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Parliament of Lebanon

Coordinates: 33°53′48.39″N 35°30′13.69″E / 33.8967750°N 35.5038028°E / 33.8967750; 35.5038028

Lebanese Parliament
مجلس النواب
Chambre des députés
Type
Type
Leadership
Nabih Berri, Amal Movement
since October 20, 1992
Deputy Speaker
Structure
Seats128
Lebanon Parliament 2018.png
Political groups
March 8 Alliance (71)

March 14 Alliance (48)

Unaffiliated (9)

Elections
Last election
6 May 2018
Next election
2022
Meeting place
BeirutParliament.jpg
Lebanese Parliament, Beirut, Lebanon
Website
lp.gov.lb

The Parliament of Lebanon (Arabic: مجلس النوابMajlis an-Nuwwab; French: Chambre des députés)[1] is the national parliament of Lebanon. There are 128 members elected to a four-year term in multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse Christian and Muslim denominations but with half of the seats reserved for Christians per Constitutional Article 24[2][circular reference]. Lebanon has universal adult suffrage. Its major functions are to elect the President of the republic, to approve the government (although appointed by the President, the Prime Minister, along with the Cabinet, must retain the confidence of a majority in the Parliament), and to approve laws and expenditure.

On 15 May 2013, the Parliament extended its mandate for 17 months, due to the deadlock over the electoral law. And, on 5 November 2014, the Parliament enacted another extension, thus keeping its mandate for an additional 31 months, until 20 June 2017,[3] and in 16 June 2017 the Parliament in turn extended its own mandate an additional 11 months to hold elections according to a much-anticipated reformed electoral law. On May 6, 2018, a new parliament was elected in the 2018 general election, thus ending the mandate of the 2009 parliament who extended it for about 5 years.

Parliament buildingEdit

The Parliament building was designed by Mardiros Altounian, who was also the architect of the Étoile clock tower. The building was completed in 1934 during the French Mandate period. Advised to build in the spirit of Lebanese tradition, the architect visited the Emirs' palaces in the Chouf Mountains. He also drew inspiration from the Oriental styles developed in Paris, Istanbul and Cairo at the turn of the 20th century. The building combines Beaux-Arts design with elements taken from local architectural tradition, including twin and triple arch windows. The limestone façade, decorated with recessed panels, arched openings, and tiers of stalactites clads a reinforced concrete frame that also supports the 20-meter diameter cupola covering the chamber of deputies. It represented a major technical achievement at that time.

Allocation of seatsEdit

A unique feature of the Lebanese system is the principle of "confessional distribution": each religious community has an allotted number of deputies in the Parliament.

In elections held between 1932 and 1972 (the last till after the Lebanese Civil War), seats were apportioned between Christians and Muslims in a 6:5 ratio, with various denominations of the two faiths allocated representation roughly proportional to their size. By the 1960s, Muslims had become openly dissatisfied with this system, aware that their own higher birthrate and the higher emigration rate among Christians had by this time almost certainly produced a Muslim majority, which the parliamentary distribution did not reflect. Christian politicians were unwilling to abolish or alter the system, however, and it was one of the factors in the 1975–1990 civil war. The Taif Agreement of 1989, which ended the civil war, reapportioned the Parliament to provide for equal representation of Christians and Muslims, with each electing 64 of the 128 deputies. {Of which are 43 Catholics (33.5 %) , 27 Sunni (21%) , 27 Shiite (21%) , 20 Orthodox ( 15.6 %), 8 Druze (6.2%) , 2 Alawites (1.5%) and 1 Evangelical (0.8%)}

Although distributed confessionally, all members, regardless of their religious faith, are elected by universal suffrage, forcing politicians to seek support from outside of their own religious communities, unless their co-religionists overwhelmingly dominate their particular constituency.

