A nazar (from Arabic نظر /na.ðˁa.ra/, word deriving from Phoenician, meaning sight, surveillance, attention, and other related concepts) is an eye-shaped amulet believed to protect against the evil eye. Hindi, Urdu and Persian have borrowed the term as well. In Turkey, it is known by the name nazar boncuğu (the latter word being a derivative of boncuk, "bead", and the former borrowed from Arabic) and historically as mâvi boncuk or Old Turkic: gökçe munçuk, both meaning "blue bead". In Persian and Afghan folklore, it is called a cheshm nazar (Persian: چشم نظر) or nazar ghorboni (Persian: نظرقربونی). In India and Pakistan, the Hindi-Urdu slogan Chashm-e-Baddoor is used to ward off the evil eye. The earliest example of its use as an amulet comes from the Phoenician people, the ancestors of modern Lebanese and Syrians.
In such cultures, it is believed that if a person is complimented a lot, the evil eye will cause them to be sick the next day unless a phrase such as "With the power of God" is said. In South Asia, when a mother observes that her child is being excessively complimented, it is common for them to attempt to neutralize the effects of the evil eye (nazar utarna) by "holding red chillies in one hand and circling the child's head a few times, then burning the chillies."
A typical nazar is made of handmade glass featuring concentric circles or teardrop shapes in dark blue, white, light blue and black, occasionally with a yellow/gold edge.
As a legacy of the Turkish Ottoman Empire,[dubious ] it is a common sight in Turkey, Macedonia, Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Greece, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Egypt, Armenia, Iran, India, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq and Azerbaijan,[dubious ] where the nazar is often hung in homes, offices, cars, children's clothing, or incorporated in jewellery and ornaments. They are a popular choice of souvenir with tourists.
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The Turkish boncuk (sometimes called a göz boncuğu 'eye bead') is a glass bead characterized by a blue glass field with a blue or black dot superimposed on a white or yellow center. Historically old, the blue bead has gained importance as an item of popular culture in Modern Turkey. The bead probably originated in the Mediterranean and is associated with the development of glass making. Written documents and extant beads date as early as the 16th century BC. Glass beads were made and widely used throughout the ancient world: from Mesopotamia to Egypt, from Carthage and Phoenicia to Persia, and throughout the Roman imperial period.
The eye bead is a kind of glass art based on nazar in Turkey. This art has changed very little for thousands of years. The 3,000-year-old antique Mediterranean glass art lives in these eye bead furnaces with its every detail.
The roots of the very few glass evil eye bead masters that still practice this tradition go back to the Arabian artisans who settled in Izmir and its towns during the decline of the Ottoman Empire by the end of the 19th century. The glass art that had lost its glamour in Anatolia, combined with the eye sign, was enlivened. The masters who practised their arts at Araphan and Kemeraltı districts of Izmir were exiled due to the disturbance of the smoke from their furnace and risk of fire in the neighbourhood.
Other uses and popular cultureEdit
It was also used in the logo of the 2013 FIFA U-20 World Cup events.
Nazar on a newborn baby's hospital room's door in Turkey.
- Khan, Abdul Jamil (2006). Urdu/Hindi: An Artificial Divide: African Heritage, Mesopotamian Roots, Indian Culture & British Colonialism. Algora Publishing. p. 138. ISBN 9780875864389.
Arabic verbs have generated an enormous number of words for Urdu/Hindi as well as Persian. ... The word nazar, meaning eye, or sight, is part of the cultural idiom -- <nazar lag jana>, meaning "evil eye's effect," and is used in the whole subcontinent.
- . There is uncertainty about the spelling. Moncuk, monçug, muncug, monsak, and similar variations have all been seen.
- M.Moin: A Persian Dictionary, 3rd edition, p. 4752 (in Persian).
- South Asian Cinema, Volume 1, Issue 1. South Asian Cinema Foundation. 2001. p. 61.
- Giger, Joyce Newman (29 January 2016). Transcultural Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 351. ISBN 9780323400046.
- Shankar, Vijay N. (20 August 2014). Shadow Boxing with the Gods. Leadstart Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 9789381836804.
- Valsiner, Jaan (2 February 2000). Culture and Human Development. SAGE Publications. p. 182. ISBN 9780761956846.
In Rajastan (India) the treatment of the 'evil eye' includes seven red chilis and some salt circled over the head of the sick child before these are thrown into the hearth.
- Lonely Planet Middle East.Lonely Planet; 6 edition, 2009, p. 559.
- Stoltz, Dustin (May 26, 2012). "The Evil Eye and Mountain Karma in Azerbaijan". www.dustinstoltz.com.
- Ronald T. Marchese (2005). The Fabric of Life: Cultural Transformations in Turkish Society. pp. 103–107.
- Media related to Nazar boncuğu at Wikimedia Commons