Huda Sha'arawi (Arabic: هدى شعراوي, ALA-LC: Hudá Sha‘rāwī; Egyptian Arabic: هدى الشعراوي, Hoda El-Shaarawi; June 23, 1879 – December 12, 1947) was a pioneering Egyptian feminist leader, nationalist, and founder of the Egyptian Feminist Union.
Early life and marriageEdit
Huda Sha'arawi was born Nur al-Huda Sultan in Upper Egypt to the famous Egyptian El-Shaarwi family. Huda Sha'arawi was born into a wealthy family in Minya; she was the daughter of Muhammad Sultan Pasha, who later became president of Egypt's Chamber of Deputies. Her mother, Iqbal Hanim, was of Circassian descent and was sent from the Caucasus region in Turkey to live with her uncle in Egypt. Sha'arawi was educated at an early age along with her brothers, studying various subjects such as grammar and calligraphy in both Turkish and Arabic. She spent her childhood and early adulthood secluded in an upper-class Egyptian harem.
At the age of thirteen, she was married to her cousin Ali Pasha Sha'arawi, who Pasha Sultan named as the legal guardian of his children and trustee of his estate. According to Margaret Badran, a "subsequent separation from her husband gave her time for an extended formal education, as well as an unexpected taste of independence." She was taught to read the Quran and received tutoring in Quranic Arabic and Islamic subjects by female teachers in Cairo. Sha'arawi wrote poetry in both Arabic and French. Sha'arawi later recounted her early life in her memoir, Mudhakkirātī ("My Memoir") which was translated and abridged into the English version Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist, 1879-1924.
The Egyptian Revolution of 1919 was a women-led protest advocating for Egyptian independence from Britain and the release of male nationalist leaders. Members of the female Egyptian elite, such as Sha'arawi, led the masses of protestors while lower-class women and women from the countryside provided assistance to and participated in street protests alongside male activists. Sha'arawi worked with her husband during the revolution while he stood as acting vice president for the Wafd; Pasha Sha'arawi kept her informed so she could take his place if he or other members of Wafd were arrested. The Wafdist Women's Central Committee (WWCC), associated with Wafd, was founded on January 12, 1920, following the protests in 1919. Many of the women who participated in the protests became members of the committee, electing Sha'arawi as its first president.
In 1938, Sha'arawi and the EFU sponsored the Eastern Women's Conference for the Defense of Palestine in Cairo, prioritizing nationalist issues over feminist concerns.
At the time, women in Egypt were confined to the house or harem which she viewed as a very backward system. As seen in all of her pictures, Huda is wearing a hijab. Sha'arawi resented such restrictions on women's movements, and consequently started organizing lectures for women on topics of interest to them. This brought many women out of their homes and into public places for the first time, and Sha'arawi was able convinced them to help her establish a women's welfare society to raise money for the poor women of Egypt. In 1910, Sha'arawi opened a school for girls where she focused on teaching academic subjects rather than practical skills such as midwifery.
Sha'arawi made a decision to stop wearing her veil in public after her husband's death in 1922. After returning from the International Woman Suffrage Alliance Congress in Rome, she removed her face veil in public for the first time, a signal event in the history of Egyptian feminism. Women who came to greet her were shocked at first then broke into applause and some of them removed their veils. Within a decade of Huda’s act of defiance, few women still chose to wear the veil. Her decision to unveil was part of a greater movement of women, and was influenced by French born Egyptian feminist named Eugénie Le Brun, but it contrasted with some feminist thinkers like Malak Hifni Nasif. In 1923, Sha`arawi founded and became the first president of the Egyptian Feminist Union. Characteristic of liberal feminism in the early twentieth century, the EFU sought to reform laws restricting personal freedoms, such as marriage, divorce, and child custody.
Even as a young woman, she showed her independence by entering a department store in Alexandria to buy her own clothes instead of having them brought to her home. She helped to organize Mubarrat Muhammad Ali, a women's social service organization, in 1909 and the Intellectual Association of Egyptian Women in 1914, the year in which she traveled to Europe for the first time. She helped lead the first women's street demonstration during the Egyptian Revolution of 1919, and was elected president of the Wafdist Women's Central Committee. She began to hold regular meetings for women at her home, and from this, the Egyptian Feminist Union was born. She launched a fortnightly journal, L'Égyptienne in 1925, in order to publicise the cause.
