Iran Khodro (Persian: ایران‌خودرو, Irân Xodro), branded as IKCO, is an Iranian automaker headquartered in Tehran.[4] IKCO was founded in 1962 as Iran National (ایران ناسیونال, Irân Nâsionâl). The public company manufactures vehicles, including Samand, Peugeot and Renault cars, and trucks, minibuses and buses.[5] As of 2009, it produced 688,000 passenger cars per year.

Iran Khodro
FormerlyIran National Corp. (1962-1979)
TypePublic
TSE : Iran Khodro(IKCO1)
ISIN: IRO1IKCO0008
IndustryAutomotive
PredecessorIrannational
Founded29 August 1962; 60 years ago (1962-08-29)
FounderAhmad Khayami
Mahmoud Khayami
HeadquartersTehran, Iran
Area served
Key people
Products
Services
RevenueIncrease US$ 12.8 billion (2011)[1]
Decrease US$ 1.03 billion (2011)[2]
Total assetsIncrease US$ 32 billion (2011)
Number of employees
72,000 (2022)[3]
Subsidiaries
List
  • Transportation Automotive Parts
    • SAPCO
    Investment
    • SAMAND Investment
    Other
    • IASCO
    • IPCO
    • TAM Co.
Websiteofficial website

History and developmentEdit

NameEdit

The word khodro (خودرو) means "automobile" in Persian, hence Iran Khodro means "Iran Automobile".

FoundingEdit

Iran Khodro was founded by Ahmad Khayami, with registered in the capital of 100,000,000 Rls, on August 29, 1962 Aliakbar Khayami, Ahmad Khayami, Mahmoud Khayami, Marzieh Khayami and Zahra Seyedy Dashty, in Ekbatan world in Tehran.

StructureEdit

Iran Khodro Industrial Group (IKCO) is a public joint stock company with the objective of creation and management of factories to manufacture various types of vehicles and parts as well as selling and exporting them.

Size and productionEdit

The company has become the largest vehicle manufacturer in the Middle East, Central Asia and North Africa.[6] In Iran, it is the largest vehicle manufacturing company, having an average share of 65 percent of domestic vehicle production.[7]

Iran Khodro, the largest car manufacturer in the Middle East, produced 774,965 units of passenger cars and commercial vehicles in 2010 and aims to produce and market 850 thousand cars in 2011.[8]

 
Paykan Hillman Hunter

CertificationsEdit

Iran Khodro has qualified for ISO 9001 from RW-TUV, Germany, as well as many other health, safety, and environment certificates including ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001.[9] The company has also obtained TÜV, TSE, GOST and some other important standard certification for its different productions.

Products and relationshipsEdit

 
Iran's automobile production crossed the 1 million mark in 2005. Iran Khodro is one of the largest car manufacturers in Asia. It has established joint-ventures with foreign partners on 4 continents.

For more than three decades, Iran Khodro produced the Paykan, a car developed from the Rootes Group's Rootes Arrow range, best known as the Hillman Hunter. Paykan saloon car production was discontinued in 2005, almost thirty years after the end of Arrow production (latterly as the Chrysler Hunter) in Britain. A pick-up version was still in production until 2015.[10] Bardo Pick-up, pick-up version of Paykan, will be replaced by a new pick-up called the Arisun which is related to the Samand .[11]

Iranian-designed IKCO Samand, replaces the dated Paykan as Iran's "national car", and features a part-Iranian designed CNG/petrol dual-fuel engine in its Soren variant.

 
Front view of Samand LX

The firm has a long-term relationship with European and Asian manufacturers including PSA Peugeot Citroën, manufacturing and assembling a number of models under license from these firms. In 2009, Peugeot 206, Peugeot Pars, Peugeot 405, Peugeot Roa, and Samand sedans were IKCO's export-bound cars sent to Azerbaijan, Iraq, Armenia, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Syria and Afghanistan.[12] As at 2012, IKCO products incorporate 5-10 percent of components imported from France. IKCO's parts imports from Peugeot accounted for 700-800 million euros ($572–654 million) per year.[13] Iran has reached 98% of self-sufficiency in producing Peugeot 405 parts and 75% in Peugeot 206 parts.[14] By ending year 2012, Peugeot cuts its relations with Iran Khodro due to international sanctions against Iran. Four years later, in 2016, after reaching Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action between Iran and E3+3, Iran Khodro and Peugeot decided to make 50%-50% joint venture named IKAP to start the relations again.