The changes stipulated by the Taif Agreement are set out in the table below*:

Parliament of Lebanon Seat Allocation
Confession Before Taif After Taif
Maronite Catholic 30 34
Eastern Orthodox 11 14
Melkite Catholic 6 8
Armenian Orthodox 4 5
Armenian Catholic 1 1
Protestant 1 1
Other Christian Minorities 1 1
Total Christians 54 64
Sunni 20 27
Shi'ite 19 27
Alawite 0 2
Druze 6 8
Total Muslims + Druze 45 64
Total 99 128
Allocation of seats in the 2009 election for the Parliament of Lebanon

according to the Doha Agreement

Total Maronites Shi'a Sunni Greek Orthodox Druze Armenian Greek Catholic Alawite Protestant Minorities
Beirut 19 Beirut 1 5 1 - - 1 - 2 1 - - -
Beirut 2 4 - 1 1 - - 2 - - - -
Beirut 3 10 - 1 5 1 1 - - - 1 1
Bekaa 23 Bekaa+Hermel 10 1 6 2 - - - 1 - - -
Zahlah 7 1 1 1 1 - 1 2 - - -
Rashaya+West Bekaa 6 1 1 2 1 1 - - - - -
Mount Lebanon 35 Jbeil 3 2 1 - - - - - - - -
Kisrawan 5 5 - - - - - - - - -
North Metn 8 4 - - 2 - 1 1 - - -
Baabda 6 3 2 - - 1 - - - - -
Aley 5 2 - - 1 2 - - - - -
Chouf 8 3 - 2 - 2 - 1 - - -
North Lebanon 28 Akkar 7 1 - 3 2 - - - 1 - -
Dinniyeh & Minieh 3 - - 3 - - - - - - -
Bsharreh 2 2 - - - - - - - - -
Tripoli 8 1 - 5 1 - - - 1 - -
Zgharta 3 3 - - - - - - - - -
Kurah 3 - - - 3 - - - - - -
Batrun 2 2 - - - - - - - - -
South Lebanon 23 Saida 2 - - 2 - - - - - - -
Tyre 4 - 4 - - - - - - - -
Zahrani 3 - 2 - - - - 1 - - -
Hasbaya & Marjeyoun 5 - 2 1 1 1 - - - - -
Nabatiyeh 3 - 3 - - - - - - - -
Bint Jbeil 3 - 3 - - - - - - - -
Jezzine 3 2 - - - - - 1 - - -
Total 128 128 34 27 27 14 8 6 8 2 1 1
Name Election Area Political Affiliation Relgion Bloc Votes Bloc Votes Election Area Votes
Abdel Rahim Youssef Mrad BEKAA 2      Union Party Sunni Better Tomorrow 15,111 32,578 68,227/143,812
Adnan Khodor Traboulsi BEIRUT 2      Al-Ahbash Sunni Beirut’s Unity 13,018 47,087 147,801/353,420
Akram Hussein Sheyab MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Reconciliation 14,088 98,967 173,320/329,870
Al Amir Talal Al Amir Majid Irslan MOUNT LEBANON 6      Lebanese Democratic Party Druz Mount Lebanon’s Guaranteed change 7,887 39,027 173,320/329,881
Alain Joseph Aoun MOUNT LEBANON 3      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite National Accord 10,200 40,669 80,052/166,137
Albert Sami Mansour BEKAA 3      Syrian Social Nationalist Party Greek Catholic Hope and Loyalty 5881 140,747 190,268/315,648
Alexandre Abraham Matossian BEIRUT 1      Tashnag Armenian Orthodox Strong Beirut One 539 18,373 44,714/134,739
Ali Adel Ossairan SOUTH 2      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 2,203 134,068 150,264/304,197
Ali Ahmad Bazz SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 9,290 193,224 228,563/460,575
Ali Ahmad Darwish NORTH 2      Amal Movement Alawite Determination 2,246 42,019 151,759/350,151
Ali Fadel Ammar MOUNT LEBANON 3      Hezbollah Shia National Accord 13,692 40,669 80,052/166,135
Ali Hassan Khalil SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 16,765 193,224 228,563/460,573
Ali Mohamad Salman Bachir El Mokdad BEKAA 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 17,321 140,747 190,268/315,649
Ali Rachid Fayad SOUTH 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 27,460 193,224 228,563/460,569
Ali Youssef Khreiss SOUTH 2      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 15,672 134,068 150,264/304,193
Amin Mohammad Sharri BEIRUT 2      Hezbollah Shia Beirut’s Unity 22,961 47,087 147,801/353,419
Anis Wadih Nassar MOUNT LEBANON 4      Lebanese Forces Greek Orthodox Reconciliation 7,872 98,967 173,320/329,876
Antoine Costantine Bano BEIRUT 1      Free Patriotic Movement Christian Minorities Beirut One 4,166 16,772 44,714/134,740
Antoine El Badaoui Habchi BEKAA 3      Lebanese Forces Maronite Dignity and Development 14,858 35,607 190,268/315,651
Anwar Hussein Joumaa BEKAA 1      Hezbollah Shia Zahle Choice & Decision 15,601 23,546 94,082/175,616
Anwar Mohamad El Khali SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Druz Hope and Loyalty 6,347 193,224 228,563/460,570
Assad Halim Hardan SOUTH 3      Syrian Social Nationalist Party Greek Orthodox Hope and Loyalty 3,321 193,224 228,563/460,574
