Jogindernagar, or Jogindar Nagar ([dʒoːˈɡɪnd̪ər nəˈɡər]), is a municipality in Mandi district in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. Named after Raja Joginder Sen, the hill station is the terminus of the 163-kilometre-long (101 mi) Kangra Valley narrow-gauge railway. Jogindernagar is the third-largest city in the district. The only city in Asia with three hydro-electric power stations, its nickname is "The City of Powerhouses".
The City of Powerhouses
Jogindernagar and its suburbs, seen from Siqandar Dhar
Electric City, City of Powerhouses
|Founded by||Joginder Sen|
|Named for||King of Mandi|
|• Body||Municipal council|
|• Total||350 km2 (140 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,220 m (4,000 ft)|
|• Rank||31st in state|
|• Density||320/km2 (820/sq mi)|
|• Official||Hindi, English, Mandyali, Kangri|
|Time zone||UTC+5:30 (IST)|
|Vehicle registration||HP 29|
|Climate||Humid subtropical (Köppen)|
|Avg. annual temperature||16 °C (61 °F)|
|Avg. summer temperature||24 °C (75 °F)|
|Avg. winter temperature||8 °C (46 °F)|
In the central Joginder Nagar Valley, the region is known for paragliding and trekking, mountain biking and camping. The valley is known for its Ts: trolley, trout and train. In 2015, Jogindernagar was declared the first free Wi-Fi city in Himachal Pradesh.
Jogindernagar was named after the Mandi king Raja Joginder Sen. Its original name was Sukrahatti.
In 1925, Raja Joginder Sen and Col. B. C. Batty planned a hydropower scheme near the village of Sukrahatti. Alexander Sanderson was chief engineer until December 1929, when he returned to England with the project half-completed.[better source needed] Narrow-gauge railway track was laid from Pathankot to Jogindernagar—about 150 kilometres (93 mi)—to carry heavy machinery transported from Britain. A haulage system was laid from the Shanan Power House site to Barot, where a reservoir was built on the Uhl River. After tunneling and piping the water several kilometres from the river to Jogindernagar, the 110-MW Shanan Power House was built by a team of engineers headed by Batty. It was the only hydroelectric project in northern India which fed undivided Punjab and Delhi.
The hydroelectric scheme planned to build five power stations with water from the Uhl River. Water from the Shanan Power House was be by tunnels 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) to adjoining Siyuri Dhar. A reservoir was be built in the village of Chapprot to drive turbines at the base of Chapprot Hill in stage two of the project. However, the plan was abandoned after Batty's death.
During the 1960s, the Himachal Pradesh State Electricity Board revived the plan. Another set of turbines was added at Bassi (a small village at the bottom of Chapprot Hill) in 1970, and the 66-MW Bassi Power House was built. Despite the Bassi Power House's economy (since it was based on tailwater from the Shanan project), no further development was made until the beginning of the 21st century. Construction of the project's third stage, the 100-MW Uhl Stage III, is ongoing in the village of Chulla (near Tullah) with two reservoirs: one near Machhyal Lake and another in the village of Raktal (near Chulla).
Until the mid-20th century, Jogindernagar was northern India's largest potato market. The potato-growing valleys were not linked by roads; over 2,000 mules from the Lahaul and Spiti valleys transported potatoes from outlying areas to Jogindernagar, the only railhead in that part of the state. Potatoes from Mandi, Kullu and Lahaul and Spiti districts were brought there for transport to West Bengal.
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Jogindernagar was India's only supplier of rock salt, obtained from the Gumma and Drang mines. Residents of the Kullu Valley travelled for days to obtain the salt, crossing the high-altitude Bhubhu Pass (since the road network did not yet exist). And it believed that landslide happened all the workers died and their ghost haunts gumma
Jogindernagar is in the central Joginder Nagar Valley, in the north-western Himalayas. Surrounded by mountains, it has an average elevation of 1,220 metres (4,000 feet). Jogindernagar's altitude ranges from 800 metres (2,600 ft) on the southern valley floor to 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) on the northern hilltops.
