Lakhmid kingdom

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The Lakhmid dynasty,[a] referred to in Arabic as al-Manādhirah[b] or Banu Lakhm,[c] was an Arab kingdom in Southern Iraq and Eastern Arabia, with al-Hirah as their capital, from the late 3rd century to 602 AD/CE.[2][3] They were generally but intermittently the allies and clients of the Sasanian Empire, and participant in the Roman–Persian Wars. While the term "Lakhmids" has also been applied to the ruling dynasty, more recent scholarship prefers to refer to the latter as the Naṣrids.[4]

Lakhmid Kingdom
c.300–602 AD
Map of the Lakhmid Kingdom in the 6th-century. Light green is Sasanian territory governed by the Lakhmids
Map of the Lakhmid Kingdom in the 6th-century. Light green is Sasanian territory governed by the Lakhmids
StatusDependency of the Sasanian Empire
Common languages
Official: Church of the East[1] Unofficial: Arab Paganism
• Established
• Annexed by the Sasanian Empire
602 AD

The Nasrid dynasty authority extended over to their Arab allies in Al-Bahrain and Al-Yamama.[5] When Khosrow II deposed and executed Al-Nu'man III, the last Nasrid ruler, his Arab allies in Najd rose in arms and defeated the Sasanians at the battle of Dhi Qar, which led to the Sasanians losing their control over Eastern Arabia.[5] The victory at Dhi Qar roused confidence and enthusiasm among the Arabs seen as the beginning of a new era.[6][7][better source needed]

Nomenclature and problems of Lakhmid history edit

The nature and identity of the Lakhmid Kingdom remains mostly unclear. The ruling Nasrid family emerges with "Amr of the Lakhm", mentioned in the late 3rd-century Paikuli inscription among the vassals of the Sasanian Empire. From this, the term "Lakhmid" has been applied by historians to the Nasrids and their subjects, ruled from al-Hirah. However, as historian Greg Fisher points out, there is "very little information about who made up the people who lived in or around al-Hirah, and there is no reason to suppose that any connection between Nasrid leaders and Lakhm that may have existed in the third century was still present in the sixth, or that the Nasrids ruled over a homogeneous Lakhmid kingdom".[4] This situation is exacerbated by the fact that the historical sources—mostly Byzantine—start dealing with the Lakhmids in greater detail only from the late 5th century, as well as by the relative lack of archaeological work at al-Hirah.[8]

History edit

The ruins of a building in al-Hira, the Lakhmids' capital city,
A Persian manuscript from the 15th century describing the constructing of al-Khornaq Castle in al-Hirah.

The Lakhmid Kingdom was founded and ruled by the Banu Lakhm tribe that emigrated from Yemen in the second century.[citation needed] The founder of the dynasty was 'Amr, whose son Imru' al-Qais (not to be confused with the poet Imru' al-Qais who lived in the sixth century) is claimed to have converted to Christianity.[citation needed] However, there is debate on his religious affinity. Theodor Nöldeke noted that Imru' al-Qays ibn 'Amr was not a Christian,[9] while Irfan Shahîd noted a possible Christian affiliation, suggesting that Imru'al Qays' Christianity may have been "orthodox, heretical or of the Manichaean type".[10] Furthermore, Shahid asserts that the funerary inscription of Imru' al Qays ibn 'Amr lacks Christian formulas and symbols.[11]

Imru' al-Qais dreamt of a unified and independent Arab kingdom and, following that dream, he seized many cities in the Arabian Peninsula. He then formed a large army and developed the Kingdom as a naval power, which consisted of a fleet of ships operating along the Bahraini coast. From this position he attacked the coastal cities of Iran - which at that time was in civil war, due to a dispute as to the succession - even raiding the birthplace of the Sasanian kings, Fars Province.

Imru' al-Qais escaped to Bahrain, taking his dream of a unified Arab nation with him, and then to Syria seeking the promised assistance from Constantius II which never materialized, so he stayed there until he died. When he died he was entombed at al-Nimarah in the Syrian desert.

Imru' al-Qais' funerary inscription is written in an extremely difficult type of script. Recently there has been a revival of interest in the inscription, and controversy has arisen over its precise implications. It is now certain that Imru' al-Qais claimed the title "King of all the Arabs" and also claimed in the inscription to have campaigned successfully over the entire north and centre of the peninsula, as far as the border of Najran.[citation needed]

Two years after his death, in the year 330, a revolt took place where Aws ibn Qallam was killed and succeeded by the son of Imru' al-Qais, 'Amr. Thereafter, the Lakhmids' main rivals were the Ghassanids, who were vassals of the Sasanians' arch-enemy, the Roman Empire. The Lakhmid Kingdom could have been a major centre of the Church of the East, which was nurtured by the Sasanians, as it opposed the Chalcedonian Christianity of the Romans.[citation needed]

The Lakhmids remained influential throughout the sixth century. Nevertheless, in 602, the last Lakhmid king, al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, was put to death by the Sasanian emperor Khosrow II because of a false suspicion of treason, and the Lakhmid Kingdom was annexed.[citation needed]

Coupled with increasing instability in Persia proper after the downfall of Khosrow in 628, these events heralded the decisive Battle of Qadisiyya in 636 and the Muslim conquest of Persia.[12][13] Some believed that the annexation of the Lakhmid Kingdom was one of the main factors behind the fall of the Sasanian Empire and the Muslim conquest of Persia as the Sasanians were defeated in the Battle of Hira by Khalid ibn al-Walid.[14][clarification needed] At that point, the city was abandoned and its materials were used to reconstruct Kufa, its exhausted twin city.[citation needed]

According to the Arab historian Abu ʿUbaidah (d. 824), Khosrow II was angry with the king, al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir, for refusing to give him his daughter in marriage, and therefore imprisoned him. Subsequently, Khosrow sent troops to recover the Nu'man family armor, but Hani ibn Mas'ud (Nu'man's friend) refused, and the Arab forces of the Sasanian Empire were defeated at the Battle of Dhi Qar, near al-Hirah, the capital of the Lakhmids, in 609.[15][16] Hira stood just south of what is now the Iraqi city of Kufa.

