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In Indian history, the Solar dynasty or the Ikshvaku dynasty was founded by the legendary king Ikshvaku. The dynasty is also known as Sūryavaṁśa ("Solar dynasty" or "Descendants of the Sun") and along with Lunar dynasty comprises one of the main lineages of the Kshatriya Varna. Rama belonged to the Ikshavaku dynasty. According to the Jain texts, twenty-two out of the twenty-four Jain Tirthankara belonged to this dynasty. Rishabha was the first tirthankar of Jainism. Both refers to the same person. According to Buddhist texts and tradition, Gautama Buddha descended from this dynasty. Many later kings of the Indian subcontinent claimed to be of Suryavanshi background.
Kingdom of Kosala
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The important personalities belonging to this royal house are Mandhatri , Muchukunda , Ambarisha , Bharata Chakravartin, Bahubali, Harishchandra, Dilīpa, Sagara, Raghu, Rama and Pasenadi. Although, both the Hindu Puranas and the Buddhist texts include Shuddodhana, Gautama Buddha and Rahula in their accounts of the Ikshvaku dynasty, but according to the Buddhist texts, Mahasammata, an ancestor of Ikshvaku was the founder of this dynasty, who was elected by the people as the first king of the present era. According to the Puranas, supreme preceptor of the Ikshvaku dynasty was sage Vashishta.
Suryavansha or Solar Dynasty is the one of the two major legendary Kshatriya dynasties found in Hindu Puranic and epic literature, the other being Chandravansha or the Lunar Dynasty.One of sons of Brahma was Marichi, whose grandson was Vivasvan, from whom started Suryavansha. (Reference-Bhaleram Beniwal: Jaton ka Adikalin Itihasa, Jaypal Agencies, Agra 2005 (Page 25). According to Harivamsa, Ikshvaku is considered the primogenitor of the dynasty of Surya and was granted the kingdom of Aryavarta by his father Vaivasvata Manu. Manu settled down in the Aryavarta region after he survived the great flood. A. K. Mozumdar states that Manu is the one who built a city on the Sarayu and called it Ayodhya meaning the 'invincible city'. This city served as the capital of many kings from the solar dynasty and is also the birthplace of Rama an avatar of Vishnu.
Some hindu texts suggest Rishi Marichi, one of the seven sages and first human creations of Brahma as the progenitor of the dynasty. Marichi's eldest son Kashyapa is said to have settled down in Kashmir (Kashyapa-Meru or Kashyameru). He also contributed to the verses of the Vedas. Later, Vivasvan's son of Kashyapa and Aditi rose as a prominent hindu god Surya and married Saranyu the daughter of Vishwakarma, the architect of devas. He had many children but Manu was given the responsibility of building the civilization and as a result it formed a dynasty that was named 'Suryavansh' or the solar dynasty. Manu is also the progenitor of the Lunar Dynasty because he married his daughter Ila to Budha, the son of Chandra or the moon god and the couple gave birth to the magnanimous king Pururavas who became the first king of the Chandravansh or the Lunar dynasty.
In Bhagavata PuranaEdit
Ikshvaku and his ancestor Manu are also mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana (Canto 9, Chapter 1),
yo 'sau satyavrato nāma
he who was known as Satyavrata
The Buddhist text, Buddhavamsa and Mahavamsa (II, 1-24) traces the origin of the Shakyas to king Okkaka (Pali equivalent to Sanskrit Ikshvaku) and gives their genealogy from Mahasammata, an ancestor of Okkaka. This list comprises the names of a number of prominent kings of the Ikshvaku dynasty, namely, Mandhata and Sagara. The genealogy according to the Mahavamsa is as follows:
- Rishabhanatha (son of King Nabhi), the founder of Jainism in the present Avasarpani era (descending half time cycle as per Jain cosmology) is said to have founded the Ikshvaku dynasty. The name for the Ikshvaku dynasty comes from the word ikhsu (sugarcane), another name of Rishabhanatha, because he taught people how to extract ikshu-rasa (sugarcane-juice).
- Bharata Chakravarti (first Chakravartin) and Bahubali (first Kamadeva), sons of Rishabha
- Arkakirti and Marichi, son of Bharata
- at the time of Ajitanatha
- Jitashatru (father of Ajitanatha) and his younger brother Sumitra (father of Sagara)
- Ajitanatha (the 2nd Tirthankara) and Sagara (2nd Chakravartin)
- Janhu (eldest son of Sagara), the one who flooded village of Nagas with waters of Ganga leading to turning of sixty thousand sons of Sagara into ashes by Jawalanprabha (emperor of Nagas)
- Bhagiratha (eldest grandson of Sagara)
- at the time of Sambhavanatha
- at the time of Abhinandananatha
- at the time of Sumatinatha
- at the time of Padmaprabha
- at the time of Suparshvanatha
- at the time of Chandraprabha
- at the time of Pushpadanta
- at the time of Shitalanatha
- at the time of Shreyanasanatha
- at the time of Vasupujya
- at the time of Vimalanatha
- at the time of Anantanatha
- at the time of Dharmanatha
- at the time of Shantinatha
- at the time of Kunthunatha
- at the time of Aranatha
- at the time of Mallinatha
- at the time of Munisuvrata (Munisuvrata himself was not from Ikshvaku, but Harivamsa)
- at the time of Naminatha
- at the time of Parshvanatha
- at the time of Mahavira
- Malalasekera, G. P. (2007) . Dictionary of Pāli Proper Names: A-Dh. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 461–2. ISBN 978-81-208-3021-9.
- Geography of Rigvedic India, M.L. Bhargava, Lucknow 1964, pp. 15-18, 46-49, 92-98, 100-/1, 136
- Ikshaku tribe The Mahabharata translated by Kisari Mohan Ganguli (1883 -1896), Book 3: Vana Parva: Tirtha-yatra Parva: Section CVI, p. 228 'There was born in the family of the Ikshaku, a ruler of the earth named Sagara, endued with beauty, and strength...".
- Zimmer 1952, p. 220
- Zimmer 1952, p. 218
- A.K.Mazumdar 2008, p. 161.
- A.K.Mazumdar 2008, p. 159.
- Law, B.C. (1973). Tribes in Ancient India, Bhandarkar Oriental Series No.4, Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, p.246
- Misra, V.S. (2007). Ancient Indian Dynasties, Mumbai: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, ISBN 81-7276-413-8, p.286
- Geiger, Wilhelm (tr.) (1912). "Mahavamsa, Chapter II". Ceylon Government Information Dept., Colombo (in lakdvia.org website). Retrieved 26 October 2009.
- "Okkāka". Palikanon. Retrieved 13 August 2019.
- Jain 1991, p. 2.
- Jain 1991, p. 5.
- Shah 2004, p. 15.
- Shah, Chandraprakash, Shri Shantinatha, 16th Tirthankara
- Jain 1991, p. 161.
- Zimmer, Heinrich (1952), Joseph Campbell (ed.), Philosophies of India, London, E.C. 4: Routledge & Kegan Paul Ltd, ISBN 978-81-208-0739-6CS1 maint: location (link)
- Shah, Natubhai (2004), Jainism: The World of Conquerors, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-1938-2
- Jain, Kailash Chand (1991), Lord Mahavira and his times, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-81-208-0805-8
- A.K.Mazumdar (2008). The Hindu history. Rupa Publications India. ISBN 978-81-86772-17-1.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Kulakara (in Jainism)
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