Landshut (Austro-Bavarian: Landsad) is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the surrounding district, and has a population of more than 70,000. Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, and Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city.
Town centre with St. Martin's Church
|Admin. region||Lower Bavaria|
|• Mayor||Alexander Putz (FDP)|
|• Total||65.7 km2 (25.4 sq mi)|
|Elevation||445 m (1,460 ft)|
|• Density||1,100/km2 (2,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the town is also often called "City of the three Helmets" (German: Dreihelmenstadt). Furthermore, the town is popularly known for the Landshuter Hochzeit (Landshut Wedding), a full-tilt medieval festival.
Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, Landshut became a powerful and future-oriented investment area. The town is one of the richest industrialized towns in Bavaria and has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate.
The city of Landshut and Trausnitz castle were founded in 1204 by Duke Louis I. Landshut was already a Wittelsbach residence by 1231, and in 1255, when the duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Landshut also became the capital of Lower Bavaria. Duke Henry XVI was the first of the three famous rich dukes who ruled Bayern-Landshut in the 15th century. The wedding of Duke George with the Polish Princess Royal Jadwiga Jagiellon in 1475 was celebrated in Landshut with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages (called "Landshuter Hochzeit"). After his death and the Landshut War of Succession, Bavaria-Landshut was reunited with Bavaria-Munich.
Louis X, Duke of Bavaria built the Landshut Residence 1537–1543 after his visit to Italy. Louis built the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps after the Palazzo Te in Mantua. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered to upgrade Trausnitz Castle from a gothic fortification into a renaissance complex when he lived in Landshut as crown prince for ten years until 1579. Afterwards Landshut lost most of its importance until the University of Ingolstadt was moved to Landshut in 1800. But already in 1826 the university was transferred to Munich.
The U.S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968.
Since the opening of Munich Airport close to Landshut in 1992, the town has become an attractive business location.
|Largest groups of foreign residents|
Main sights and cultureEdit
The town is of national importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic town centre, especially Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches of St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but also the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification.
Landshut is also known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.
The renaissance era produced in particular the decorated inner courtyard of the Trausnitz Castle and the ducal Landshut Residence in the inner town. Baroque churches are represented by the Jesuit church St. Ignatius, the Dominican church St. Blasius and the church of St. Joseph. Also the medieval churches of the Seligenthal convent and of the Cistercians were redesigned in baroque style. Many old middle-class houses of the past in the Old Town still represent the history of the town from the Gothic times to the Neo-Classicism.
- Stadttheater (city theatre)
- Kleines Theater
- Theater Nikola
- Kinoptikum – repertory cinema 
- Kinopolis Landshut – Multiplex cinema 
- Skulpturenmuseum im Hofberg (Sculptural Museum in Hofberg)
- Dräxlmaier Group
- Deutsche Telekom
- LFoundry, a semiconductor fab formerly owned by Renesas and before by Hitachi)
- Schott Glass
- de:Pöschl Tabak
Twin towns – Sister citiesEdit
Landshut is twinned with:
Sons and daughters of the townEdit
- Ulrich Füetrer (born before 1450; died around 1493 and 1502), poet and painter
- Ludwig Feuerbach (1804–1872), philosopher
- Friedrich Feuerbach (1806–1880), philologian and philosopher
- Gustav Tiedemann (1808–1849), officer
- Carl du Prel (1839–1899), philosopher, writer and occultist
- Karl Tanera (1849–1904), officer of the Bavarian Army and author
- Max Slevogt (1868–1932), painter, graphician
- Otto Kissenberth (1893–1919), fighter pilot in World War I
- Hermann Erhardt (1903–1958), actor
- Max Schäfer (1907–1990), football player- and trainer
- Marlene Neubauer-Woerner (1918–2010), sculptor
- Josef Deimer (born 1936), politician and Lord mayor of Landshut from 1970-2014
- David Elsner, professional ice hockey player
- Tom Kühnhackl, professional ice hockey player
- Roman Herzog, (1934-2017), politician (CDU), President of Germany from 1994 to 1999, then Honorary Citizen as well
- Klaus Auhuber (born 1951), ice hockey player
- Albert Sigl (born 1953), author
- Gerhard Tausche (born 1958), archivar and author
- Gerd Truntschka (born 1958), ice hockey player
- Martin Bayerstorfer (born 1966), politician
- Alex Holzwarth (born 1968), drummer
- Wolfgang Stark (born 1969), FIFA-referee
- Markus Brunnermeier, (born 1969), financial economist
- Annette Dytrt (born 1983), figure skater
- Hans Leinberger, (1475/1480-after 1531), sculptor
- Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach, (1804–1872), philosopher and anthropologist
- Roman Herzog, (born 1934), President of Germany 1994-1999
- Josef Deimer, (born 1936), Lord Mayor of Landshut 1970-2004
- Erich Kühnhackl (born 1950), former ice hockey player
Notable inhabitants of LandshutEdit
- Louis I, Duke of Bavaria (1173–1231), Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine
- Hans von Burghausen (born 1350-1360; died 1432), builder
- Hans Stethaimer (1360–1432), architect, mason and painter
- Hans Leinberger (1480–1531), sculptor of the late Gothic
- Götz von Berlichingen (1480–1562), Frankish Empire Knights
- Renata of Lorraine (1544–1602), Duchess of Bavaria
- Johann Graf von Aldringen (1588–1634), commander
- Franz von Paula Schrank (1747–1835), botanist
- Johann Michael Sailer (1751–1832), a Catholic theologian and bishop of Regensburg
- Franz Xaver Witt (1834–1888), church musician, composer, reformer, founder of the German general Cecilia Association
- Max Freiherr von Oppenheim (1860–1946), diplomat, orientalist and archaeologist
- Ludwig Thoma (1867–1921), writer
- Hans Carossa (1878–1956), doctor, known as a poet and writer of short stories
- Gregor Strasser (1892–1934), National Socialist politician
- Heinrich Himmler (1900–1945), National Socialist politician, head of the SS
- Marlene Neubauer-Woerner (1918–2010), sculptress
- Fritz Koenig (1924–2017), sculptor
- Heinz Winbeck (born 1946), composer
- Erich Kühnhackl (born 1950), hockey player
- Herbert Hainer (born 1954), Manager
- Franz Kober (born 1956), Engineer
- "Fortschreibung des Bevölkerungsstandes". Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (in German). September 2018.
- Helfferich, Tryntje, The Thirty Years War: A Documentary History (Cambridge, 2009), pp. 274-302.