Justus[a] (died on 10 November between 627 and 631) was the fourth Archbishop of Canterbury. He was sent from Italy to England by Pope Gregory the Great, on a mission to Christianize the Anglo-Saxons from their native paganism, probably arriving with the second group of missionaries despatched in 601. Justus became the first Bishop of Rochester in 604, and attended a church council in Paris in 614.
|Archbishop of Canterbury|
|Term ended||on 10 November between 627 and 631|
|Other post(s)||Bishop of Rochester|
by Augustine of Canterbury
|Died||on 10 November between 627 and 631|
|Buried||St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury|
|Feast day||10 November|
|Canonized||Pre-congregation, prior to formal canonisation process|
|Attributes||archbishop carrying a Primatial cross|
|Shrines||St Augustine's, Canterbury|
Following the death of King Æthelberht of Kent in 616, Justus was forced to flee to Gaul, but was reinstated in his diocese the following year. In 624 Justus became Archbishop of Canterbury, overseeing the despatch of missionaries to Northumbria. After his death he was revered as a saint, and had a shrine in St Augustine's Abbey, Canterbury.
Arrival in BritainEdit
Justus was a member of the Gregorian mission sent to England by Pope Gregory I. Almost everything known about Justus and his career is derived from the early 8th-century Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum of Bede. As Bede does not describe Justus' origins, nothing is known about him prior to his arrival in England. He probably arrived in England with the second group of missionaries, sent at the request of Augustine of Canterbury in 601. Some modern writers describe Justus as one of the original missionaries who arrived with Augustine in 597, but Bede believed that Justus came in the second group. The second group included Mellitus, who later became Bishop of London and Archbishop of Canterbury.
If Justus was a member of the second group of missionaries, then he arrived with a gift of books and "all things which were needed for worship and the ministry of the Church". A 15th-century Canterbury chronicler, Thomas of Elmham, claimed that there were a number of books brought to England by that second group still at Canterbury in his day, although he did not identify them. An investigation of extant Canterbury manuscripts shows that one possible survivor is the St. Augustine Gospels, now in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, Manuscript (MS) 286.[b]
Bishop of RochesterEdit
Augustine consecrated Justus as a bishop in 604, over a province including the Kentish town of Rochester. The historian Nicholas Brooks argues that the choice of Rochester was probably not because it had been a Roman-era bishopric, but rather because of its importance in the politics of the time. Although the town was small, with just one street, it was at the junction of Watling Street and the estuary of the Medway, and was thus a fortified town. Because Justus was probably not a monk (he was not called that by Bede), his cathedral clergy was very likely non-monastic too.
A charter purporting to be from King Æthelberht, dated 28 April 604, survives in the Textus Roffensis, as well as a copy based on the Textus in the 14th-century Liber Temporalium. Written mostly in Latin but using an Old English boundary clause, the charter records a grant of land near the city of Rochester to Justus' church. Among the witnesses is Laurence, Augustine's future successor, but not Augustine himself. The text turns to two different addressees. First, Æthelberht is made to admonish his son Eadbald, who had been established as a sub-ruler in the region of Rochester. The grant itself is addressed directly to Saint Andrew, the patron saint of the church, a usage parallelled by other charters in the same archive.
Historian Wilhelm Levison, writing in 1946, was sceptical about the authenticity of this charter. In particular, he felt that the two separate addresses were incongruous and suggested that the first address, occurring before the preamble, may have been inserted by someone familiar with Bede to echo Eadbald's future conversion (see below). A more recent and more positive appraisal by John Morris argues that the charter and its witness list are authentic because it incorporates titles and phraseology that had fallen out of use by 800.
Æthelberht built Justus a cathedral church in Rochester; the foundations of a nave and chancel partly underneath the present-day Rochester Cathedral may date from that time. What remains of the foundations of an early rectangular building near the southern part of the current cathedral might also be contemporary with Justus or may be part of a Roman building.
Together with Mellitus, the Bishop of London, Justus signed a letter written by Archbishop Laurence of Canterbury to the Irish bishops urging the native church to adopt the Roman method of calculating the date of Easter. This letter also mentioned the fact that Irish missionaries, such as Dagan, had refused to share meals with the missionaries. Although the letter has not survived, Bede quoted from parts of it.
In 614, Justus attended the Council of Paris, held by the Frankish king, Chlothar II. It is unclear why Justus and Peter, the abbot of Sts Peter and Paul in Canterbury,[c] were present. It may have been just chance, but historian James Campbell has suggested that Chlothar summoned clergy from Britain to attend in an attempt to assert overlordship over Kent. The historian N. J. Higham offers another explanation for their attendance, arguing that Æthelberht sent the pair to the council because of shifts in Frankish policy towards the Kentish kingdom, which threatened Kentish independence, and that the two clergymen were sent to negotiate a compromise with Chlothar.