Renault Pars is in charge of the engineering, quality control, parts supply, logistics, managing sales policies as well as marketing and customer services for Renault products in Iran and IKCO is one of its main shareholders that produces Tondar for the domestic market. Renault Pars is a joint venture, 51 percent of which belongs to Renault of France. Forty-nine percent of Renault Pars' shares is jointly held by Iran's Industrial Development and Renovation Organization, IKCO and Saipa. The company was established in 2003.[citation needed]

IKCO also manufactures trucks, buses and E-Class passenger cars under license from Mercedes-Benz. In a joint-venture with Daimler AG, Iran Khodro is to start production of sophisticated 900-class Mercedes-Benz engines; Daimler states that Iranian-made engines will be exported to Germany.[15] Among Asian automotive manufacturers, IKCO is cooperating with Suzuki. Producing Suzuki Grand Vitara in IKCO's Site in Khorasan, IKCO will produce Suzuki Kizashi.[16]

In 2012, IKCO announced that at least 3% of the company's sales will be allocated to research and development.[citation needed] As of 2015, the company's 7-year strategic plans for product development are in body design, die making, suspension, powertrain, trim and car electronics.[17]

Newsly Italian car design firm 'Pininfarina' signed a €70 million 36-month contract with Iran's biggest car producer, Iran Khodro Group on for the development of four new models and to give the carmaker a second wind in research and development of new models. The agreement will help develop a modular automotive platform for four different vehicles, and the first passenger car of the medium segment of the market, a press release from the Italian firm said.[18][19]

Production sitesEdit

 
Iran Khodro factory in Tehran

IKCO has 12 production site around the globe, 6 sites in within borders of Iran and 6 other in IKCO's main export markets. In its five-year (2012–17) future growth prospective, IKCO envisions an annual manufacturing capacity of three million units, with exports of a million units per year.[citation needed]

Domestic plants:

Plant Production Capacity Product Location
Fars 30000 Pars (Peugeot 405 and Samand to be produced later) Shiraz
Mazandaran 15000 Samand Sarir Babol
Semnan* 100000 Samand Semnan
Khorasan 150000 Suzuki Grand Vitara, Pars,Haima,Peugeot 405 Mashhad
Tabriz 120000 Samand EF7, Samand Arisan (replacing Paykan Pick-up)[20] Tabriz
IKCO (main plant) 700000 Roa, Peugeot 405, Peugeot 206, Peugeot 207i, Samand, Tondar 90, Soren, Tehran

Foreign sites:

Plant Production Capacity Product Location
AzSamand 10000 Samand Azerbaijan
Siamko 30000 Samand Syria
CDC 15000 Peugeot Pars Egypt
Seniran Auto 30000 Samand Senegal
Venirauto 16000 Samand Venezuela

Export marketsEdit

The company won the annual national prize for export activities in years 2006, 2007. Russia, Syria, Turkey, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Ukraine, Egypt, Algeria and Bulgaria are among the most important target markets for the group. Since Iran Khodro group new movement through international markets in year 2004, the company has exported more than 150,000 units of cars in different classes and models to other countries mainly in the Middle East and CIS region.

Export opportunities are restricted to relatively low volumes with $60 million worth of cars exported in 2007.[21] By this Iran Khodro has ranked as 24th company among 100 top companies in Islamic world in year 2008. The Company has exported about 35,000 cars in year 2009.[5] The company exported 40,000 units in 2010, including 30% of the total production of its Samand model. IKCO intends to export 9% of its output in 2011, amounting to 75,000 vehicles, before reaching 16% in exports by 2014.[22]

CarsEdit

IKCOEdit

 
Dena+ production line in IKCO company
 
IKCO Dena+ product of 2016
 
IKCO Tara

The following table shows the cars that have been specially designed and built by IKCO:

Car Start production End of production Car class
Paykan 1966 1980 Class B sedan
Bardo 1970 2007 Class B pickup
Paykan Deluxe 1980 2004 Class B sedan
Samand 2001 2004 Class C sedan
Samand LX 2004 2019 Class C sedan
Sarir 2006 2012 Class C sedan
Soren 2007 2019 Class C sedan
Runna 2012 2019 Class B sedan
Arisun 2014 Class C pickup
Dena 2014 Class C sedan
Dena+ 2016 Class C sedan
Dena+ turbo 2017 Class C sedan
Samand+ 2019 Class C sedan
Soren+ 2019 Class C sedan
Runna+ 2019 Class B sedan
Tara 2020 Class C sedan
Rira 2022 Crossover

