International recognition of Israel

The State of Israel was formally established by the Israeli Declaration of Independence on 14 May 1948, and was admitted to the United Nations (UN) as a member state on 11 May 1949.[1][2] As of December 2020, it has received diplomatic recognition from 165 (85%) of the 193 total UN member states. 28[a] member states have either never recognized Israel or have withdrawn their recognition; while others have severed diplomatic relations without explicitly withdrawing recognition. Alongside its status as a state with limited recognition since its independence, Israel's sovereignty has been and continues to be disputed by some countries—predominantly those in the Muslim world—as a consequence of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict and broader Arab–Israeli conflict.

  Israel
  Countries that recognize Israel
  Countries that have withdrawn recognition
  Countries that have suspended or cut relations with Israel
  Countries that have never recognized Israel

History

On 14 May 1948, the Israeli Declaration of Independence[3] formally established a Jewish state in part of the former British Mandate of Palestine, in accordance with the United Nations Partition Plan. The Arab League was opposed to any partition and to the establishment of Israel, and an Arab coalition jointly invaded the territory of the newly formed country one day after its independence, sparking the 1948 Arab–Israeli War.

Following Israel's establishment, the Israeli provisional government was established to govern the Yishuv; and while military operations were still in progress, it was promptly granted de facto recognition by the United States,[4][5] followed by Iran (which had voted against the Partition Plan), Guatemala, Iceland, Nicaragua, Romania, and Uruguay. The Soviet Union was the first country to grant de jure recognition to Israel on 17 May 1948,[6] followed by Nicaragua, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland.[7] The United States extended de jure recognition after the first Israeli election,[8] on 31 January 1949.[9]

By the late 1960s, Israel had established diplomatic relations with almost all of the countries of Western Europe, North America, South America, and Sub-Saharan Africa combined.

To put additional diplomatic, economic, and military pressure on Israel in the wake of the 1967 Arab–Israeli War, oil-producing Arab countries imposed an oil embargo on countries that had bilateral relations with Israel. As a result, many African and Asian countries broke off their ties with Israel. The Soviet Union also shifted its support in favour of the Arab cause against Israel during this time, leading most countries of the Eastern Bloc to sever diplomatic ties in 1967; these included the Soviet Union itself, as well as Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Bulgaria. Other countries in the Soviet sphere of influence, such as the People's Republic of China and Mongolia, also did not establish relations with Israel. Diplomatic relations with these countries were restored or established following the collapse of the Soviet Union, and new countries that had gained independence after the Soviet Union's dissolution also recognised Israel in their own right.

On 1 September 1967, the then-eight members of the Arab League issued the Khartoum Resolution, which included three pledges that forbade recognition, peace, and negotiations with Israel. However, Egypt, Jordan, and Mauritania gradually recognized Israel, though Mauritania broke off ties and withdraw recognition in 2010. As part of the 2020 Abraham Accords, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Sudan, and Morocco all established normalized bilateral ties with Israel.[10][11] Pressure was again exerted by the Arab League after the 1973 Arab–Israeli War, which led Cuba, Mali, and the Maldives to break off ties with Israel. Niger severed bilateral ties with Israel during the Second Intifada, and Venezuela broke off ties after the 2008–2009 Gaza War.

Following Israel's recognition of and entering into negotiations with the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), many African, Asian, and Arab countries either restored or established diplomatic relations with Israel. The Vatican began a bilateral relationship with Israel in 1994. Some[which?] countries broke or suspended relations during the 2006 Lebanon War and after the blockade of the Gaza Strip.[citation needed] Although Guinea broke diplomatic ties with Israel in 1967, Israel's extensive support for Guinea during its fight against an Ebola virus epidemic led to the re-establishment of bilateral relations in 2016.[12] Nicaragua restored relations in March 2017; Chad did likewise in January 2019.[13] The most recent country to establish diplomatic relations with Israel was Bhutan, on 12 December 2020.[14]

United Nations membership

On 15 May 1948, one day after its independence, Israel applied for membership with the United Nations (UN), but the application was not acted on by the Security Council. Israel's second application was rejected by the Security Council on 17 December 1948 by a 5-to-1 vote, with 5 abstentions. Syria was the sole negative vote; the United States, Argentina, Colombia, the Soviet Union, and the Ukrainian SSR voted in favour; and Belgium, the United Kingdom, Canada, China, and France abstained.

