Nahas, whose party Citizens within a State joined the Koullouna Watani lists at a later stage, said the purpose of the lists was to provide an alternative to the "corrupted" power in Lebanese politics.[51] Koullouna Watani's electoral lists included 66 candidates running in 9 voting districts with one third of the candidates being from Sabaa. The nine lists were fielded in Beirut I, Bekaa I, all four electoral districts of Mount Lebanon, North II, North III and South III.[51]

RamgavarEdit

The Armenian Democratic Liberal Party, or Ramgavar, issued a statement on April 18, 2018 condemning any candidate that opposed the unified Armenian parliamentary bloc.[52] In Beirut I, Ramgavar candidates joined the list of Lebanese Forces, Kataeb and Michel Pharaon.[30][53] One of its candidates is Dr. Avedis Dakassian, the Chair of the Lebanon Regional Committee of the party.[54][55] In Metn, a Ramgavar candidate joined the list of Lebanese Forces.[56]

Rifi BlocEdit

Ashraf Rifi, former Hariri ally, Internal Security Forces chief and Justice Minister, broke ranks with Hariri in 2016.[57] In the 2016 Tripoli municipal election, he defeated Hariri's candidates and won 22 out of 24 seats.[58] He fielded his own lists in the parliamentary election, in a move to challenge Hariri's dominance over Sunni politics. Ahead of the elections he profiled himself as a "hawk", unwilling to enter into talks with Hezbollah.[57]

Rifi fielded lists in three electoral districts; Beirut II,[23] North I[31][59] and North II.[34] Rifi tried to field a list in Bekaa I together with Kataeb and Lebanese Forces, but the initiative did not bear fruit.[60] Likewise, Lebanese Forces and Rifi discussed a joint list in Bekaa III, but no such list materialized.[18]

Syrian Social Nationalist PartyEdit

 
SSNP flag

The Syrian Social Nationalist Party fielded 7 candidates. In Mount Lebanon II (Metn) it joined the list of the Free Patriotic Movement. In Mount Lebanon IV (Aley-Chouf) it joined the list of Talal Arslan. In Bekaa I (Zahle) it joined the list of Nicolas Fattouch. In Bekaa III and South III SSNP candidates were included in the Amal-Hezbollah lists. In North I (Akkar) its candidate was included in the list of March 8 forces. In North III the SSNP entered the list of Boutros Harb and the Marada Movement.[61][62]

Armenian Revolutionary Federation (Tashnag)Edit

 
Tashnag leader Hagop Pakradounian

On March 22, 2018 the Armenian Revolutionary Federation, or Tashnag, announced its candidates in Beirut I and Mount Lebanon II (Metn).[63] The party contested three seats in Beirut I and fielded incumbent parliamentarian Hagop Pakradounian in Metn.[64] In Beirut I the party entered in alliance with FPM, Hunchaks and the Future Movement.[30] In Metn the party entered in an alliance with FPM and SSNP.[29]

In Bekaa I (Zahle) Tashnaq opted to support the candidature of Marie-Jeanne Bilezikjian, pharmacist and women's rights activist, on the joint FPM-Future list.[65] The support for Bilezikjian's candidature was part of a wider agreement between Tashnaq and the Future Movement.[65]

CandidatesEdit

 
Distribution of seats between electoral districts

After the deadline on 26 March 2018, the Ministry of Interior and Municipalities announced that 77 lists, with a total of 583 candidates, had been registered.[11] The highest number of lists was in Beirut II, where nine lists were registered. Only two lists were registered in the Zahrani-Tyre electoral district.[66] Notably, the erstwhile March 8 and March 14 blocs, which had dominated the 2009 elections, are no longer functional and parties sought alliances on local dynamics when setting up lists.[67]

A record number of Lebanese women running for office. In fact, out of the total 976 candidates who originally registered to run, 111 were female candidates - a staggering surge compared to just 12 women in 2009.[68]