Its surrounding mountains are covered with dense pine forests. Rhododendron (burans, known locally as brah ka fool) and deodar trees are found at high-altitude locations such as Winch Camp, Jhatingri and Phuladhar. Jogindernagar is in a Zone V (very high earthquake-damage risk) region, and after-effects of the 1905 earthquake are still visible at the nearby Kila Karanpur fort.
The climate is warm and temperate; summer is much rainier than winters. According to the Köppen climate classification, Jogindernagar has a humid subtropical climate (Cwa). Its average annual temperature is 19.6 °C (67.3 °F), and its average annual rainfall is 1,851 millimetres (72.9 in).
November is the driest month, with 25 millimetres (0.98 in) of rain. The wettest month is July, with an average of 474 millimetres (18.7 in). The warmest month is June, with an average temperature of 27.5 °C (81.5 °F); January is the coldest, with an average temperature of 10.1 °C (50.2 °F). The difference in precipitation between July and November is 449 millimetres (17.7 in), and the variation in temperature throughout the year is 17.4 °C (63.3 °F).
Winter temperature may fall to −4 °C (25 °F) in Jogindernagar and −10 °C (14 °F) at higher altitudes, which receive heavy snowfall from December to March; Jogindernagar receives occasional snow. Although summers are warm, the maximum temperature rarely exceeds 34 °C (93 °F); the record high is 36 °C (97 °F).
|Climate data for Jogindernagar|
|Average high °C (°F)||14.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||10.1
|Average low °C (°F)||5.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||114
|Source: Climate-Data.org, altitude: 1179m|
Jogindernagar has two tehsils, Jogindernagar and Lad Bharol, and a newely added sub tehsil Makreri. According to the 2011 Census of India, Jogindarnagar tehsil had a population of 84,470; its Vidhan Sabha constituency had a population of 110,302.[full citation needed] The municipality is divided into seven wards, for which elections are held every five years.
Jogindarnagar's literacy rate is 87.86 percent, higher than the Himachal Pradesh average of 82.80%. Male literacy is 92.63 percent, and female literacy is 82.99 percent.
The major religion is Hinduism; a small percentage of the population follows Islam, Sikhism, Christianity and Tibetan Buddhism. A Tibetan Buddhist community (including monks) lives in the nearby village of Chauntra.
Nearest cities and transport hubsEdit
- Mandi: 56 kilometres (35 mi)
- Chandigarh: 256 kilometres (159 mi)
- Shimla: 210 kilometres (130 mi)
- Palampur: 37 kilometres (23 mi)
- Pathankot: 150 kilometres (93 mi)
- Kotli: 42 kilometres (26 mi)
- Sarkaghat: 61 kilometres (38 mi)
- Nearest broad-gauge train station: Pathankot
- Nearest airport: Gaggal Airport, 75 kilometres (47 mi)
Joginder Nagar railway station is the terminus of the 163-kilometre-long (101 mi) Kangra Valley Railway, which runs to Pathankot. The nearest broad-gauge station is the Pathankot Junction railway station.
National Highway 5 connects Jogindernagar with Mandi and Palampur. The Jogindernagar-Sarkaghat-Ghumarwin state highway connects it to Dharmpur. Jogindernagar-Kotli Major District Road via koon ka tar connect to Machhali
Jogindernagar's oldest schools are the Government Senior Secondary School, Government Senior Secondary School (Girls) and Dayanand Bhartiya Public Senior Secondary School (the former Bhartiya Public High School and Arya Samaj Mandir). Most higher-education students move to larger cities and other states for graduate and post-graduate work.
A school has been established, as part of the Tibetan Children's Villages project near the Tibetan settlement in Chauntra, for Tibetan students in exile. The school provides instruction in the Tibetan language, Tibetan culture, the arts and science.