Israel's application was renewed in 1949 after the first Israeli election. By Security Council Resolution 69 on 4 March 1949, the UN Security Council voted 9-to-1 in favour of Israeli membership, with Egypt voting against and the United Kingdom abstaining.[15] Those voting in favour were China, France, the United States, the Soviet Union, Argentina, Canada, Cuba, Norway, and the Ukrainian SSR.

On 11 May 1949, the UN General Assembly, by the requisite two-thirds majority of its then-58 members, approved the application to admit Israel to the UN by General Assembly Resolution 273.[16][17] The vote in the General Assembly was 37 to 12, with 9 abstentions. Those that voted in favour of Israel were: Argentina, Australia, Bolivia, the Byelorussian SSR, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Iceland, Liberia, Luxembourg, Mexico, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, the Philippines, Poland, the Ukrainian SSR, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United States, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Yugoslavia. Those that voted against were six of the then-seven members of the Arab League (Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen) as well as Afghanistan, Burma, Ethiopia, India, Iran, and Pakistan. Those abstaining were: Belgium, Brazil, Denmark, El Salvador, Greece, Siam, Sweden, Turkey, and the United Kingdom.[18] Many of the countries that voted in favour or had abstained had already recognized Israel before the UN vote, at least on a de facto basis. Of these countries, Cuba and Venezuela have since withdrawn recognition.

Present situation

 
Legend:
  Israel
  Countries that reject passports from Israel
  Countries that reject passports from Israel and any other passport that contains Israeli stamps or visas

As of December 2020, 165 of the 193 total member states of the United Nations (UN) recognize Israel. 28[a] UN member states do not recognize Israel: 15 members of the Arab League (Algeria, Comoros, Djibouti, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Mauritania, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen); ten non-Arab members of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Brunei, Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Niger, and Pakistan); and Cuba, North Korea, and Venezuela.[19] In 2002, the Arab League proposed the recognition of Israel by Arab countries as a pathway towards a resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict under the Arab Peace Initiative. Following the Abraham Accords, which were signed in September 2020 between Israel and the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain, the Palestinian National Authority condemned any Arab agreement with Israel as dishonourable, describing them as a betrayal to the Palestinian cause and a blow to their quest for an independent Palestinian state.[20]

The passports of some countries are not valid for travel to Israel, including Bangladesh, Brunei, Iran, Iraq, and Pakistan. Thirteen countries do not accept Israeli passports: Algeria, Bangladesh, Brunei, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, and Yemen.[21] Some of these countries also do not accept passports of other countries whose holder has an Israeli visa or stamp on it. The stamp may be a visa stamp, or a stamp on entry or departure. Because of these issues, Israeli immigration controls do not stamp passports with an entry visa, instead stamping on a separate insert which is discarded on departure. However, a stamp of another country which indicates that the person has entered Israel may frustrate that effort. For example, if an Egyptian departure stamp is used in any passport at the Taba Border Crossing, that is an indication that the person entered Israel, and a similar situation arises for land crossings into Jordan. Some countries also ban direct flights and overflights to and from Israel.[22] In August 2020, the United Arab Emirates permitted direct flights from Israel, and Saudi Arabia and Bahrain authorized overflights for such flights.[23] On 8 October 2020, Israel and Jordan reached an agreement to allow flights to cross over both countries’ airspace.[24]

The Israeli flag and national anthem were banned from the 2017 International Judo Federation (IJF) at Abu Dhabi, with Israeli contestants having to display the IJF's flag and anthem instead.[25] The ban on Israeli symbols was lifted in 2018 and the Israeli flag and national anthem were allowed to be displayed.[26] Miri Regev, the Israeli Minister of Culture and Sports, was also allowed to attend the October 2018 event in Abu Dhabi.[26] In December 2017, seven Israelis were denied visas by Saudi Arabia to compete in an international chess tournament.[27]