Sect Seats Candidates Candidates
per seat
Sect % of electorate
in Electoral District[69]
Alawite 2 12 6
North I (Akkar) 1 4 4 4.97%
North II (Tripoli) 1 8 8 6.04%
Armenian Catholic 1 5 5
Beirut I 1 5 5 5.57%
Armenian Orthodox 5 17 3.4
Beirut I 3 10 3.3 28.3%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 1 4 4 4.99%
Mount Lebanon II (Metn) 1 3 3 14.3%
Druze 8 36 4.5
Beirut II 1 7 7 1.55%
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 1 2 2 14.8%
Mount Lebanon III (Baabda) 1 4 4 17.6%
Mount Lebanon IV (Aley) 2 8 4 40.5%
Mount Lebanon IV (Chouf) 2 10 5
South III (Marjaayoun-Hasbaya) 1 5 5 3.65%
Evangelical 1 7 7
Beirut II 1 7 7 0.81%
Greek Catholic 8 33 4.1
Beirut I 1 4 4 9.8%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 2 8 4 28.3%
Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) 1 5 5 5.36%
Mount Lebanon II (Metn) 1 5 5 9.83%
Mount Lebanon IV (Chouf) 1 5 5 5.18%
South I (Jezzine) 1 4 4 8.69%
South II (Zahrany) 1 2 2 6.81%
Greek Orthodox 14 65 4.6
Beirut I 1 5 5 19.2%
Beirut II 1 7 7 5%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 1 5 5 9.54%
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 1 3 3 7.16%
Mount Lebanon II (Metn) 2 8 4 14.6%
Mount Lebanon IV (Aley) 1 4 4 5.14%
North I (Akkar) 2 9 4.5 14.7%
North II (Tripoli) 1 7 7 6.24%
North III (Koura) 3 11 3.7 20.7%
South III (Marjaayoun-Hasbaya) 1 6 6 2.45%
Maronite 34 151 4.4
Beirut I 1 5 5 13.2%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 1 5 5 15.7%
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 1 3 3 7.22%
Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) 1 5 5 7.35%
Mount Lebanon I (Jbeil) 2 10 5 82.1%
Mount Lebanon I (Kesrwan) 5 23 4.6
Mount Lebanon II (Metn) 4 19 4.8 44.8%
Mount Lebanon III (Baabda) 3 12 4 36.8%
Mount Lebanon IV (Aley) 2 9 4.5 27%
Mount Lebanon IV (Chouf) 3 16 5.3
North I (Akkar) 1 6 6 10.9%
North II (Tripoli) 1 5 5 3.5%
North III (Batroun) 2 7 3.5 68.1%
North III (Bcharre) 2 8 4
North III (Zgharta) 3 12 4
South I (Jezzine) 2 6 3 30.8%
Minorities 1 5 5
Beirut I 1 5 5 11.8%
Shia 27 102 3.8
Beirut II 2 13 6.5 20.6%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 1 5 5 16%
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 1 3 3 14.7%
Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) 6 27 4.5 73.3%
Mount Lebanon I (Jbeil) 1 5 5 10.7%
Mount Lebanon III (Baabda) 2 7 3.5 25.2%
South II (Tyre) 4 8 2 81.4%
South II (Zahrany) 2 3 1.5
South III (Bint Jbeil) 3 13 4.3 80.1%
South III (Marjaayoun-Hasbaya) 2 7 3.5
South III (Nabatieh) 3 11 3.7
Sunni 27 154 5.7
Beirut II 6 47 7.8 62.1%
Bekaa I (Zahle) 1 5 5 18.7%
Bekaa II (West Bekaa-Rachaya) 2 5 2.5 48.8%
Bekaa III (Baalbek-Hermel) 2 10 5 13.3%
Mount Lebanon IV (Chouf) 2 11 5.5 18.7%
North I (Akkar) 3 18 6 67.5%
North II (Dennieh) 2 13 6.5 82.91%
North II (Minnieh) 1 7 7
North II (Tripoli) 5 27 5.4
South I (Saida) 2 7 3.5 44.2%
South III (Marjaayoun-Hasbaya) 1 4 4 6.35%

ResultsEdit

In a statement issued in the evening of 7 May, Interior Minister Nohad Machnouk promised to release full election result within 36–48 hours.[70] In his statement, he announced "final, yet incomplete" official results, providing the names of elected parliamentarians from 14 out of 15 electoral districts.[71][72][73] On May 8, Machnouk announced the names of the victorious candidates from Akkar.[74]

Following the announcement of results, the FPM leader Gebran Bassil stated that FPM would form the largest bloc in parliament (a role previously played by the Future Movement). Bassil stated that FPM would gather up to 30 MPs, including Talal Arslan, Tashnaqs and "businessmen".[75]