PeugeotEdit

 
Peugeot Pars (formerly known as Peugeot Persia or simply Persia)
 
Peugeot 405
 
Peugeot 206
  • Peugeot 206; a saloon version of the 206, the Peugeot 206 SD also co-developed with Peugeot in year 2005.
  • Peugeot 207i; by 2011, Ikco produced about 15,000-20,000 units Peugeot 207i. The production of 207i stopped in 2012 during relation cut between Ikco and Peugeot because of international sanctions against Iran.
  • Peugeot 405; available in saloon trims GLi and GLX and estate trim GLX
  • Peugeot 405 trim SLX with 1.6L 16 valve PSA TU5 engine
  • Peugeot 406; as CBU (about 2000 are imported to Iran by Iran Khodro)
  • Peugeot Pars; initially called the Peugeot Persia. Changes include a redesigned front and modernized rear
  • Peugeot RD; chassis and drivetrain are similar to the older Paykan but the outer body shell and appearance resemble a 405, production of this car ended in favor of the ROA.
  • Peugeot ROA; modified version of Peugeot RD, production of Peugeot ROA is going to halt.[23]

IKAPEdit

 
Peugeot 508

RenaultEdit

SuzukiEdit

  • Suzuki Grand Vitara - Compact SUV which is divided to different 4 main models:
    • 2000 cc engine with 4-speed automatic gearbox
    • 2000 cc engine with 5-speed manual gearbox
    • 2400 cc engine with 4-speed automatic gearbox
    • 2400 cc engine with 5-speed manual gearbox
  • Suzuki Kizashi

HaimaEdit

EnginesEdit

EF familyEdit

Iran Khodro started to design a new range of engines for its products in 2007 in a joint with F.E.V of Germany. The first EF series engine officially shown to the public in 2008 is EF7 which is currently powering Samand LX car in Iran.

EF7 turbocharged engines were initially shown to the public in mid-2009 and will be installed on Soren ELX by last 2010. Other EF series engines named EF4 & EFD (Diesel) engines design are finished and they are being tested for mass production by Iran Khodro. In November 2009, Iran Khodro unveiled its new "national diesel engine" with fuel consumption of 5 liters per 100 kilometers in combined cycle.[citation needed] The engine has achieved emission standard of Euro 5, featuring a Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) as well as a new Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). The 1.5-liter turbodiesel uses advanced technology to deliver strong power and torque of 300Nm.[citation needed] Iran Khodro has designed the EF4 & EFD itself in consultation with some expert engine designers.

3FX familyEdit

IKCO 3FX engine family is a series of straight-three cylinder engines in development by IKCO to be used on class A to class C vehicles.[24]

PlatformsEdit

  • X7 platform: The first IKCO platform, the X7, was designed in 1995 with the upgrade of the Peugeot 405 platform. The first car built on this platform was Samand.
  • IKP1 platform: IKCO's second proprietary platform, called IKP1, was built by upgrading the Peugeot PF1 platform. The first product of this platform is Tara. Unfortunately, some of the cars produced in Iran have seen hardly any improvement in standards for more than 20 years, Abolfazl Khalkhali, the head of the electric vehicle design team at the University of Science and Technology, has told.[25]

Subsidiary companiesEdit

  • Supplying Automotive Parts Company (SAPCO)

SAPCO had been established in 1993 to manage the supplying chain of automotive parts in IKCO, with the main aim of being the best and most respected supplier of automotive parts and technical services. SAPCO also helps its suppliers to improve the quality of their products.

  • IKCO Spare Parts and After-Sale Services Co. (ISACO)

IKCO Spare Parts and After-Sale Services Co. (ISACO) was founded in 1977. ISACO is providing after-sale services and supplying spare parts for IKCO products throughout the country. ISACO Kish, is one of the subordinate companies of ISACO which is assigned with the task of supplying after-sale services to IKCO vehicles in the international markets. In 2011, 37 percent of the needed spare parts were globally outsourced and ISACO aims to reduce this amount to 23 percent.[citation needed] Iraq, Belarus, Russia, Ukraine, Venezuela, Senegal, Algeria and Tunisia are the main target markets for ISACO.

  • Iran Khodro Power Train Co. (IPCO)

IPCO was established in 1998. The main activity of this engineering services company is in the field of power train including design and development, testing, adjusting, product engineering, and quality assurance processes in mass production and design production. This subsidiary of IKCO is competent in other fields such as designing, installing and commissioning of testing equipments (hardware and software) of automotive parts, engines and vehicles as well.

