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The Peugeot 405 is a large family car released by the French automaker Peugeot in July 1987, and which continues to be manufactured under licence outside France, having been discontinued in Europe in 1997. It was voted European Car of the Year for 1988 by the largest number of votes in the history of the contest.[2] About 2.5 million vehicles have been sold worldwide, both in LHD and RHD, as a sedan and station wagon.

Peugeot 405
Peugeot 405.jpg
Overview
ManufacturerPeugeot
Also calledPeugeot Sedan
Production1987–1997 (Europe)
1995–present (Iran/Egypt)
AssemblyArgentina by (Sevel) (1992–2000)
Azerbaijan, by Khazar (2019-present)
Chile, by Franco Chilena (1988-2001)
Egypt, by AAV (1992–20??)
France (1987–1997)
Indonesia, by Gaya (1989–1997)
Iran, by Iran Khodro (1992–present)
Malaysia, by OASB [1]
Poland, by FSC (1993–1995)
Taiwan, by Yu-Tien (1989–1995)
United Kingdom (1987–1997)
Zimbabwe, by Quest (1987–2002)
DesignerPininfarina
Body and chassis
ClassLarge family car
Body style4-door saloon
5-door estate
LayoutFront engine
Front-wheel drive
Four-wheel drive
RelatedCitroën BX
IKCO Samand
Peugeot Pars
IKCO Dena
Powertrain
EngineInline-4
1.4–2.0 L, petrol/diesel
Transmission4-speed automatic
5-speed manual
Dimensions
Wheelbase2,669 mm (105.1 in)
Length4,408 mm (173.5 in) (sedan)
Width1,716 mm (67.6 in) (sedan)
Height1,390 mm (55 in)-1,450 mm (57 in)
Curb weight1,020 kg (2,250 lb)-1,430 kg (3,150 lb)
Chronology
PredecessorPeugeot 505
Talbot Alpine/Solara
Peugeot 305
SuccessorPeugeot 406

Its appearance is similar to the Alfa Romeo 164, launched the same year and also styled by Pininfarina. While the 405 shares its bottom plate with the Citroën BX, it does not have that car's hydropneumatic suspension.[3] As with the BX, the 405 used TU/XU petrol and XUD diesel engines. The 405 was the last Peugeot vehicle sold in the United States, on sale between 1988 and 1991, including the Mi16.[4]

The 405 has been available in LHD, and RHD versions, as a saloon and estate, in front wheel, and four wheel drive. No coupé model was ever offered to the public, unlike the 504 and later 406: only two examples of the purpose built 405 Turbo-16 (not to be confused with 405 T16) were made.

HistoryEdit

In July 1987, Peugeot announced the 405 as four door sedan only body style, and sales began soon after on the left-hand drive continental markets. It succeeded the Peugeot 305.

It went on sale on the right hand drive market in the United Kingdom in January 1988, with right hand drive versions being produced at the former plant of Rootes/Chrysler at Ryton near Coventry, and left hand drive production taking place at Sochaux in France.

Four cylinder petrol engines ranging from 65 to 160 PS (48 to 118 kW; 64 to 158 hp) were available. In 1988, naturally aspirated and turbocharged diesel engines were added to the range. An estate model was also introduced during 1988.[5] The 500,000th 405 was produced during 1989, followed by the one millionth 405 to leave the Sochaux factory in 1990. This was also when the BE1 transmission was replaced by the BE3.

In 1991, there were updates to the dashboard, steering wheel, and soundproofing, but for 1993, the Phase II model arrived with a new boot with better ingress, new rear lights and boot design and a new dashboard. 405 production had reached over 1,500,000 by this time.[6]

In the autumn of 1995, the 405's replacement, the 406 was introduced and the 405 saloon was discontinued. An airbag had been available on the 405 since 1994, and standard on the left hand drive Mi16 and T16. At the beginning of 1997, the estate version of the 406 was launched, marking the end of European production of the 405 after 10 years.

The 405 was one of Europe's best selling larger family cars, particularly in France. It was the eighth best selling car in Britain in 1992 and 1993.

