Indore State

Coordinates: 22°43′31″N 75°51′56″E / 22.7252°N 75.8655°E / 22.7252; 75.8655

Indore State, also known as Holkar State,[1] was a royal state in India. Its rulers belonged to the Holkar dynasty.[2] Indore was a 19-gun salute Maratha princely state (a rare high rank) during the British rule in India.

Indore State

इंदौर राज्य
1732–1950
Flag of Indore
Flag of the state (1732–1818)
Map of the territories of Indore State, some forming enclaves in neighbouring Gwalior and Bhopal states
Map of the territories of Indore State, some forming enclaves in neighbouring Gwalior and Bhopal states
CapitalIndore
History 
• Established
29 July 1732
• Accession to
Dominion of India
1 January 1950
Area
193124,605 km2 (9,500 sq mi)
Population
• 1931
1,325,08
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Maratha Empire
Dominion of India
Today part ofMadhya Pradesh,
Republic of India
The Rajawada (Old Palace) of Indore
The Sukhnivas Palace
The Maharaja of Indore on his state elephant
Tukojirao Holkar III, Maharaja of Indore
Maharani Shrimant Chandravati Bai Sahib Holkar, First Wife of Maharaja Tukojirao Holkar III of Indore
Maharani Indira Bai Sahib Holkar, Second Wife of Maharaja of Indore Tukojirao Holkar III

Indore state was located in the present-day Indian state of Madhya Pradesh. The capital of the state was the city of Indore. The state had an area of 24,605 km2 and a population of 1,325,089 in 1931. Other important towns besides Indore were Rampura, Khargon, Maheshwar, Mehidpur, Barwaha, and Bhanpura; there were a total of 3,368 villages.[3]

HistoryEdit

By 1720, the headquarters of the local pargana (an Indian local administrative unit) was transferred from Kampel to Indore due to the increasing commercial activity in the city. On 18 May 1724, the Nizam accepted the rights of the Maratha Peshwa Baji Rao I to collect chauth (taxes) from the area. In 1733, the Peshwa assumed full control of Malwa and appointed his commander Malhar Rao Holkar as the Subhedar (Governor) of the province.[citation needed]

On 29 July 1732, Bajirao Peshwa-I granted Holkar State by merging 28 and a half parganas to Malhar Rao Holkar, the founding ruler of the Holkar dynasty. His daughter-in-law Ahilyabai Holkar moved the state's capital to Maheshwar in 1767, but Indore remained an important commercial and military centre.[citation needed]

After the defeat of the Holkar rulers in the Third Anglo-Maratha War, an agreement was signed on 6 January 1818 with the British and the Indore State became a British protectorate. The Holkar dynasty was able to continue to rule Indore as a princely state mainly owing to the efforts of Dewan (chief minister) Tatya Jog.

The capital was moved from Maheshwar to Indore on 3 November 1818 and the Indore Residency, a political residency with a British resident, was established in the city. Later, Indore would be established as the headquarters of the British Central India Agency. In 1906, electrical infrastructure was installed in the city while a fire brigade was established in 1909. By 1918, the first master plan of the city was drawn by architect and town planner Patrick Geddes.

During the period of Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar II (1852–86), efforts were made for the planned development and industrial development of Indore. During the reigns of Maharaja Shivaji Rao Holkar, Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar III, and Maharaja Yeshwant Rao Holkar, business flourished thanks to the railways that had been introduced in the state in 1875.

In 1926, Maharaja Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII abdicated after being implicated in a murder case involving a court dancer and her lover.[4]

After the independence of India in 1947, Indore State, along with a number of neighbouring princely states, acceded to India. Yashwant Rao Holkar II, the last ruler of the state, signed the instrument of accession to the Indian Union on 1 January 1950. The territories of the state became part of the new Indian state of Madhya Bharat.

RulersEdit

The kings of Indore held the title of 'Maharaja' Holkar. The rulers of the state were entitled to a 19 gun salute by the British authorities.[5]

MaharajasEdit

Name Birth Death Reign
Malhar Rao I Holkar I 1694 1766 1731 – 20 May 1766
Male Rao Holkar II 1745 1767 20 May 1766 – 5 April 1767
Ahalya Bai Holkar (III)(f), regent 1725 1795 April 1767 – 13 August 1795
Tukoji Rao I Holkar IV 1723 1797 13 August 1795 – 29 January 1797
(also listed as co-ruler from April 1767)
Kashi Rao Holkar V ? 1808 29 January 1797 – January 1799
Khande Rao I Holkar VI 1798 1806 January 1799 – 1806
Yashwant Rao I Holkar 1776 1811 1806 – 27 October 1811
(regent from January 1799)
Malhar Rao III Holkar VII 1801 1833 November 1811 – 27 October 1833
Maharani Tulsi Bai (f), regent ? 1817 November 1811 – 20 December 1817
Martand Rao Holkar VIII 1830 1849 27 October 1833 – 2 February 1834
Hari Rao Holkar IX 1795 1843 2 February 1834 – 24 October 1843
Khande Rao II Holkar X 1828 1844 24 October 1843 – 17 February 1844
Maharani Maji (f), first regency ? 1849 24 October 1843 – 17 February 1844
Tukoji Rao II Holkar XI
(knighted 25 June 1861)
1835 1886 27 June 1844 – 17 June 1886
Maharani Maji (f), second regency (s.a.) ? 1849 27 June 1844 – September 1849
Shivaji Rao Holkar XII
(knighted 30 June 1887)
1859 1908 17 June 1886 – 31 January 1903
Tukoji Rao III Holkar XIII
(knighted 1 January 1918)
1890 1978 31 January 1903 – 26 February 1926
Yashwant Rao II Holkar XIV
(knighted 1 January 1935)
1908 1961 26 February 1926 – 15 August 1947
Usha Devi Holkar 1961 present