A pagan backlash against Christianity followed Æthelberht's death in 616, forcing Justus and Mellitus to flee to Gaul. The pair probably took refuge with Chlothar, hoping that the Frankish king would intervene and restore them to their sees, and by 617 Justus had been reinstalled in his bishopric by the new king. Mellitus also returned to England, but the prevailing pagan mood did not allow him to return to London; after Laurence's death, Mellitus became Archbishop of Canterbury. According to Bede, Justus received letters of encouragement from Pope Boniface V (619–625), as did Mellitus, although Bede does not record the actual letters. The historian J. M. Wallace-Hadrill assumes that both letters were general statements of encouragement to the missionaries.
Justus became Archbishop of Canterbury in 624, receiving his pallium—the symbol of the jurisdiction entrusted to archbishops—from Pope Boniface V, following which Justus consecrated Romanus as his successor at Rochester. Boniface also gave Justus a letter congratulating him on the conversion of King "Aduluald" (probably King Eadbald of Kent), a letter which is included in Bede's Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum. Bede's account of Eadbald's conversion states that it was Laurence, Justus' predecessor at Canterbury, who converted the King to Christianity, but the historian D. P. Kirby argues that the letter's reference to Eadbald makes it likely that it was Justus. Other historians, including Barbara Yorke and Henry Mayr-Harting, conclude that Bede's account is correct, and that Eadbald was converted by Laurence. Yorke argues that there were two kings of Kent during Eadbald's reign, Eadbald and Æthelwald, and that Æthelwald was the "Aduluald" referred to by Boniface. Yorke argues that Justus converted Æthelwald back to Christianity after Æthelberht's death.
Justus consecrated Paulinus as the first Bishop of York, before the latter accompanied Æthelburg of Kent to Northumbria for her marriage to King Edwin of Northumbria. Bede records Justus as having died on 10 November, but does not give a year, although it is likely to have between 627 and 631. After his death, Justus was regarded as a saint, and was given a feast day of 10 November. The ninth century Stowe Missal commemorates his feast day, along with Mellitus and Laurence. In the 1090s, his remains were translated, or ritually moved, to a shrine beside the high altar of St Augustine's Abbey in Canterbury. At about the same time, a Life was written about him by Goscelin of Saint-Bertin, as well as a poem by Reginald of Canterbury.[d] Other material from Thomas of Elmham, Gervase of Canterbury, and William of Malmesbury, later medieval chroniclers, adds little to Bede's account of Justus' life.
- Sometimes Iustus
- Another possible survivor is a copy of the Rule of St Benedict, now Bodleian Library MS. Hatton 48. Another Gospel, in an Italian hand, and closely related to the Augustine Gospels, is MS Oxford Bodelian Auctarium D.2.14, which shows evidence of being held in Anglo-Saxon hands during the right time frame. Lastly, a fragment of a work by Gregory the Great, now held by the British Library as part of MS Cotton Titus C may have arrived with the missionaries.
- This later was renamed St. Augustine's Abbey.
- None of these works appear to have been published or translated within the last 200 years.
- Walsh New Dictionary p. 349
- "St. Justus of Canterbury". Patron Saints Index. Archived from the original on 19 June 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2007.
- Higham Convert Kings p. 94
- Hunt "Justus" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 109
- Hindley Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons p. 65
- Blair World of Bede pp. 84–87
- Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 43
- Brooks "Mellitus" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
- Bede History of the English Church and People p. 85–86
- Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity p. 62
- Colgrave "Introduction" Earliest Life of Gregory the Great pp. 27–28
- Lapidge Anglo-Saxon Library pp. 24–25
- Brooks Early History of the Church of Canterbury p. 221
- Brooks "From British to English Christianity" Conversion and Colonization pp. 24–27
- Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 291
- Smith "Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester" English Historical Review p. 292
- Campbell Charters of Rochester p. c
- Morris Arthurian Sources vol. ii p. 90
- Levison England and the Continent pp. 223–225
- Morris Arthurian Sources vol. ii pp. 97–98
- Stenton Anglo-Saxon England p. 112
- Higham Convert Kings pp. 138–139
- Wood "Mission of Augustine of Canterbury" Speculum p. 7
- Campbell "First Century of Christianity" Essays in Anglo-Saxon History p. 56
- Higham Convert Kings p. 116
- Lapidge "Mellitus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England
- Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History pp. 64–65
- Fryde, et al. Handbook of British Chronology p. 213
- Kirby Earliest English Kings pp. 31–32
- Kirby Earliest English Kings p. 33
- Mayr-Harting Coming of Christianity pp. 75–76
- Yorke Kings and Kingdoms p. 32
- Wallace-Hadrill Bede's Ecclesiastical History p. 82
- Delaney Dictionary of Saints pp. 354–355
- Farmer Oxford Dictionary of Saints p. 366
- Hayward "Justus" Blackwell Encyclopedia of Anglo-Saxon England
- Bede (1988). A History of the English Church and People. Translated by Sherley-Price, Leo. New York: Penguin Classics. ISBN 0-14-044042-9.