  • TAM Co.

This subsidiary of IKCO was found with name "Ghateh Sazan-e Mojarab" in 1997 with the aim of creating cutting-edge has been changed to TAM Co. in 1998. The company has designed and completed projects of the SAMAND production line in Syria, Venezuela and Senegal without help of foreign companies, relying on its own knowledge and technology. In 2012, TAM won Iran's "Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise (MAKE)" award.[26]

  • SAMAND Investment Co.

Samand Investment Co. was established as a Corporation in 2004 with the purpose of the identification of investment opportunities, analysis and evaluation of the stock market and creating income for shareholders.

  • Iran Khodro Rail transport Industries Company (IRICO)

IRICO was established by Iran Khodro Investment Development Company in 2003 to manufacture railway rolling stock. IRICO produces metro wagon, rail bus, light rail vehicle and monorails. In March 2011, Tose-e-Tarabar Raili Iranian Co. acquired RICO from Iran Khodro.

  • Iran Khodro Diesel Company

Iran Khodro Diesel Company was established initially under the name of Khawar Industrial Group in early 1966. In 1999 Iran Khodro Company merged its bus and midi-bus production lines with Khawar Industrial Group truck production lines together and the new company Iran Khodro Diesel, public joint stock was established to manufacture different types of commercial vehicles for domestic and overseas markets. Iran Khodro Diesel Company exports its products to many countries.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-08-12. Retrieved 2011-12-21.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-09. Retrieved 2012-02-21.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ Kazemi, Maryam (2013-12-28). "ایران‌خودرو و سایپا؛ رکورددار کمترین‌ بهره‌وری‌ در جهان" [Iran Khodro and Saipa hold the record of the world's lowest productivity]. irEconomy. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12.
  4. ^ "Conact Us". Iran Khodro. Retrieved 2017-09-26. Km 14 Karaj Makhsoos Rd., Tehran, Iran. P.O.Box: 13895-111
  5. ^ a b "No. 3831 | Domestic Economy | Page 4". Irandaily. 2011-03-20. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
  6. ^ "Iran Khodro Rail Industries Factory Inaugurated". En.iccim.ir. 2008-12-28. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  7. ^ "Fars News Agency :: Iran-Khodro to Unveil Peugeot 207i in February". English.farsnews.ir. 2010-01-31. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  8. ^ "Iran Khodro Industrial Group on the Throne of Iran's Auto Industry". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  9. ^ "Future for Auto Sector?". www.iran-daily.com. Archived from the original on August 26, 2009.
  10. ^ Ellis, Eric (2006-09-12). "Made In Iran - September 18, 2006". Money.cnn.com. Retrieved 2010-04-18.
  11. ^ "IKCO New Products Replace Old Ones". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  12. ^ "IKCO exports double". www.iran-daily.com. Archived from the original on September 21, 2009.
  13. ^ https://sports.yahoo.com/news/iran-auto-production-plunges-third-134504563--nascar.html;_ylt=A2KJjaiEYA5QMAoAqvHQtDMD[dead link]
  14. ^ "Fars News Agency :: Industrialist Stresses Iran's Self-Sufficiency in Production of Peugeot Parts". Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
  15. ^ Article in Iran Daily Archived October 21, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ "IKCO to Produce a New Suzuki". Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 29 May 2011.
  17. ^ "Farsnews". Archived from the original on 2015-04-18. Retrieved 2015-04-18.
  18. ^ "Iran Khodro Signs Deals with Domestic Universities, Major Foreign Firms for Future Products". 10 May 2017.
  19. ^ "Pininfarina, Iran Khodro Design Deal Signed". 9 May 2017.
  20. ^ "خودروی جایگزین وانت پیکان+تصاویر". 20 October 2014.
  21. ^ "Algeria Seeks IKC Cooperation". Archived from the original on 2009-01-29. Retrieved 2009-01-29.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  22. ^ "Research and Markets: Iran Autos Report Q4 2011 - Available Now". Benzinga. Retrieved 2012-01-14.
  23. ^ "Ikco New Products Replace Old Ones". Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2011-05-29.
  24. ^ "Three-cylinder powertrain". Retrieved 2022-07-04.
  25. ^ "Most cars made in Iran are two decades behind global safety standards |". Retrieved 2022-08-31.
  26. ^ "Tam Iran Khodro amongst the Asian MAKEs". Zawya. 2012-01-11. Retrieved 2012-07-22.

External linksEdit