List by country

Legend:[inconsistent][dubious ]

States that that have never formally recognized Israel and are in a state of war with Israel
States that have never formally recognized Israel
States that have withdrawn recognition from, cut, or suspended relations with Israel
States that recognize Israel

UN member states

State Date of de facto recognition Date of de jure recognition Notes
  Afghanistan[28] Does not accept Israeli passports.
1   Albania 16 April 1949[29] Diplomatic relations established on 20 August 1991.[30]
  Algeria[31][32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
2   Andorra 13 April 1994[33]
3   Angola 16 April 1992[34] Date diplomatic relations established
4   Antigua and Barbuda 22 June 1983[35] Date diplomatic relations established
5   Argentina 14 February 1949[36]
6   Armenia 4 April 1992[37] Date diplomatic relations established
7   Australia 29 January 1949[38]
8   Austria 15 March 1949[39] 8 May 1956 Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to that, the two countries had maintained consular relations since 1950. Delegations were upgraded to embassy status in 1959.[40]
9   Azerbaijan 7 April 1992[41] Date diplomatic relations established.
10   Bahamas [when?] [when?]
11   Bahrain 11 September 2020[42] 15 September 2020[43] On 15 September 2020, an agreement was signed to normalize relations.[42]
  Bangladesh[44][45] Does not accept Israeli passports, and Bangladeshi passports are not valid for travel to Israel.[21]
12   Barbados 29 August 1967[46] Date diplomatic relations established
13   Belarus 11 May 1949[47] 26 May 1992[48] Date diplomatic relations established
14   Belgium 15 January 1950[49]
15   Belize 6 September 1984[50] Date diplomatic relations established
16   Benin 5 December 1961[51] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973, and resumed in July 1992.[52][53]
17   Bhutan[19] 12 December 2020[54] Date diplomatic relations established
18   Bolivia 22 February 1949[55] 24 February 1949[56] Relations severed in January 2009,[57] and restored in November 2019.[58]
19   Bosnia and Herzegovina 26 September 1997[59] Date diplomatic relations established
20   Botswana [when?] [when?] Broke off relations in November 1973, restored in December 1993.
21   Brazil 7 February 1949[60]
  Brunei[19] Does not accept Israeli passports, and Brunei passports are not valid for travel to Israel[21]
22   Bulgaria 4 December 1948 Relations severed on 10 June 1967, and restored on 3 May 1990.[61]
23   Burkina Faso 5 July 1961[51] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973, and re-established in October 1993.[52][53][62]
24   Burundi [when?] [when?] Relations severed in May 1973,[53] and restored in March 1995.
25   Cambodia 30 August 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Cambodia broke off relations in 1975; they were restored on 5 October 1993.[63][64]
26   Cameroon 15 September 1960[65] Date diplomatic relations established. Relations severed in October 1973 and restored in August 1986.[53][66]
27   Canada 11 May 1949[47][67]
28   Cape Verde 17 July 1994[68] Date diplomatic relations established
29   Central African Republic [when?] [when?] Relations were broken in October 1973,[53] were resumed in January 1991.
30   Chad 10 January 1961 Relations were established in 1961, but severed on 28 November 1972.[53][69] In 2005, reports emerged of a mutual intention to renew diplomatic relations.[70] Relations restored on 20 January 2019.[13]
31   Chile 11 May 1949[71]
32   China 24 January 1992 The Republic of China granted de jure recognition to Israel on 1 March 1949.[55] The two states maintained diplomatic relations until Israel's recognition of the People's Republic of China on 8 January 1950. The PRC, however, did not formally reciprocate until the eventual establishment of diplomatic relations in 1992.[72]
33   Colombia 1 February 1949[55]
  Comoros[19]
34   Costa Rica 19 June 1948[73]
35   Croatia 4 September 1997[74] Date diplomatic relations established
  Cuba 14 January 1949 18 April 1949[75] Cuba severed relations in September 1973,[76] and the most recent government does not recognize it.[77]
36   Cyprus 21 January 1961 Date diplomatic relations established. They had been agreed to on 17 August 1960, but final establishment was postponed due to pressure from Arab nations.[78]