- Blair, Peter Hunter (1990) . The World of Bede (Reprint ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39819-3.
- Brooks, Nicholas (1984). The Early History of the Church of Canterbury: Christ Church from 597 to 1066. London: Leicester University Press. ISBN 0-7185-0041-5.
- Brooks, Nicholas (2006). "From British to English Christianity: Deconstructing Bede's Interpretation of the Conversion". In Howe, Nicholas; Karkov, Catherine (eds.). Conversion and Colonization in Anglo-Saxon England. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies. pp. 1–30. ISBN 0-86698-363-5.
- Brooks, N. P. (2004). "Mellitus (d. 624)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (October 2005 revised ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/18531. Retrieved 7 November 2007. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Campbell, A., ed. (1973). Charters of Rochester. Anglo-Saxon Charters. Vol. 1. London: British Academy/Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-725936-7.
- Campbell, James (1986). "The First Century of Christianity in England". Essays in Anglo-Saxon History. London: Hambledon Press. pp. 49–68. ISBN 0-907628-32-X.
- Colgrave, Bertram (2007) . "Introduction". The Earliest Life of Gregory the Great (Paperback reissue ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-31384-1.
- Delaney, John P. (1980). Dictionary of Saints (Second ed.). Garden City, NY: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-13594-7.
- Farmer, David Hugh (2004). Oxford Dictionary of Saints (Fifth ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860949-0.
- Fryde, E. B.; Greenway, D. E.; Porter, S.; Roy, I. (1996). Handbook of British Chronology (Third revised ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X.
- Hayward, Paul Anthony (2001). "Justus". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 267–268. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
- Higham, N. J. (1997). The Convert Kings: Power and Religious Affiliation in Early Anglo-Saxon England. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press. ISBN 0-7190-4827-3.
- Hindley, Geoffrey (2006). A Brief History of the Anglo-Saxons: The Beginnings of the English Nation. New York: Carroll & Graf Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7867-1738-5.
- Hunt, William; Brooks, N. P. (2004). "Justus (St Justus) (d. 627x31)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (October 2005 revised ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/15176. Retrieved 7 November 2007. (subscription or UK public library membership required)
- Kirby, D. P. (2000). The Earliest English Kings. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-24211-8.
- Lapidge, Michael (2006). The Anglo-Saxon Library. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-926722-7.
- Lapidge, Michael (2001). "Mellitus". In Lapidge, Michael; Blair, John; Keynes, Simon; Scragg, Donald (eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 305–306. ISBN 978-0-631-22492-1.
- Levison, Wilhelm (1946). England and the Continent in the Eighth Century: The Ford Lectures Delivered in the University of Oxford, 1943. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-821232-1.
- Mayr-Harting, Henry (1991). The Coming of Christianity to Anglo-Saxon England. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. ISBN 0-271-00769-9.
- Morris, John (1995). Arthurian Sources, Vol. 2: Annals and Charters. Arthurian Period Sources. Chichester, UK: Phillimore. ISBN 0-85033-757-7.
- Smith, R. A. L. (September 1945). "The Early Community of St. Andrew at Rochester, 604-c. 1080". The English Historical Review. 60 (238): 289–299. doi:10.1093/ehr/LX.CCXXXVIII.289. JSTOR 556594.
- Stenton, F. M. (1971). Anglo-Saxon England (Third ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280139-5.
- Wallace-Hadrill, J. M. (1988). Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People: A Historical Commentary. Oxford Medieval Texts. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0-19-822269-6.
- Walsh, Michael J. (2007). A New Dictionary of Saints: East and West. London: Burns & Oats. ISBN 978-0-86012-438-2.
- Wood, Ian (January 1994). "The Mission of Augustine of Canterbury to the English". Speculum. 69 (1): 1–17. doi:10.2307/2864782. JSTOR 2864782. S2CID 161652367.
- Yorke, Barbara (1997). Kings and Kingdoms of Early Anglo-Saxon England. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16639-X.