Results by alliance and partiesEdit

Disclaimer: This listing uses a narrow definition of party votes, the preference votes cast for identified party candidates. For an overview of the voting percentages of the lists supported by different parties, see "Results by lists" table below.
Party Candidates Votes % Seats won +/–
Amal-Hezbollah and allies 45
    Hezbollah 14 296,090 16.83 13  1
    Amal 10 165,556 9.41 10  1
    Pro-Amal Independents[i] 6 38,643 2.20 6  2
    Marada Movement 8 31,206 1.77 3  0
    Syrian Social Nationalist Party 8 23,881 1.36 3  1
    Pro-8 march Independents[ii] 10 47,130 2.68 2  2
    Arab Liberation Party 7 22,752 1.29 2  2
    El Khazen Bloc 4 10,029 0.57 2 New
    Al-Ahbash 3 18,759 1.07 1  1
    Union Party 1 15,111 0.86 1  1
    Popular Nasserist Organization 2 9,916 0.56 1  1
    Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region 2 7,171 0.41 1  0
Free Patriotic Movement and allies 29
    Free Patriotic Movement 29 142,002 8.07 18  8
    Pro-FPM independents[iii] 31 98,488 5.60 6  2
    Armenian Revolutionary Federation 4 13,726 0.78 3  1
    Lebanese Democratic Party 6 13,714 0.78 1  1
    Independence Movement 2 8,680 0.49 1  1
Future Movement and allies 20
    Future Movement 24 176,490 10.03 13  11
    Pro-Future independents[iv] 19 79,602 4.53 7  2
Lebanese Forces and allies 15
    Lebanese Forces 17 128,712 7.32 12  7
    Pro-LF independents[v] 25 33,366 1.90 3
Others:
Progressive Socialist Party 11 88,268 5.02 9  2
Azm Movement 11 39,586 2.25 4  2
Kataeb Party 20 34,147 1.94 3  2
Murr Bloc 4 12,866 0.73 1  0
National Dialogue Party 9 14,777 0.84 1 New
Civil Society Movement Sabaa/Party 105 45,104 2.55 1 New
Al-Jama'a Al-Islamiyya 5 14,583 0.83 0  1
Rifi Bloc 26 14,278 0.81 0 New
Popular Bloc 6 8,718 0.50 0  0
Lebanese Communist Party 8 7,105 0.40 0  0
Arab Unification Party 2 7,664 0.44 0  0
National Liberal Party 4 1,837 0.10 0  1
Solidarity Party (Lebanon) 1 3,861 0.22 0  0
Hunchak 1 1,566 0.09 0  2
People's Movement 2 671 0.04 0  0
Ramgavar 3 616 0.04 0  1
Al-Mourabitoun 1 127 0.01 0  0
Democratic Left Movement 2 1,046 0.06 0  1
Others and Independents 145 81,224 4.62 0  13
Total votes 597 1,759,068 100 128
Blank Votes - 15,029 -
Votes with No Preferences - 48,197 -
Total Votes Including Blank votes, No preferences votes - 1,822,294 -
Votes Not Counted - 38,909 -
Total Registers in Lebanon who voted in the Elections - 1,861,203 49.68
Total Registers in Lebanon - 3,746,746 100 Source:[76][77]
  1. ^ Includes votes of elected candidates: Michel Moussa, Ibrahim Azar, Yassin Jaber, Fady Alameh, Ali Assayran and Anwar El Khalil
  2. ^ Includes votes of elected candidates: Jamil Al Sayyed, Eddie Damrajian
  3. ^ Pro-FPM independents includes elected candidates Elie Ferzli, Chamel Roukoz, Michel Daher, Neemat Frem, Mustapha Hussein and Farid Bustani
  4. ^ Comparison with 2009 March 14 independents. Pro-Future independents includes elected candidates Tamam Salam, Nazih Najem, Mohammad Kabbara, Walid Baarini, Mohammad Sleiman, Mohammad Keraawi and Henri Chadid
  5. ^ Pro-LF independents include elected candidates Ziad Hawwat, Jean Talouzian and Cesar Maalouf