Diwans of IndoreEdit

  • c. 1808 – 1811: Bala Ram Seth
  • 1811 – December 1817: Ganpal Rao
  • 1818 – April 1826: Tantia Jogh (Tatya Joga) (died 1826)
  • April 1826 – 1827?: Raoji Trimbak
  • 1827: Daji Bakhshi
  • 1827? – 1829: Appa Rao Krishna
  • 1829 – 1834?: Madhav Rao Phadnis
  • April 1834 – November 1836: Sardar Revaji Rao Phanse
  • 1836 – 1839?: Abbaji Ballal (or Bhawani Bin)
  • 1839? – 1840?: Bhao Rao Phanse (1st time)
  • 1840? – October 1841: Narayan Rao Palshikar
  • 1841 – 1842?: the ruler
  • 1842? – 1848: Bhao Rao Phanse (2nd time)
  • 1848 – 1849?: Ram Rao Palshikar
  • 1852 – 1873: the ruler
  • 1873 – 1875: Sir T. Madhava Rao (1828–1891)
  • 1875 – 1881: R. Raghunatha Rao (1st time) (1831–1912)
  • 1881? – 1884?: Shahamat Ali
  • 1884 – 1886: Nana Moroji Trilokekar
  • 1886 – 1888: R. Raghunatha Rao (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • c. 1890s:Balkrishna Atmaram Gupte
  • 1890–1913: Sir Shri Rai Bhadhur Nanak Chand Ji Airen ( as First Prime Minister Of State )
  • 4 April 1913 – October 1914: Narayan Ganesh Chandravarkar
  • 1914 – 1916: ....
  • 1916 – c. 1921?: Ram Prasad Dube (1st time)
  • November 1921 – 1923?: Chettur Sankaran Nair (1857–1934)
  • 1923? – 1926?: Ram Prasad Dube (2nd time)

Prime ministersEdit

  • 1890–1913: Sir Shri Rai Bhadhur Nanak Chand Ji Airen
  • February 1926 – 1939: Siremal Bapna (s.a.)
  • 1939 – 1942?: Sardar Dina Nath
  • 1942 – 1947: Raja Gyannath Madan
  • 1947: R.G. Horton
  • 1 September 1947 – 3 January 1948: E.P. Menon
  • January 1948: N.C. Mehta
  • 26 January 1948 – March 1948: M.V. Bhide

British ResidentsEdit

British Residents of the Indore Residency.[6]

  • 1840–1844: Sir Claude Martin Wade (1794–1861)
  • 1845–1859: Robert North Collie Hamilton (1802–1887)
  • 1859–1861: Sir Richmond Campbell Shakespear (1812–1861)
  • 1861–1869: Richard John Meade (1821–1899)
  • 1869–1881: Henry D. Daly
  • 1881–1888: Henry Lepel-Griffin (1838–1908)
  • 1888–1890: P.F. Henvey
  • 1890–1894: R.J. Crosthwaite
  • 1894–1899: David W.K. Barr
  • 1899–1902: Robert Henry Jennings
  • 1902–1903: Francis Younghusband (1863–1942)
  • 1903–1907: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (1st time) (1866–1933)
  • 1907–1909: James Levett Kaye (1861–1917)
  • 1909–1910: Charles Beckford Luard
  • 1910–1916: Charles Lennox Russell
  • 1916–1919: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (2nd time) (s.a.)
  • 1919?–1921: Francis Granville Beville
  • 1921–1924: Denys Brooke Blakeway (1870–1933)
  • 1924–1929: Sir Reginald Glancy
  • March 1927 – October 1927: Edward Herbert Kealy (acting for Glancy)
  • 1929–1930: H.R.N. Pritchard
  • 1930–1931: Frederick Bailey
  • 1931–1932: G.M. Ogilvie
  • 1933 – 21 March 1935: Rawdon James MacNabb (1883–1935)
  • 1935–1940: Kenneth Samuel Fitze (1887–1960)
  • 1940–1942: Gerald Thomas Fisher
  • 1942–1946: Walter F. Campbell
  • 1946–1947: Henry Mortimer Poulton (b. 1898 – d. 1973)

British AgentsEdit

Agents to the Governor-General for the Central India Agency. The headquarters of the agent were at Indore.

  • 1845–1854: Robert North Collie Hamilton (s.a.)
  • 1854–1899: the British Residents in Indore
  • 1899–1900: David W.K. Barr
  • Mar 1900–1905: Charles S. Bayley
  • 1905–1910: Hugh Daly
  • 1910–1912: Michael Francis O'Dwyer (1864–1910)
  • 1912–1913: John B. Wood
  • 1913–1916: Oswald Vivian Bosanquet (s.a.)
  • 1916–1944: the British Residents in Indore
  • 1944–1946: Walter Campbell
  • 1946–1947: Henry Mortimer Poulton (1898–1973)

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Princely States of India
  2. ^ Cotton, James Sutherland (1911). "Indore" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 14 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 500–501.
  3. ^ Great Britain India Office. The Imperial Gazetteer of India. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1908.
  4. ^ Jhala, Angma Dey (2016). Courtly Indian Women in Late Imperial India ("The Body, Gender and Culture") by. London New York: Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 978-1138663640. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  5. ^ "Indore Princely State (19 gun salute)". Archived from the original on 6 June 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
  6. ^ Princely States of India

External linksEdit