Battle of Hira

The Battle of Hira (Arabic: معركة الحيرة‎) was fought between the Sasanian Empire and the Rashidun Caliphate in 633. It was one of the early battles of the Muslim conquest of Persia, and the loss of the frontier city on the Euphrates River opened the way to the Sasanian capital at Ctesiphon on the Tigris River.

Battle of Hira
Part of Islamic conquest of Persia and
Campaigns of Khalid ibn al-Walid
Mohammad adil rais-Khalid's conquest of Iraq.png
DateMay 633 A.D
Location
Result Rashidun Caliphate victory.[1]
Belligerents
Rashidun Caliphate Sasanian Empire
Commanders and leaders
Khalid ibn al-Walid Iyas ibn Qabisah al-Ta'i,[2]
Abd al-Masih
Strength
~10,000-15,000[3][4] 40,000[dubious ](Muslim sources)
Casualties and losses
Few heavy

ContextEdit

The city of Al-Hirah, widely known for its size and wealth, had been capital of the Lakhmid kingdom for centuries. It was annexed as a Sasanian frontier province in 602. During the expansion of the Caliphate in 633, Caliph Abu Bakr, sent Khalid ibn al-Walid to capture the lands south of the Euphrates (the as-Sawad).

After taking Ullais in May, the Muslim army under Khalid ibn al-Walid attacked the city of Hira in the last week of that month. The defenders briefly sequestered themselves in the city's fortresses, but after brief fighting, the city quickly surrendered.[5][6] The inhabitants paid a large tribute[7] to spare the city, and agreed to act as spies against the Sasanians, just as the inhabitants of Ullais had.[8]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Conflict and Cooperation: Zoroastrian Subalterns and Muslim Elites in Medieval Iranian Society By Jamsheed Kairshasp Choksy, pg. 14
  2. ^ Muhammad's People: An Anthology of Muslim Civilization By Eric Schroeder,pg.160
  3. ^ After the battle of Ullais (15,000 Muslim army) in which around 2000 muslims died the army strength must be ~10,000-15,000 along with reinforcement or possible new recruits from Misna ibn Haris's tribe of Bani Bakr in Iraq.
  4. ^ Sword of Allah: chapter no: 23 by Lieutenant-General Agha Ibrahim Akram Nat. Publishing. House, Rawalpindi (1970) ISBN 978-0-7101-0104-4
  5. ^ Hitti, Origins of the Islamic State (translation of Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan); It is reported that Yazid ibn-Nubaishah-l-'Armiri said "... We then came to al-Hirah whose people had fortified themselves in al-Kasr al-Abyad, Kasr ibn-Bukailah and Kasr al'Adasiyin. We went around on horseback in the open spaces among their buildings, after which they made terms with us.", p. 391
  6. ^ Muir, The Caliphate, Its Rise, Decline, and Fall. From Original Sources, p. 56
  7. ^ Hitti, Origins of the Islamic State (translation of Kitab Futuh Al-Buldan); Al Husain ibn-al-Aswad from Yahya ibn-Adam: "I heard it said that the people of al-Hirah were 6000 men, on each one of whom 14 dirhams ... were assessed, making 84000 dirhams in all.", p. 391
  8. ^ Morony Iraq After the Muslim Conquest, p. 233