Result by listsEdit

List Electoral district Votes % nationwide % of electoral district Seats Members elected Parties
"Hope and Loyalty" (South III) South III 193,224 10.60 85.58 11 Amal-Hezbollah-SSNP
"Hope and Loyalty" (Bekaa III) Bekaa III 140,747 7.72 75.24 8 Amal-Hezbollah-Solidarity-SSNP
"Hope and Loyalty" (South II) South II 134,068 7.36 91.02 7 Amal-Hezbollah
"Reconciliation" Mount Lebanon IV 98,967 5.43 58.00 9 PSP-Future-LF
"Future for Akkar" North I 76,452 4.20 57.31 5 Future-LF
"Future for Beirut" Beirut II 62,970 3.46 43.78 6 Future-PSP
"Strong Lebanon" Mount Lebanon I 54,544 2.99 47.18 4 FPM
"Future for the North" North II 51,937 2.85 35.47 5 Future
"Unity of Beirut" Beirut II 47,087 2.58 32.74 4 Hezbollah-Amal-Al-Ahbash-FPM-IAF
"Determination" North II 42,019 2.31 28.70 4 Azm Movement
"With Us for the North and Lebanon" North III 40,788 2.24 35.22 4 Harb-Marada-SSNP
"National Reconciliation" Mount Lebanon III 40,669 2.23 51.83 4 FPM-Hezbollah-Amal-LDP
"Mountain Pledge" Mount Lebanon IV 39,027 2.14 22.87 4 LDP-FPM-SSNP
"Strong Metn" Mount Lebanon II 38,897 2.13 43.03 4 FPM-SSNP-Tashnaq
"Strong Republic Pulse" North III 37,376 2.05 32.28 3 LF-Kataeb-DLM
"Zahle for All" Bekaa I 36,391 2.00 39.70 3 Future-FPM
"Dignity and Development" Bekaa III 35,607 1.95 19.03 2 Future-LF
"Strong Akkar" North I 34,430 1.89 25.81 2 JI-FPM-LPM
"Strong North" North III 33,342 1.83 28.79 3 FPM-IM
"Best Tomorrow" Bekaa II 32,578 1.79 49.00 3 Amal-Lebanese Arab Struggle
"Future for West Bekaa" Bekaa II 31,817 1.75 47.86 3 Future-PSP
"National Dignity" North II 29,101 1.60 19.88 2 Karami-Ahbash-Marada
"Clear Change" Mount Lebanon I 26,980 1.48 23.34 2 LF-NLP
"Unity and Development of Baabda" Mount Lebanon III 26,500 1.45 33.77 2 LF-PSP
"Zahle Options and Decisions" Bekaa I 23,546 1.29 25.69 2 Fattouch-SSNP-Hezbollah
"For All People" South I 22,083 1.21 33.59 2 PNO-Independents
"Saida and Jezzine Together" South I 20,127 1.10 30.62 2 Bizri-JI-FPM
"Pulse Metn" Mount Lebanon II 19,003 1.04 21.02 2 Kataeb-NLP-Green
"Zahle is Our Cause" Bekaa I 18,702 1.03 20.40 2 LF-Kataeb
"Anna al-Qarar" Mount Lebanon I 18,553 1.02 16.05 2 Kataeb
"Strong Beirut I" Beirut I 18,373 1.01 42.08 4 FPM-Tashnaq-Hunchak-Union for Lebanon, supported by Future
"The South is Worth It" South III 17,058 0.94 7.55 0 LDP, supported by Future and FPM
"Beirut I" Beirut I 16,772 0.92 38.41 3 LF-Kataeb-Pharaon-Ramgavar
"Integration and Dignity" South I 16,470 0.90 25.05 1 Future-Independents
"Lebnan Herzen" Beirut II 15,773 0.87 10.97 1
"Decision for Akkar" North I 14,449 0.79 10.83 0 APG-SSNP-Marada
"Metn Loyalty" Mount Lebanon II 13,779 0.76 15.24 1 Murr-SSNP (Intifada)
"Metn Heart of Lebanon" Mount Lebanon II 13,138 0.72 14.53 1 LF-Ramgavar
"National Unity" Mount Lebanon IV 12,796 0.70 7.50 0 AUP-Toilers League