ManufacturingEdit

Designed in France, the Peugeot 405 has been manufactured in:

  • Europe: from 1987 to 1997 at Sochaux (France) and Ryton (United Kingdom).
  • Zimbabwe: until 2002, by Quest.
  • Egypt: Wagih Abaza produced the 405.
  • Iran: produced by Iran Khodro since mid-1990.
  • Chile: Produced by Franco-Chilena in Los Andes, including STI Phase II model.
  • Argentina: Several saloon models, including diesels, were built in the Villa Bosch Peugeot facility from 1992 to 1999. In this country, the 405 has been an extremely popular car with total sales of over 500,000 units.
  • Poland: Around 4000 were assembled in FSC Lublin between 1993 and 1995.
  • Taiwan: Produced by Yu-Tien Motors from 1989 until 1995 (Production ceased after bankruptcy).
  • Thailand: Produced by Ymc Assembly Co., Ltd. from 1989 until 1997

VersionsEdit

The 405 range included three petrol engines and two diesel engines, all four cylinders, in a variety of states of tune and specification. The range was tailored to suit different export markets. The 1.6 litre saloon featured a low drag co efficient of Cd=0.29, with other models varying up to Cd=0.33. The 1.4 litre (1,360 cc) engine was fitted with a four speed manual gearbox. It produced 70 hp (52 kW) at 5,600 rpm.

The 1.6 litre (1,580 cc) engine was fitted with a five speed manual gearbox and produced 92 hp (69 kW) at 6,000 rpm. The 1.9 litre (1,905 cc) engine was available with a five speed manual gearbox, with an option of an automatic in the lower powered version.

The eight valve version of the engine[which?] was available in two levels of tune; 110 hp (82 kW) or 125 hp (93 kW). A 16 valve version was available with the Mi16 model and this produced 160 hp (120 kW) at 6,500 rpm and could reach a top speed of 220 km/h (140 mph).[7] In 1992, the range was facelifted.

While the changes were deep, including a modified bottom plate and chassis structure, the design was almost indistinguishable from the pre facelift model.

The windscreens were now bonded; all of these changes increased torsional rigidity considerably while still allowing a deeper opening for the bootlid of the sedan.[8] The taillights were also redesigned and the trim piece between them removed, all in the image of the bigger 605. The interior was also redone, with an all new dashboard and door trim, inheriting lots of detail parts as well as the overall appearance from the 605.[8]

 
Rear view of the facelifted 1994 Peugeot 405 GLX

In April 1993, the T16 homologation special was introduced, with a 2.0 litre 16 valve turbocharged XU10J4TE engine with water cooled chargecooler, constant four wheel drive with 53/47% power distribution and self regulating hydraulic rear axle. It was never built in a right hand drive model.

The T16 produced 200 hp (150 kW) at 1.1 bar (16 psi) (normal boost) or 220 hp (160 kW) at 1.3 bar (19 psi) (overboost) which lasts for 45 seconds. 1,061 examples were built, 60 of them for the French Police.[9] The diesel engine options included a 1.9 litre (1,905 cc) unit producing 70 bhp (52 kW) at 4,600 rpm or a turbocharged 1.8 litre (1,769 cc) unit producing 90 bhp (67 kW).

BritainEdit

At launch in January 1988, the 405 was available with a choice 1.6, and 1.9 carbureted engines, and an injected 1.9. Both diesel and petrol engines were available at launch.[10]

  • Late 1988: debut of the performance model, the Mi 16. Addition of the estate and a 1.8 litre turbo diesel.
  • Late 1989: four wheel drive Mi16x4 was added.
  • 1990: Update to dashboard.
  • 1992: Updates to interior, 1.9s petrol engine replaced by a catalysed 2.0.
  • 1994: power steering and remote central locking become standard on all models. Driver's airbag added.
  • 1995: Executive and Quasar models added.
  • 1996: 405 saloon replaced by the 406. Estate revised and sold, until replaced by the 406 estate in 1997.

Other engines included 1.4, 1.6, and 1.8. Other styles included the GE, GL, GLx4, GLD, GLDT, GR, GTXi, GTXDT, Le Mans, LX, Mi, Style D, Style DT, Quasar, SRi, SRDT, STi, and STDT.[10]

North AmericaEdit

 
Peugeot 405 Mi 16 (United States)
 
Peugeot 405 Mi 16 (United States)

Three versions of the 405 saloon were sold in North America from the end of 1988; the 1.9 (110 hp (82 kW)) DL and S, and the Mi16 (150 hp (110 kW)).[11] The DL and S were available in estate form called Sportswagon.[12] Peugeot withdrew from the markets in the United States and Canadian after the model year of 1991.

IranEdit

 
Peugeot 405 in Iran, with a grille featuring the post logo of 1998

Iran Khodro also produces several models derived from the 405. The Peugeot Pars, also known as the Peugeot Persia, is a facelifted 405 with a redesigned front end including clear lamp lenses and a revised rear. The Peugeot RD is a rear wheel drive car which has a 405 body and mechanical parts from the Paykan.[13] Since 2006, it has been sold in certain markets in the Middle East as the Peugeot ROA.[14]

The Samand, which was designed to be a "national car" for Iran, is also based on the 405 platform. It replaced the long running Paykan which was itself based on the Hillman Hunter, an ancestor (in corporate ownership and model positioning terms) of the 405, having been produced by the Rootes Group and Chrysler UK from 1963 until 1979, the year that Peugeot purchased Chrysler's European operations.