37   Czech Republic 18 May 1948[79] Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic were established 1 January 1993.[80]
38   Democratic Republic of the Congo 26 June 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Ties severed on 4 October 1973, and restored on 13 May 1982.[53][81]
39   Denmark 2 February 1949[55] 12 July 1950[82]
  Djibouti[19]
40   Dominica January 1978[80] Date diplomatic relations established
41   Dominican Republic 29 December 1948[83]
42   East Timor[84] 29 August 2002
43   Ecuador 2 February 1949[55]
44   Egypt 19 November 1977[85] 26 March 1979[86] Signatory to the Khartoum Resolution.[32] Later became the first Arab state to recognize Israel, with the Egypt–Israel peace treaty.
45   El Salvador 11 September 1948[87]
46   Equatorial Guinea [when?] [when?] Relations severed in October 1973,[53] and resumed in January 1994.[88]
47   Eritrea 6 May 1993[64][89] Date diplomatic relations established
48   Estonia 9 January 1992[90] Date diplomatic relations established
49   Eswatini September 1968[80]
50   Ethiopia 24 October 1961[91] Prior to de jure recognition, Ethiopia maintained consular relations with Israel since 1956. Relations were broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in November 1989.
51   Federated States of Micronesia[92] 23 November 1988 Date diplomatic relations established
52   Fiji August 1970[80] Date diplomatic relations established
53   Finland[93] 11 June 1948[94] 18 March 1949
54   France 24 January 1949[95]
55   Gabon[63] 29 September 1993[96] Relations severed in October 1973,[53] and resumed in September 1993.
56   Gambia [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in September 1992
57   Georgia 1 June 1992[97] Date diplomatic relations established
58   Germany 10 September 1952 (West Germany before 3 October 1990)[98] 12 May 1965[99] Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to this, Germany signed the Reparations agreement with Israel. East Germany never had diplomatic relations with Israel during its existence.
59   Ghana [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in August 1994
60   Greece[91] 15 March 1949 21 May 1990[100] Date diplomatic relations established
61   Grenada January 1975[80] Date diplomatic relations established
62   Guatemala 19 May 1948[79]
63   Guinea [when?] Broke diplomatic relations with Israel on 12 June 1967,[53] and restored relations on July 20, 2016.[12]
64   Guinea-Bissau March 1994[80] Date diplomatic relations established
65   Guyana [when?] Broke off relations in March 1974, restored in March 1992.
66   Haiti 26 February 1949[55] January 1950[80] Date diplomatic relations established
67   Honduras[83][101] 11 September 1948 8 November 1948[96]
68   Hungary[102] 24 May 1948 1 June 1948[94] Relations broken in 1967, and restored on 19 September 1989.[103]
69   Iceland 11 February 1949[55] [when?]
70   India 17 September 1950[104]
  Indonesia[45] Can[who?] only travel to Indonesia with an invitation from the Department of Immigration of Indonesia. Can only enter Indonesia through airports in Denpasar, Jakarta and Surabaya.[21]
  Iran[105] 6 March 1950[105] [105] Voted against UN Partition Plan and voted against admission of Israel to membership of UN. Iranian government refrained from recognizing Israel de jure despite de facto recognition.[105] Relations severed on 18 February 1979.[106] Does not accept Israeli passports,[21] and the holders of Iranian passports are "not entitled to travel to the occupied Palestine"[107]
  Iraq[108] Does not accept Israeli passports, except for Iraqi Kurdistan where visa is required for passengers without a signed and stamped letter issued by the Ministry of Interior of the Kurdistan Regional Government if arriving at Erbil (EBL) and Sulaymaniyah (ISU).[21] Iraqi passports are not valid for travel to Israel.[109]
71   Ireland[110] 12 February 1949 May 1963[110]
72   Italy[55] 8 February 1949 19 January 1950
73   Ivory Coast 15 February 1961 24 May 1961[51] Date diplomatic relations established. Prior to this date, it had maintained trade relations since 15 February 1961. Relations severed in November 1973, and resumed in February 1986.[52][53]
74   Jamaica[96] January 1962
75   Japan 15 May 1952[111]