"National Solidarity" Mount Lebanon I 12,551 0.69 10.86 0 Hezbollah-Independents
"Together for Change" South II 11,481 0.63 7.79 0 LCP-Independents
"Popular Bloc" Bekaa I 10,885 0.60 11.87 0
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Mount Lebanon IV) Mount Lebanon IV 9,987 0.55 5.85 0 Civil society-LCP
"Sovereign Lebanon" (North II) North II 9,656 0.53 6.59 0 Rifi
"Beirut al-Watan" Beirut II 7,475 0.41 5.20 0 Salah Salam-JI
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Beirut I) Beirut I 6,842 0.38 15.67 1 Saaba-You Stink-Sah-LiBaladi
"Capacity of Change" South I 6,238 0.34 9.49 0 LF-Kataeb-March 11
"We are All Beirut" Beirut II 6,174 0.34 4.29 0
"A Vote for Change" South III 5,895 0.32 2.61 0 LCP-Independents
"Together for Baabda" Mount Lebanon III 5,768 0.32 7.35 0 Kataeb
"Independent" Bekaa III 5,470 0.30 2.92 0
"Free Decision" Mount Lebanon IV 5,446 0.30 3.19 0 Kataeb-NLP
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Mount Lebanon II) Mount Lebanon II 5,027 0.28 5.56 0 Saaba-Citizens in the State
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Mount Lebanon III) Mount Lebanon III 4,992 0.27 6.36 0 Saaba-Citizens in the State
"Sovereign Lebanon" (North I) North I 4,713 0.26 3.53 0 Rifi
"Shibna Hakki" South III 4,710 0.26 2.09 0 LF-Independents
"Independent Decision" North II 4,184 0.23 2.86 0 Ahdab-JI
"People's Decision" North II 4,122 0.23 2.82 0 FPM-Kheir
"Development and Change" Bekaa III 4,053 0.22 2.17 0 LCP-Independents
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (North III) North III 3,160 0.17 2.73 0 Saaba-Citizens in the State
"Civic" Mount Lebanon IV 2,916 0.16 1.71 0
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (North II) North II 2,680 0.15 1.83 0 Civil society-Lebanon Vanguard
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Mount Lebanon I) Mount Lebanon I 2,526 0.14 2.18 0 Civil society-LCP
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (South III) South III 2,262 0.12 1.00 0 Saaba
"Decision of Akkar" North I 2,032 0.11 1.52 0 Resistance Movement
"Kulluna Watani" (We are all National) (Bekaa I) Bekaa I 1,599 0.09 1.74 0
"Civil Society" Bekaa II 1,546 0.08 2.33 0
"Voice of the People" Beirut II 1,339 0.07 0.93 0 Mourabitoun-People's Movement-SSNP (Intifada)
"We are Beirut" Beirut I 1,272 0.07 2.91 0
"Dignity of Beirut" Beirut II 971 0.05 0.68 0
"We Change" South III 659 0.04 0.29 0 Lebanese Option
"Beiruti Opposition" Beirut II 553 0.03 0.38 0 Rifi
"Women of Akkar" North I 498 0.03 0.37 0
"National Cedars" Bekaa III 491 0.03 0.26 0 Kataeb
"Independent Civil Society" North II 448 0.02 0.31 0
"Birutah al-Mustaqilin" Beirut II 410 0.02 0.29 0
"Loyalty to Beirut" Beirut I 94 0.01 0.22 0
Blank votes 15,029 0.82
Total 1,822,294 100.00 128
Source:[77]