Assad Ramez Dargham NORTH 1      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Orthodox Strong Akkar 7,435 34,430 136,947/283,795
Assem Fayez Araji BEKAA 1      Future Movement Sunni Zahle for Everyone 7,224 36,391 94,082/175,614
Ayoub Fahed Hmayid SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 7,875 193,224 228,563/460,568
Bahia Bahaa El din El Hariri SOUTH 1      Future Movement Sunni Integrity and Dignity 13,739 16,470 67,346/122,528
Baker Mahmoud El Houjairi BEKAA 3      Future Movement Sunni Dignity and Development 5,994 35,607 190,268/315,652
Bilal Ahmad Abdallah MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Sunni Reconciliation 8,492 98,967 173,320/329,873
Cesar Naim Risk El Maalouf BEKAA 1      Independent Greek Orthodox Zahle Our Cause 3,554 18,702 94,082/175,619
Cezar Raymond Abi Khalil MOUNT LEBANON 4      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Mount Lebanon’s Guaranteed change 8,124 39,027 173,320/329,879
Dima Mohamad Rachid El Jamali NORTH 2      Future Movement Sunni The Future is for the North 2,066 51,937 151,759/350,148
Eddy Bokhos Demerjian BEKAA 1      Independent Armenian Orthodox Zahle Choice & Decision 77 23,546 94,082/175,617
Edgard Boulos Maalouf MOUNT LEBANON 2      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Catholic Strong Metn 5,961 38,897 92,446/179,922
Edgard Joseph Traboulsi BEIRUT 2      Free Patriotic Movement Protestant Beirut’s Unity 1,919 47,087 147,801/353,422
Elias Nicolas Bou Saab MOUNT LEBANON 2      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Orthodox Strong Metn 7,299 38,897 92,446/179,919
Elias Rakif Hankash MOUNT LEBANON 2      Kataeb Maronite Metn Pulse 2,583 19,003 92,446/179,924
Elie Nagib Ferzli BEKAA 2      Independent Greek Orthodox Better Tomorrow 4,899 32,578 68,227/143,814
Estephan Boutros El Doueihy NORTH 3      Marada Maronite Together for North and Lebanon 5,435 40,788 117,811/249,416
Fadi Fakhri Alameh MOUNT LEBANON 3      Amal Movement Shia National Accord 6,348 40,669 80,052/166,138
Fadi Youssef Saad NORTH 3      Lebanese Forces Maronite Strong Republic Pulse 9,842 37,376 117,811/249,416
Faisal Afif Al Sayegh BEIRUT 2      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Future for Beirut 1,902 62,970 147,801/353,417
Farid Georges Philip Al Boustani MOUNT LEBANON 5      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Mount Lebanon’s Guaranteed change 2,657 39,027 173,320/329,880
Farid Haykal Al Khazen MOUNT LEBANON 1      Independent Maronite Decision is Ours 9,081 18,553 117,603/176,716
Fayez Michel Ghosn NORTH 3      Marada Greek Orthodox Together for North and Lebanon 4,224 40,788 117,811/249,416
Faysal Omar Karami NORTH 2      Arab Liberation Party Sunni National Dignity 7,126 29,101 151,759/350,154
Fouad Moustapha Makhzoumi BEIRUT 2      National Dialogue Party Sunni Lebanon is Worthy 11,346 15,773 147,801/353,423
Gebran Gergi Bassil NORTH 3      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Strong North 12,269 33,342 117,811/249,416
Georges Elie Okais BEKAA 1      Lebanese Forces Greek Catholic Zahle Our Cause 11,363 18,702 94,082/175,618
Georges Jamil Adwan MOUNT LEBANON 4      Lebanese Forces Maronite Reconciliation 9,956 98,967 173,320/329,871
Georges Naim Atallah NORTH 3      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Orthodox Strong North 3,383 33,342 117,811/249,416
Ghazy Mohamad Zeatir BEKAA 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 17,767 140,747 190,268/315,647
Hadi Fawzi Hobeich NORTH 1      Future Movement Maronite Future for Akkar 13,055 76,452 136,947/283,794
Hadi Mohammad Rafik Abou El Hassan MOUNT LEBANON 3      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Baabda Unity & Development 11,844 26,500 80,052/166,140
Hagop Mardrios Hambarsom Terezian BEIRUT 1      Tashnag Armenian Orthodox Strong Beirut One 2,376 18,373 44,714/134,738
Hagop Ohanes Hagop Bakradonian MOUNT LEBANON 2      Tashnag Armenian Orthodox Strong Metn 7,182 38,897 92,446/179,920
Hani Hassan Kobaisi SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 20,504 193,224 228,563/460,571