76   Jordan 26 October 1994[112] Signatory to the Khartoum Resolution.[32] Recognized Israel in the Israel–Jordan peace treaty.
77   Kazakhstan 10 April 1992[113] Date diplomatic relations established
78   Kenya December 1963[96][114] Severed relation in November 1973,[53] resumed in December 1988.
79   Kiribati 21 May 1984[115] Date diplomatic relations established
  Kuwait[32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
80   Kyrgyzstan March 1992[96]
81   Laos February 1957 Date diplomatic relations established. Laos broke off relations in 1973, and restored them on 6 December 1993.[116]
82   Latvia 6 January 1992[117] Date diplomatic relations established
  Lebanon[32] Does not accept Israeli passports. Holders of passports containing any Israeli visa or stamp will be refused entry.[21]
83   Lesotho [when?]
84   Liberia 11 February 1949[102] [when?] Relations severed in November 1973, and resumed in August 1983.[52][53]
  Libya[32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
85   Liechtenstein January 1992[96]
86   Lithuania 8 January 1992[118] Date diplomatic relations established
87   Luxembourg 11 May 1949[47] 16 January 1950[119]
88   Madagascar [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in January 1994.
89   Malawi July 1964[80] Date diplomatic relations established
  Malaysia[45] Does not admit Israeli passport holders without written permission from the government. Malaysian passports not valid for travel to Israel without permission from the government.[120]
  Maldives 29 October 1965[121] Diplomatic relations suspended in 1974.[122] Cooperation agreements in 2009 did not develop into full diplomatic relations[123][124][125] and were terminated in 2014.[126]
  Mali[19] [when?] Diplomatic relations severed 5 January 1973.[53]
90   Malta January 1965[96] December 1965[80] Date diplomatic relations established
91   Marshall Islands 16 September 1987[127]
  Mauritania 28 October 1999[128] Diplomatic relations suspended 6 March 2009,[129] severed 21 March 2010[130]
92   Mauritius[63] [when?] Diplomatic relations severed July 1976, restored September 1993.
93   Mexico 11 May 1949[47] 4 April 1952[131]
94   Moldova[132] 22 June 1992
95   Monaco January 1964[80]
96   Mongolia[133] 2 October 1991
97   Montenegro[134] 12 July 2006
98   Morocco[19][32] 1 September 1994[135] Closed Israeli office and suspended relations in October 2000.[136] On 10 December 2020, an agreement was announced to normalize relations.[137]
99   Mozambique[63][64] 23 July 1993
100   Myanmar[138] 13 July 1953 Date full diplomatic relations established
101   Namibia[64][139] 11 February 1994
102   Nauru[80] December 1994
103     Nepal[140] 1 June 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. First South Asian nation to establish diplomatic ties with Israel.
104   Netherlands 11 May 1949[47] 16 January 1950[119]
105   New Zealand 29 January 1949[55] 28 July 1950[141]
106   Nicaragua 18 May 1948[83] Diplomatic relations suspended June 2010 and restored in March 2017.[142]
  Niger[19] Relations severed on 4 January 1973.[51][53]
107   Nigeria[143] 1960 [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] were resumed in May 1992.
  North Korea[144] North Korea and Israel held talks in 1993, but the talks were halted under pressure from the United States.[145] See Israel-North Korea relations for more details.
108   North Macedonia 7 December 1995[80] Date diplomatic relations established
109   Norway [when?] 4 February 1949 Date Norway recognized Israel
  Oman January 1996[136] A degree of relations established in January 1996. Closed Israeli office and suspended relations in October 2000.[136] Accepts Israeli passports for transit only, does not accept for admission.[21]
  Pakistan[146] Does not accept Israeli passports, and Pakistani passports are not valid for travel to Israel.[21]
110   Palau[63][64] 2 October 1994
111   Panama 19 June 1948[73]
112   Papua New Guinea 1978[147]
113   Paraguay 6 September 1948[83] 7 September 1948[148]
114   Peru 9 February 1949[55]
115   Philippines 11 May 1949[47] 13 May 1957[149]
116   Poland 18 May 1948[79] Relations were broken in 1967, restored in February 1990.[150]
117   Portugal[151] 12 May 1977 [when?]
  Qatar[19] April 1996[80] In April 1996, Qatar and Israel agreed to exchange trade representation offices.[152] Trade offices closed in February 2009.[80]