ReactionsEdit

DomesticEdit

Prime Minister Saad Hariri, commenting on the election result the day after the election, admitted that his Future Movement had lost 12 seats,[78][79] but reaffirmed that "[t]hose who won in parliamentary elections are our partners in the principle of stability" and that he was satisfied with the outcome.[80] Hezbollah Secretary-General Hassan Nasrallah said the outcome was "a great moral and political victory for Hezbollah, which protects the country" and that "proportionality vote law offered all political factions the opportunity to represent themselves in the elections, mitigated the risks of exclusion from Lebanon’s political structure, and assured all sides that they will have a role in the administration." He further added: "The United States and some Persian Gulf states resorted to smear campaign in a bid to poison public opinion towards Hezbollah. Their efforts, however, ended in failure...No one in the world can target Hezbollah as it has firm support among various strata of the Lebanese society. Towns and cities in southern Lebanon have served as the resistance front in the face of threats being poised by the Israeli regime and terrorist groups. Enemies’ plots to undermine Hezbollah popularity in those regions have yielded nothing...We must avoid any sectarian or inflammatory speech similar to those delivered before the elections if we want to avoid any conflict in the country."[81]

InternationalEdit

  •   Iran – Foreign Ministry Spokesman Bahram Qassemi congratulated the Lebanese government and people. He added: ""The Islamic Republic of Iran believes that the holding of peaceful elections under the current circumstances in the region is regarded as a big achievement in the democratic trend for all Lebanese people."[82]
  •   Israel – Education Minister Naftali Bennett wrote on Twitter: "Hezbollah = Lebanon...[Israel] will not differentiate between the sovereign State of Lebanon and Hezbollah, and will view Lebanon as responsible for any action from within its territory."[83]
  •   Saudi Arabia and   United Arab Emirates – According to Naharnet, the Emirati ambassador and the Saudi chargé d'affaires in Beirut issued a joint statement congratulating Samir Geagea on his electoral victory, after visiting him im Mearab, Mount Lebanon.[84]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Lebanon's deadlocked parliament postpones June election". Reuters. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Lebanese lawmakers delay elections, sparking dismay, anger among voters". Washington Post. 5 November 2014. Retrieved 18 November 2014.
  3. ^ "Lebanon Cabinet agrees to May elections, refers vote law to Parliament". The Daily Star. 14 June 2017.
  4. ^ "Lebanese rivals continue battles over Syria". Al Jazeera. 22 August 2012. Retrieved 10 March 2013.
  5. ^ Electoral system Inter-Parliamentary Union
  6. ^ Lebanon passing parliamentary law is a step in right direction Gulf News, 16 June 2017
  7. ^ Table Attached to Law 44 dated 17/6/2017 (Official Gazette no.27 dated 17 June 2017) - Distribution of Seats to the Confessions and Districts ACE Project
  8. ^ Gulf News. Lebanon to hold parliamentary elections in May 2018
  9. ^ "REPORT: Elections candidates submit applications one day prior to deadline".
  10. ^ a b Naharnet. Record Number of Women Register to Run in Parliamentary Elections
  11. ^ a b 77 لائحة تُقصي 334 مرشحاً: لبنان إلى الانتخابات Al-Akhbar
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j الدوائر الانتخابية: بالارقام والنسب عدد الناخبين واسماء المرشحين للانتخابات النيابية اللبنانية 2018. Ministry of Information
  13. ^ a b c d دراسة نقدية في قانون الانتخاب النسبي. Lebanon Files
  14. ^ Messerlian, Zaven. Armenian Participation in the Lebanese Legislative Elections 1934–2009. Beirut: Haigazian University Press, 2014. p. 487
  15. ^ الانتخابات في 6 أيار وفق 15 دائرة وصوت تفضيلي محصور على مستوى القضاء شمس الدين:القانون الجديد نسبي لكن ملبنن إذ ان الواقع الديمغرافي يترك تأثيره. National News Agency
  16. ^ a b c kataeb.org. Berri Announces Amal Movement's Candidates, Platform for May Polls
  17. ^ Al-Manar. Sayyed Nasrallah Speaks in “Loyalty to Victory” Ceremony
  18. ^ a b c d e 13 لائحة في البقاع: أم معارك حزب الله. Al-Modon
  19. ^ صور- الزهراني: المعارضة تواجه الثنائي بلائحة موحدة Al-Modon
  20. ^ a b 6 لوائح معارضة في الجنوب الثانية والثالثة: ضد المحدلة Al-Modon
  21. ^ The Arab Weekly. Out with the old, in with the new: Lebanon’s elections promise changing of the guard
  22. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference baabda1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  23. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference beirutII5 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  24. ^ The National. In Lebanon's election, one man's place in parliament is certain
  25. ^ Annahar. Elections 2018: Hezbollah, Amal to maintain tight grip in south district
  26. ^ a b c d e L'Orient Le Jour. Les slogans électoraux de 2018 : un gros flop ?