Hassan Nizamddine Fadlallah SOUTH 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 39,722 193,224 228,563/460,567
Henri Pierre El Helou MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Maronite Reconciliation 7,894 98,967 173,320/329,875
Henry Youssef Chedid BEKAA 2      Independent Maronite Future for W. Bekaa and Rashaya 1,584 31,817 68,227/143,816
Hikmat Faraj Dib MOUNT LEBANON 3      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite National Accord 4,428 40,669 80,052/166,136
Hussein Ali El Hajj Hassan BEKAA 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 15,662 140,747 190,268/315,644
Hussein Said Jechi SOUTH 2      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 23,864 134,068 150,264/304,196
Ibrahim Ali El Mousawi BEKAA 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 16,942 140,747 190,268/315,650
Ibrahim Samir Azar SOUTH 1      Independent Maronite For Everyone 11,663 22,083 67,346/122,524
Ibrahim Youssef Kenaan MOUNT LEBANON 2      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Strong Metn 7,179 38,897 92,446/179,921
Ihab Arwa Hmade BEKAA 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 18,404 140,747 190,268/315,645
Imad Naim Wakim BEIRUT 1      Lebanese Forces Greek Orthodox Kulluna Watani 2,500 6,842 44,714/134,743
Inaya Mohamad Eizzidine SOUTH 2      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 18,815 134,068 150,264/304,198
Jamil Mohamad Amin Amin El Sayed BEKAA 3      Independent Shia Hope and Loyalty 33,223 140,747 190,268/315,643
Jean Arshak Talozian BEIRUT 1      Lebanese Forces Armenian Catholic Beirut One 4,096 16,772 44,714/134,741
Jean Badawi Obeid NORTH 2      Independent Maronite Determination 1,136 42,019 151,759/350,152
Jihad Mourched El Samad NORTH 2      Independent Sunni National Dignity 11,897 29,101 151,759/350,153
Joseph Gerges Ishak NORTH 3      Lebanese Forces Maronite Strong Republic Pulse 5,990 37,376 117,811/249,416
Kassem Omar Hachem SOUTH 3      Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Lebanon Region Sunni Hope and Loyalty 6,012 193,224 228,563/460,572
Majed Eddy Faek Abi Lamaa MOUNT LEBANON 2      Lebanese Forces Maronite Metn Heart of Lebanon 8,922 13,138 92,446/179,926
Mario Aziz Aoun MOUNT LEBANON 7      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Mount Lebanon’s Guaranteed change 5,124 39,027 173,320/329,882
Marwan Mohammad Hmadeh MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Reconciliation 7,266 98,967 173,320/329,877
Michel Elias El Morr MOUNT LEBANON 2      Independent Greek Orthodox Metn Loyalty 11,945 13,779 92,446/179,925
Michel Georges Daher BEKAA 1      Independent Greek Catholic Zahle for Everyone 9,742 36,391 94,082/175,613
Michel Hanna Moussa SOUTH 2      Amal Movement Greek Catholic Hope and Loyalty 4,162 134,068 150,264/304,195
Michel Rene Mouawad NORTH 3      Independence Movement Maronite Strong North 8,571 33,342 117,811/249,416
Mohamad Dib Nasrallah BEKAA 2      Amal Movement Shia Better Tomorrow 8,897 32,578 68,227/143,813
Mohamad Hassan Raad SOUTH 3      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 43,797 193,224 228,563/460,565
Mohamad Kassem El Karaaoui BEKAA 2      Future Movement Sunni Future for W. Bekaa and Rashaya 8,768 31,817 68,227/143,817
Mohamad Nagib Azmi Mikati NORTH 2      Azm Movement Sunni Determination 21,300 42,019 151,759/350,149
Mohamad Tarek Talal El Merehbi NORTH 1      Future Movement Sunni Future for Akkar 14,145 76,452 136,947/283,793
Mohamd Abdel Latif Kabbara NORTH 2      Future Movement Sunni The Future is for the North 9,600 51,937 151,759/350,145
Mohamd Moustafa Sleiman NORTH 1      Future Movement Sunni Future for Akkar 14,911 76,452 136,947/283,792
Mohammad Kassem Rachid Al Hajjar MOUNT LEBANON 4      Future Movement Sunni Reconciliation 10,003 98,967 173,320/329,874
Mohammad Moutapha Khawaja BEIRUT 2      Amal Movement Shia Beirut’s Unity 7,834 47,087 147,801/353,421
Moustafa Ali Hussein NORTH 1      Independent Alawite Strong Akkar 1,353 34,430 136,947/283,796
Moustapha Ali Al Hussein MOUNT LEBANON 1      Independent Shia Decision is Ours 256 18,553 117,603/176,717