Lakhmid dynasty and its descendants edit

The founder and most of the rulers of the kingdom were from the Banu Lakhm dynasty.

Many modern "Qahtanite" dynasties claim descent from the Lakhmids such as the Mandharis of Oman, Iraq, and the United Arab Emirates, the Na'amanis of Oman, and the Lebanese Druze Arslan royal family.

Lakhmid rulers edit

# Ruler Reign
1 'Amr I ibn Adi 268–295
2 Imru' al-Qays I ibn 'Amr 295–328
3 'Amr II ibn Imru' al-Qays 328–363
4 Aws ibn Qallam (non-dynastic) 363–368
5 Imru' al-Qays II ibn 'Amr 368–390
6 al-Nu'man I ibn Imru' al-Qays 390–418
7 al-Mundhir I ibn al-Nu'man 418–462
8 al-Aswad ibn al-Mundhir 462–490
9 al-Mundhir II ibn al-Mundhir 490–497
10 al-Nu'man II ibn al-Aswad 497–503
11 Abu Ya'fur ibn Alqama (non-dynastic, uncertain) 503–505
12 al-Mundhir III ibn al-Nu'man 503/5–554
13 'Amr III ibn al-Mundhir 554–569
14 Qabus ibn al-Mundhir 569–573
15 Suhrab (Persian governor) 573–574
16 al-Mundhir IV ibn al-Mundhir 574–580
17 al-Nu'man III ibn al-Mundhir 580–602
18 Iyas ibn Qabisah al-Ta'i (non-dynastic)
with Nakhiragan (Persian governor)
19 Azadbeh (Persian governor)
followed by the Muslim conquest of Persia

Abbadid dynasty edit

The Abbadid dynasty, which ruled the Taifa of Seville in al-Andalus in the 11th century, was of Lakhmid descent.[17]

In literature edit

Poets described al-Hira as paradise on earth; an Arab poet described the city's pleasant climate and beauty thus: "One day in al-Hirah is better than a year of treatment". The ruins of al-Hirah are located 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) south of Kufa on the west bank of the Euphrates.

See also edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ Arabic: اللخميون, romanizedal-Laḫmiyyūn
  2. ^ المناذرة, romanized as: al-Manāḏira
  3. ^ بنو لخم, romanized as: Banū Laḫm

References edit

  1. ^ Maalouf, Tony (2005). Arabs in the Shadow of Israel: The Unfolding of God's Prophetic Plan for Ishmael's Line. Kregel Academic. p. 23. ISBN 9780825493638.
  2. ^ "Lakhmid dynasty". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 8 February 2023.
  3. ^ Bryan Ward-Perkins; Michael Whitby (2000). The Cambridge ancient history. Vol. 14: Late antiquity: empire and successors, A.D. 425–600. Cambridge University Press. p. 692. ISBN 9780521325912.
  4. ^ a b Fisher 2011, p. 258.
  5. ^ a b Sauer 2017, p. 275.
  6. ^ Power, Edmond (1913). "The Prehistory of Islam". Studies: An Irish Quarterly Review. Messenger Publications. 2 (7): 204–221. JSTOR 30082945. Retrieved 10 May 2021. The Persians were soon to discover their fatal mistake in not continuing to govern Arabs by Arabs when they sustained a crushing defeat from the nomad army of the Bakr tribes at the battle of Dhu Qar about 610 AD This victory roused the self-consciousness of the Arabs.
  7. ^ Ahmad, Nawawi (1976). Arab Unity and Disunity (PDF) (Master's thesis). University of Glasgow. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2020-06-02. Retrieved 10 May 2021. Despite the small number of troops involved, the decisive victory of the Arabs is seen as the beginning of a new era, since it gave the Arab tribes a new confidence and enthusiasm.
  8. ^ Fisher 2011, pp. 258–259.
  9. ^ Nöldeke, Theodor. Geschichte der Perser und Araber zur Zeit der Sasaniden. p. 47.
  10. ^ Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Irfan Shahid. pp. 33–34.
  11. ^ Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fourth Century, Irfan Shahîd. p. 32. Allthough [sic] Imru' al-Qays was considered christian [...] there is not a single christian formula or symbol in the (Namarah) inscription.
  12. ^ Shahîd 1995, p. 120.
  13. ^ Bosworth 1983, pp. 3–4.
  14. ^ Iraq After the Muslim Conquest By Michael G. Morony, pg. 233
  15. ^ Abu Ja‘far Muhammad ibn Jarir Al-Tabari, Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, Vol. 1. (Beirut: Dar Sader, 2003 ed.), pp. 286-293.
  16. ^ Ali ibn Al-Athir, Al-Kamil fi al-Tarikh (Beirut: Maktaba al-Asriyya, 2009 ed.), pp. 339-334.
  17. ^ Soravia, Bruna (2011). "ʿAbbādids (search results)". In Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (3rd ed.). Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830.

Sources edit