Israeli-issued passports are not allowed in Qatar. The only time Israel will be allowed is during 2022 FIFA World Cup.[153][154]
118   Republic of the Congo 9 November 1960 Date diplomatic relations established. Broke relations on 31 December 1972, resumed in August 1991.
119   Romania[155] 11 June 1948 12 June 1948[94]
120   Russia 17 May 1948[79][156][157] Recognition extended as the Soviet Union. Relations broken in 1967, restored on 19 October 1991.[158]
121   Rwanda [when?] Relations severed in October 1973,[53] and restored in October 1994.
122   Saint Kitts and Nevis January 1984[80] Date diplomatic relations established
123   Saint Lucia January 1979[80] Date diplomatic relations established
124   Saint Vincent and the Grenadines January 1981[80] Date diplomatic relations established
125   Samoa June 1977[80] Date diplomatic relations established
126   San Marino[159] 1 March 1995
127   São Tomé and Príncipe November 1993[80] Date diplomatic relations established
  Saudi Arabia[32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
128   Senegal 1960[96] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in August 1994.
129   Serbia 31 January 1992 Date diplomatic relations established[160]
130   Seychelles September 1992[80] Date diplomatic relations established
131   Sierra Leone [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in May 1992.
132   Singapore[161] 11 May 1969 Date diplomatic relations established
133   Slovakia 18 May 1948[79] Recognition extended under Czechoslovakia. Relations under Czechoslovakia were severed between June 1967 and February 1990. Diplomatic relations with Slovakia were established 1 January 1993.[162]
134   Slovenia[163] 28 April 1992
135   Solomon Islands January 1989[80]
  Somalia[164]
136   South Africa 24 May 1948[79] 14 May 1949[165][166]
137   South Korea 10 April 1962[167] Date diplomatic relations established
138   South Sudan[168] 28 July 2011 Date given is the date full diplomatic relations were established.[169]
139   Spain[170] 17 January 1986 [when?]
140   Sri Lanka[171] 16 September 1950 [when?]
141   Sudan 23 October 2020[172] On 23 October 2020, an agreement was announced to normalize relations.[172]
142   Suriname February 1976[80]
143   Sweden[55] 15 February 1949 13 June 1950[82]
144    Switzerland[173] 28 January 1949 18 March 1949[174]
  Syria[32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
145   Tajikistan April 1992[80]
146   Tanzania [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in February 1995.
147   Thailand 26 September 1950[175] [when?]
148   Togo [when?] Relations severed in September 1973,[53] and restored in June 1987.[52]
149   Tonga June 1977[80] Date diplomatic relations established
150   Trinidad and Tobago[80] August 1962
  Tunisia[32] 3 October 1994[64][176] [177] Joint declaration of relations made in January 1996. Closed the Israeli representative office and suspended relations in October 2000.[136]
151   Turkey 28 March 1949[178] 12 March 1950[179] Downgraded ties with Israel to second secretary level in September 2011,[180] and restored full diplomatic relations in June 2016.[181]
151   Turkmenistan[182] 6 October 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
153   Tuvalu July 1984[80] Date diplomatic relations established
154   Uganda [when?] Broke relations on 30 March 1972,[53] and restored in July 1994.
155   Ukraine 11 May 1949[47] 26 December 1991[183]
156   United Arab Emirates 13 August 2020[184] 15 September 2020[43] On 15 September 2020, an agreement was signed to normalize relations.[184]
157   United Kingdom 13 May 1949[185] 28 April 1950[119]
158   United States 14 May 1948[5] 31 January 1949[186]
159   Uruguay 19 May 1948[79] First Latin American country to recognize Israel.[187]
160   Uzbekistan[188] 21 February 1992 Date full diplomatic relations established
161   Vanuatu[63][64] 16 December 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
  Venezuela 27 June 1948[83] Relations severed in January 2009.[189]
162   Vietnam[190] 12 July 1993 Date diplomatic relations established
  Yemen[32] Does not accept Israeli passports.[21]
163   Zambia [when?] Relations broken in October 1973,[53] and resumed in December 1991.
164   Zimbabwe[63][64] 26 November 1993 Date diplomatic relations established