Nabih Moustafa Berri SOUTH 2      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 42,137 134,068 150,264/304,192
Nadim Bachir Gemayel BEIRUT 1      Kataeb Maronite Beirut One 3,936 16,772 44,714/134,742
Nazih Nicolas Najem BEIRUT 2      Future Movement Greek Orthodox Future for Beirut 2,351 62,970 147,801/353,415
Nehme Georges Efrem MOUNT LEBANON 1      Independent Maronite Strong Lebanon 10,717 54,544 117,603/176,710
Nehme Youssef Tohme MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Greek Catholic Reconciliation 7,253 98,967 173,320/329,878
Nicolas Kamil Nahas NORTH 2      Azm Movement Greek Orthodox Determination 1,057 42,019 151,759/350,150
Nicolas Maurice Sehnaoui BEIRUT 1      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Catholic Strong Beirut One 3,451 18,373 44,714/134,737
Nouaf Mahmoud El Mousawi SOUTH 2      Hezbollah Shia Hope and Loyalty 24,379 134,068 150,264/304,194
Nouhad Saleh Al Mashnouk BEIRUT 2      Future Movement Sunni Future for Beirut 6,411 62,970 147,801/353,418
Osman Mohamad Alameddine NORTH 2      Future Movement Sunni The Future is for the North 10,221 51,937 151,759/350,144
Oussama Maarouf Saad El Masri SOUTH 1      Popular Nasserite Organization Sunni For Everyone 9,880 22,083 67,346/122,525
Paulette Sirakan Yacobian BEIRUT 1      Independent Armenian Orthodox Kulluna Watani 2,500 6,842 44,714/134,736
Pierre Rachid Bou Assi MOUNT LEBANON 3      Lebanese Forces Maronite Baabda Unity & Development 13,498 26,500 80,052/166,139
Roger gergi Azar MOUNT LEBANON 1      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Strong Lebanon 6,793 54,544 117,603/176,711
Roula Nizar El Tabesh BEIRUT 2      Future Movement Sunni Future for Beirut 6,637 62,970 147,801/353,416
Saad Eddine Rafik Al Hariri BEIRUT 2      Future Movement Sunni Future for Beirut 20,751 62,970 147,801/353,413
Salim Abdallah Saade NORTH 3      Syrian Social Nationalist Party Greek Orthodox Together for North and Lebanon 5,263 40,788 117,811/249,416
Salim Georges Aoun BEKAA 1      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Zahle for Everyone 5,567 36,391 94,082/175,615
Sami Ahmad Chaouki Fatfat NORTH 2      Future Movement Sunni The Future is for the North 7,943 51,937 151,759/350,147
Sami Amin Gemayel MOUNT LEBANON 2      Kataeb Maronite Metn Pulse 13,968 19,003 92,446/179,923
Samir Adnan El Jisr NORTH 2      Future Movement Sunni The Future is for the North 9,527 51,937 151,759/350,146
Selim Antoine Khoury SOUTH 1      Free Patriotic Movement Greek Catholic Saida & Jezzine Together 708 20,127 67,346/122,527
Shamel Rachid Roukoz MOUNT LEBANON 1      Independent Maronite Strong Lebanon 7,300 54,544 117,603/176,713
Shawki Gergi Al Dakash MOUNT LEBANON 1      Lebanese Forces Maronite Definite Change 10,032 26,980 117,603/176,715
Simon Farid Abi Ramia MOUNT LEBANON 1      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Strong Lebanon 9,729 54,544 117,603/176,712
Sitrida Elias Tawk NORTH 3      Lebanese Forces Maronite Strong Republic Pulse 6,677 37,376 117,811/249,416
Tamam Saeb Beik Salam BEIRUT 2      Future Movement Sunni Future for Beirut 9,599 62,970 147,801/353,414
Taymour Walid Joumblatt MOUNT LEBANON 4      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Reconciliation 11,478 98,967 173,320/329,872
Tony Sleiman Franjieh NORTH 3      Marada Maronite Together for North and Lebanon 11,407 40,788 117,811/249,416
Wael Wehbe Abou Faour BEKAA 2      Progressive Socialist Party Druz Future for W. Bekaa and Rashaya 10,677 31,817 68,227/143,815
Walid Mohamad Souccarieh BEKAA 3      Hezbollah Sunni Hope and Loyalty 6,916 140,747 190,268/315,646
Walid Wajih El Baarin NORTH 1      Future Movement Sunni Future for Akkar 20,426 76,452 136,947/283,790
Wehbe Khalil Khalil Katicha NORTH 1      Lebanese Forces Greek Orthodox Future for Akkar 7,911 76,452 136,947/283,791
Yassin Kamel Jaber SOUTH 3      Amal Movement Shia Hope and Loyalty 7,920 193,224 228,563/460,566
Ziad Halim Al Hawwat MOUNT LEBANON 1      Lebanese Forces Maronite Definite Change 14,424 26,980 117,603/176,714
Ziad Michel Assouad SOUTH 1      Free Patriotic Movement Maronite Saida & Jezzine Together 7,270 20,127 67,346/122,526
 