Points of interestEdit
- Haulage trolley: India's highest cable funicular railway climbs from 1,200 to 2,500 metres (3,900 to 8,200 ft).
- Winch Camp: The highest settlement in the Joginder Nagar Valley, at 2,400 metres (7,900 ft). A trolley track goes from Winch Camp to Head Gear (2,500 meters), and the funicular descends to Barot. Currently non-operational, the 3-kilometre (1.9 mi) narrow-gauge track from Winch Camp to Head Gear is India's highest railway track.
- Barot: Contains the main Uhl River reservoirs for the Shanan and Bassi hydroelectric projects.
- Bir-Billing: Bir is home to Tibetan Buddhist monasteries. At 2,300 metres (7,500 ft), Billing is a paragliding and hang gliding take-off spot. It hosted the 2015 Paragliding World Cup.
- Shanan Power House: India's first megawatt hydroelectric power project, commissioned in 1932
- Kangra Valley Railway: The narrow-gauge railway runs between Pathankot and Jogindernagar. Passing through two tunnels, the railway is on UNESCO's tentative list to be added to its mountain railways of India World Heritage Site.
- Dehnasar Lake: High-altitude lake in the Dhauladhar range
- Banderi Temple and Kila Karanpur: Banderi Temple is on the hill to the north-west of Jogindernagar. Kila Karanpur is the abandoned fort of Raja Karan Sen, son of Raja Joginder Sen.
- Macchial Lake: Lake which is considered sacred
- Jhatingri: Hill resort at 2,030 metres (6,660 ft) with Himalayan cedar, known for camping and trekking, is the gateway to the Barot Valley.
- Herbal Garden and Museum: North India's largest herbal garden and institute for research of Ayurvedic medicine and plants
- Dhelu: Paragliding take-off spot for instruction and solo or tandem flights
- Phuladhar: Hilltop resort at 2,260 metres (7,410 ft), east of Jogindernagar, is known for paragliding, camping, trekking and 360-degree views of Joginder Nagar and Barot Valleys.
- Dzongsar Khyentse Monastery: One of six Buddhist monasteries and schools in nearby Chauntra village exemplifies Tibetan architecture and religious practice.
- Chaina Pass: Mountain pass at 2,730 metres (8,960 ft) connects Barot Valley at Rajgundha to Joginder Nagar Valley at Billing and the adjacent Kangra Valley.
- Bhubu Pass: This high-altitude pass, 2,900 metres (9,500 ft) hight between Kullu and Jogindernagar, was the only link between the towns.
- Batty Pass: Named after B. C. Batty, this mid-altitude 2,530-metre (8,300 ft) pass parallels haulage rail track to connect Jogindernagar Valley (near Winch Camp) to Barot Valley at Headgear.
Sylvan Retreat, a British-era guest house in Barot
- India Post. (EN) Pincode search - Joginder Nagar
- Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd. STD Codes for cities in Himachal Pradesh Archived 26 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- जोगिन्दरनगर.कॉम. "जोगिंदर नगर- अवलोकन, इतिहास और बुनियादी ढांचा | Jogindernagar.com". jogindernagar.com. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- facility/articleshow/47106669.cms Jogindernagar to become first town of State with free wi-fi facility
- John Sanderson's biography, planned publication 2018.
- "Pathankot to Joginder Nagar". Retrieved 7 September 2019.
- Himtimes (19 January 2014). "Jogindernagar - The Power City of India - Himtimes". Himtimes. Retrieved 3 June 2016.
- Nagar.html Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Joginder Nagar[permanent dead link]
- "Climate: Joginder Nagar – Climate graph, Temperature graph, Climate table". Climate-Data.org. Retrieved 2 June 2016.
- "Mountain Railways of India (Extension)". UNESCO Tentative Lists. Retrieved 9 September 2019.