She led Egyptian women pickets at the opening of Parliament in January 1924 and submitted a list of nationalist and feminist demands, which were ignored by the Wafdist government, whereupon she resigned from the Wafdist Women's Central Committee. She continued to lead the Egyptian Feminist Union until her death, publishing the feminist magazine l'Egyptienne (and el-Masreyya), and representing Egypt at women's congresses in Graz, Paris, Amsterdam, Berlin, Marseilles, Istanbul, Brussels, Budapest, Copenhagen, Interlaken, and Geneva. She advocated peace and disarmament. Even if only some of her demands were met during her lifetime, she laid the groundwork for later gains by Egyptian women and remains the symbolic standard-bearer for their liberation movement.
Sha'arawi received a major English-language biography by Sania Sharawi Lanfranchi in 2012.
Sha'arawi was involved in philanthropic projects throughout her life. In 1909, she created the first philanthropic society run by Egyptian women (Mabarrat Muhammad 'Ali), offering social services for poor women and children. She argued that women-run social service projects were important for two reasons. First, by engaging in such projects, women would widen their horizons, acquire practical knowledge and direct their focus outward. Second, such projects would challenge the view that all women are creatures of pleasure and beings in need of protection. To Sha'arawi, problems of the poor were to be resolved through charitable activities of the rich, particularly through donations to education programs. Holding a somewhat romanticized view of poor women's lives, she viewed them as passive recipients of social services, not to be consulted about priorities or goals. The rich, in turn, were the "guardians and protectors of the nation."[This quote needs a citation]
- Shaarawi, Huda (1986). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-935312-70-6.
- Zénié-Ziegler, Wédad (1988), In Search of Shadows: Conversations with Egyptian Women, Zed Books, p. 112, ISBN 978-0862328078,
The Federation of Egyptian Women was founded by a middle-class woman of Turkish origin, Huda Shaarawi. In 1923, she and two of her fellow activists, Cesa Nabarawi and Nabawiya Moussa, also of Turkish origin...
- Shaarawi, Huda (1986). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. 25–26. ISBN 978-0-935312-70-6.
- Shaarawi, Huda (1986). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-935312-70-6.
- Shaarawi, Huda Post Colonial Studies. Retrieved 6 October 2014.
- Shaarawi, Huda. Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist. Translated and introduced by Margot Badran. New York: The Feminist Press, 1987.
- Shaarawi, Huda (1986). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist. New York: The Feminist Press at The City University of New York. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-935312-70-6.
- Shaʻrāwī, Hudá, and Margot Badran. Harem years: the memoirs of an Egyptian feminist (1879-1924). New York: Feminist Press at the City University of New York, 1987.
- Huda Shaarawi, Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist (1879-1924), ed. and trans. by Margot Badran (London: Virago, 1986).
- Allam, Nermin (2017). "Women and Egypt's National Struggles". Women and the Egyptian Revolution: Engagement in Activism During the 2011 Arab Uprisings. Cambridge: Cambridge UP: 26–47.
- Allam, Nermin (2017). "Women and Egypt's National Struggles". Women and the Egyptian Revolution: Engagement and Activism During the 2011 Arab Uprisings. Cambridge: Cambridge UP: 32.
- Badran, Margot (1995). Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. Princeton University Press. p. 75.
- Badran, Margot (1995). Feminists, Islam, and Nation. Princeton University Press. pp. 80–81.
- Weber, Charlotte (Winter 2008). "Between Nationalism and Feminism: The Eastern Women's Congresses of 1930 and 1932". Journal of Middle East Women's Studies. 4 (1): 100. doi:10.2979/mew.2008.4.1.83. JSTOR 10.2979/mew.2008.4.1.83.
- Hudá Shaʻrāwī (January 1987). Harem Years: The Memoirs of an Egyptian Feminist (1879-1924). Feminist Press at CUNY. ISBN 978-0-935312-70-6.
- Weber, Charlotte (Winter 2008). "Between Nationalism and Feminism: The Eastern Women's Congresses of 1930 and 1932". Journal of Middle East Women's Studies. 4 (1): 84. doi:10.2979/mew.2008.4.1.83. JSTOR 10.2979/mew.2008.4.1.83.
- Khaldi, Boutheina (2008). Arab Women Going Public: Mayy Ziyadah and her Literary Salon in a Comparative Context (Thesis). Indiana University. OCLC 471814336., p. 40; Zeidan, Joseph T. (1995). Arab Women Novelists: The Formative Years and Beyond. SUNY series in Middle Eastern Studies. Albany: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-2172-4, p. 34.
- Casting off the Veil: The Life of Huda Shaarawi, Egypt's First Feminist (London: I.B. Tauris, 2012). ISBN 9781848857193 (hbk.); 1848857195 (hbk.).
- Margot Badran, Feminists, Islam, and Nation: Gender and the Making of Modern Egypt. (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995), 50.