  27. ^ Cite error: The named reference batroun1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  28. ^ Cite error: The named reference jbeil1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  29. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference metn1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  30. ^ a b c Cite error: The named reference beirutI1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  31. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference akkar1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  32. ^ Cite error: The named reference saida1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  33. ^ Cite error: The named reference saida2 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  34. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference trip1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  35. ^ Al-Sharq al-Awsat. Confusion in Lebanon’s Baalbek-Hermel Benefits Hezbollah, Amal
  36. ^ Cite error: The named reference southIII18 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  37. ^ a b National News Agency. Hariri announces Future Movement candidates: Vote for our lists to protect Lebanon's stability, economy, sovereignty and Arabism
  38. ^ L'Orient Le Jour. Le Futur annonce ses candidats : 37 noms dont 21 nouveaux
  39. ^ a b 128Lebanon. Brief on the Lebanese Election: Speculations Rise as Deadline Nears
  40. ^ Annahar. LF and Future Movement talks over electoral alliance hit a dead end
  41. ^ a b Cite error: The named reference hzb1 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  42. ^ a b c Al-Manar. Sayyed Nasrallah Announces Hezbollah Electoral Platform: Combating Corruption Priority
  43. ^ Daily Star. LF announce 19 candidates, 20 allies on their lists
  44. ^ Reuters. Lebanon's Jumblatt affirms son as political heir
  45. ^ Daily Star. Jumblatt to step down as PSP announces candidates
  46. ^ Daily Star. What to watch for in every electoral region in Lebanon
  47. ^ رفعت عيد يهدد بقلب المعادلة. Safir al-Chamal
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  49. ^ a b Naharnet. Lebanese Democratic Party Withdraws Candidate from Electoral Race
  50. ^ Odiaspora. Moawad allies with the Free Patriotic Movement in North III.
  51. ^ a b c L'Orient Le Jour. Lancement officiel des neuf listes de « Koullouna Watani »
  52. ^ نداء من حزب الرامغفار مع اقتراب موعد الانتخابات النيابية. Addiyar
  53. ^ Cite error: The named reference weekend was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  54. ^ Hayern Aysor. Lebanese-Armenian figures congratulate the Armenian Army on its 25th anniversary (video)
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  56. ^ Cite error: The named reference metn4 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  57. ^ a b The Region. Tensions rise as Hariri and Rifi compete for the Lebanese sunni-vote
  58. ^ Gulf News. Rifi emerges as new Sunni leader in Lebanon
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  60. ^ Cite error: The named reference rifizahle was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  61. ^ "القومي" يعلن عن مرشحيه في 7 دوائر معاهداً العمل للبنان المواطنة والعدالة. Al Markazia
  62. ^ جناح الانتفاضة بـ"القومي": لن نجير أصواتنا للسلطة . Lebanon Debate
  63. ^ LBCi. REPORT: Tashnag declares candidates in Metn and Beirut
  64. ^ Horizon Weekly. ARF Lebanon Central Committee anounces Parliamentary Candidates
  65. ^ a b IMLebanon. Zahlé, une bataille charnière qui gagne tous les jours en fièvre
  66. ^ 77 لائحة انتخابية من بين 917 مرشحا... وهذه الالوان المعتمدة Annahar
  67. ^ Ya Libnan. 2 Blocs Begin to Emerge ahead of Lebanese Parliamentary Elections
  68. ^ "Record number of Lebanese women running for office". www.aljazeera.com.
  69. ^ Percentage given per electoral district level, not minor district level.
  70. ^ L'Orient Le Jour. Machnouk promet les résultats complets des législatives « dans les 36 à 48 heures »
  71. ^ Naharnet. Mashnouq Announces 'Final Yet Incomplete' Election Results
  72. ^ النتائج الرسمية (باستثناء عكار). Al-Akhbar
  73. ^ بالأسماء... نتائج الانتخابات النيابية الرسمية والنهائية في 14 دائرة. Annahar
  74. ^ بالأسماء.. المشنوق يعلن نتائج عكار الانتخابية. Al-Mustaqbal
  75. ^ Naharnet. Bassil Says FPM to Have Biggest Bloc in Parliament
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  77. ^ a b نتائج الإنتخابات النيابية العامة 2018. Ministry of Interior and Municipalities
  78. ^ "PressTV-Hezbollah, allies make major gains in Lebanon elections".
  79. ^ "PressTV-Lebanon's PM Hariri acknowledges election loss".
  80. ^ Naharnet. Hariri Says Mustaqbal Defeated 'Elimination' Bid, Hits Back at Israeli Minister
  81. ^ "PressTV-'Election results, great victory for resistance'".
  82. ^ "PressTV-'Lebanon vote big victory for nation, political factions'". Presstv.com. 7 May 2018. Retrieved 31 August 2018.
  83. ^ Hezbollah, allies make major gains in Lebanon elections Press TV, 7 May 2018
  84. ^ Naharnet. Shamsi, Bukhari Congratulate Geagea on 'Win' in Elections