Non-UN member states

State Date of recognition Notes
  Cook Islands[191] 2008
  Kosovo[b] 4 September 2020 Kosovo recognised Israel as part of the Kosovo and Serbia economic normalization agreements (2020)[192][193][194] Diplomatic relations established on February 1, 2021.[195][196]
  Niue[197] 2008
  State of Palestine[198] 1993 Signatory to the Khartoum Resolution.[32] Recognized Israel as part of the Oslo I Accord.
   Vatican City[199] 15 June 1994

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Non-Muslim states:
    Muslim-majority states:
  2. ^ The political status of Kosovo is disputed. Having unilaterally declared independence from Serbia in 2008, Kosovo is formally recognised as an independent state by 97 UN member states (with another 15 states recognising it at some point but then withdrawing their recognition) and 96 states not recognizing it, while Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.

References

  1. ^ "un.org/en/members/ 3 July 2006".
  2. ^ "Two Hundred and Seventh Plenary Meeting". The United Nations. 11 May 1949. Archived from the original on 12 September 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007. {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Declaration of Establishment of State of Israel: 14 May 1948: Retrieved 15 December 2013 Archived 21 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ End of Palestine mandate, The Times, 15 May 1948
  5. ^ a b "Milestones: 1945-1952 - Office of the Historian". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  6. ^ Hashim S. H. Behbehani (1986). The Soviet Union and Arab nationalism, 1917-1966. Routledge. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7103-0213-7.
  7. ^ "Israel International Relations: International Recognition of Israel". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 31 March 2017.
  8. ^ Press Release, 31 January 1949. Official File, Truman Papers Truman Library
  9. ^ The Recognition of the State of Israel: Introduction Truman Library
  10. ^ Schwartz, Felicia (23 October 2020). "Israel, Sudan Agree to Normalize Ties in U.S.-Brokered Deal". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  11. ^ "Morocco latest country to normalise ties with Israel in US-brokered deal". BBC News. 2020-12-10. Retrieved 2020-12-13.
  12. ^ a b "Israel and Guinea renew diplomatic relations after 49 years - Israel News". Haaretz. Retrieved 2016-07-20.
  13. ^ a b Landau, Noa. "Israel, Chad Renew Diplomatic Ties That Were Severed in 1972". Haaretz. Archived from the original on 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  14. ^ "Israel and Bhutan establish diplomatic relations". Al Jazeera. 12 December 2020. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
  15. ^ JTA The Global Jewish Resource Global Jewish Resource
  16. ^ John Pike. "Israeli War of Independence". Retrieved 17 April 2016.
  17. ^ Neff, Donald. "Third Time's a Charm: Israel Admitted as U.N. Member in 1949". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. American Educational Trust (July 2011): 24. Retrieved 2011-11-25.
  18. ^ "United Nations Official Document". www.un.org. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i United States Congress (5 June 2008). "H. RES. 1249" (PDF). Since the publication of this document, Mauritania and Venezuela severed relations with Israel, and Bahrain, Chad, Guinea, the United Arab Emirates, Sudan, and Morocco resumed or established relations.
  20. ^ "Angered by Arab-Israel ties, PA quits chairing Arab League sessions". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  22. ^ "Archived copy". ops.group. Archived from the original on 20 October 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  25. ^ Young, Henry (27 October 2017). "Israeli judo star Tal Flicker wins gold in UAE; officials refuse to play anthem". CNN.
  26. ^ a b "At a sporting event in an Arab capital, an unexpected sound: The Israeli national anthem". The Washington Post. 27 November 2018.
  27. ^ "Saudi chess tournament starts without Israeli players". BBC News. December 26, 2017.
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