Iran Khodro, the leading Iranian car manufacter produces the following models of Peugeot 405:

  • Peugeot 405 GL/GLX with 1.9L 8 valve engine, this model's production stopped in 2002.
  • Peugeot 405 GLX with 1.8L 8 valve engine and modified options.
  • Peugeot 405 SLX with 1.6L 16 valve PSA TU5 engine, New designed dashboard, two airbags. Abs Brake. and 14 size Ring
  • Peugeot Pars: A modern facelift of the 405 in four models with 1.8L 8 valve, 1.9L 8 valve, 1.6L 16 valve (PSA TU5 engine) and 1.8L 16 valve engines.
  • Peugeot RD and Peugeot ROA: Cheaper models that using the 405 body with 1.6L 8 valve hillman avenger(Paykan) engine (in RD) that It's upgraded to 1.7L 8 valve engine (in ROA). The production of these models was stopped in 2011.
  • IKCO Samand, Soren, Dena And Dena Plus: Iran's National Cars Which 405's platform
  • IKCO Arisun: badged under Iran Khodro's own brand, but still heavily based on the 405. It is a coupe utility, and has been in production since 2015.

MotorsportEdit

 
Peugeot 405 Turbo-16 winner of the Dakar Rally 1989 and 1990
 
The Pikes Peak version of the 405 Turbo 16 GR.

The motorsport version of the 405, the rallying 405 Turbo 16 GR, was very different from the road going 405. It was built in a coupé body style in mid-engine configuration, had constant four wheel drive with electronically adjustable center differential like the 205 T16, as it was based on the same technology. At least four were produced, competing in hill climbs and the Paris-Dakar rally.

Today, three are in the official Peugeot museum, and the other is in a private collection.

Racing 405s much closer in specification to the road going models were campaigned for several years in European touring car racing during the early to mid 1990s, most notably in the British Touring Car Championship and the French Supertourisme Championship. In Britain, the 405 did not achieve much success, but the car won the French series in both 1994 and 1995, in the hands of Laurent Aïello.

GalleryEdit

Sales and productionEdit

Year Worldwide Production Worldwide sales Notes
2009 220,300[15] 234,700[15]
2010 302,200[15] 299,400[15]
2011 282,399[16] 270,551[16] Total production reaches 4,518,350 units.[16]
2012 108,400[17] 110,600[17] Total production reaches 4,626,700 units.[17]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Leeps (1989-06-04). "Rust Busters". New Straits Times / Google News Archive. Retrieved 2015-05-03.
  2. ^ "Rewind to 1988: Peugeot 405". Quicks. Archived from the original on 17 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  3. ^ Geogheghan, Simon (2013). "Citroen BX". Simon Cars. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
  4. ^ Cammisa, Jason (October 2011). "Collectible Classic: 1989-1991 Peugeot 405Mi16". Automobile. Retrieved 13 August 2012.
  5. ^ Finlay, Ross (1988-01-22). "Company firing on all cylinders". The Glasgow Herald. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  6. ^ Anderson, Donn, ed. (April 1993). "Under the skin". New Zealand Car. Auckland, New Zealand: Accent Publishing Cnr. 7 (6): 85. ISSN 0113-0196.
  7. ^ l'Auto-Journal Salon 91-92, number 14/15, p. 56
  8. ^ a b Under the skin, p. 82
  9. ^ "Peugeot 405 Profile". Rellye-Info.com. Retrieved 2016-08-19.
  10. ^ a b Crouch, Jonathan. "Peugeot 405 (1988 - 1997) used car review". RAC. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  11. ^ "Peugeot 405 Mi 16: A Slick and Powerful Sleeper". Record-Journal. 3 November 1990. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  12. ^ "Wagon Lode". Popular Mechanics. June 1989. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
  13. ^ "Peugeot RD". ikco.com. Archived from the original on 2007-06-17. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  14. ^ "Oriente Medio: Peugeot resucita al 405". es.autoblog.com (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 2008-09-12. Retrieved 2007-06-19.
  15. ^ a b c d "Engine specs from PSA Peugeot Citroën" (PDF). Creator and designer. PSA Peugeot Citroën. Retrieved 26 November 2012.
  16. ^ a b c "PSA Annual Report 2012" (PDF). Car manufacturers. PSA. Retrieved 5 April 2013.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ a b c "Memento Mars 2013" (in French). PSA Peugeot Citroën. 21 February 2013: 50. Retrieved 31 July 2013. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)[permanent dead link]

External linksEdit