Lebanese Parliament Building 1947

Political partiesEdit

Numerous political parties exist in Lebanon. Many parties are little more than ad hoc electoral lists, formed by negotiation among influential local figures representing the various confessional communities; these lists usually function only for the purpose of the election, and do not form identifiable groupings in the parliament subsequently. Other parties are personality-based, often comprising followers of a present or past political leader or warlord. Few parties are based, in practice, on any particular ideology, although in theory most claim to be.

No single party has ever won more than 12.5 percent of the total number of seats in the Parliament, and until 2005 no coalition ever won more than a third of the total. The general election held in 2005, however, resulted in a clear majority (72 seats out of 128) being won by the alliance led by Saad Hariri (son of murdered former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri); half of these were held by Hariri's own Current for the Future.

Additionally, Hezbollah won 14 seats [1].

SpeakerEdit

The Speaker of the Parliament, who by custom must be a Shi'a Muslim, is now elected to a four-year term. Prior to the Taif Agreement, he was elected to a two-year term. He forms part of a "troika" together with the President (required to be a Maronite Christian) and the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim). The privileges of the Speaker are unusually powerful, relative to other democratic systems. The current speaker is the leader of the Amal Party, Nabih Berri.

Electoral systemEdit

The system of multi-member constituencies has been criticized over the years by many politicians,[who?] who claim that it is easy for the government to gerrymander the boundaries. The Baabda-Aley constituency, established for the 2000 election, is a case in point: the predominantly Druze area of Aley (in the east of Beirut) were combined, in a single constituency, with the predominantly Christian area of Baabda. The same thing happens in the South, meaning that although several seats within the constituency are allocated to Christians, they have to appeal to an electorate which is predominantly Muslim. Many opposition politicians, mostly Christians, have claimed that the constituency boundaries were extensively gerrymandered in the elections of 1992, 1996, 2000, 2005 and 2009.[citation needed] There have also been calls for the creation of a single, country-wide constituency.[citation needed]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Official website of government. 6 June 2015.
  2. ^ "ICL - Lebanon - Constitution". www.servat.unibe.ch. Retrieved 2019-07-23.
  3. ^ Lebanon's MPs extend own terms. Al-Monitor. Published: 10 November 2014.
  • Davie, May (1997) The History and Evolution of Public Spaces in Beirut Central District, Solidere, Beirut.
  • Saliba, Robert (2004) Beirut City Center Recovery: The Foch-Allenby and Etoile Conservation Area, Steidel, Göttingen.

External linksEdit