History of software
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Software is programmed instructions stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers for execution by the processor. Software is a recent development in human history, and fundamental to the Information Age.
Ada Lovelace's work for Charles Babbage's Analytical Engine in the 19th century is often considered the founding of the discipline, though both mathematicians' efforts remained theoretical only, as the technology of Babbage's day proved insufficient to build his computer. Alan Turing is credited with being the first person to come up with a theory for software in 1935, which led to the two academic fields of computer science and software engineering.
The first generation of software for early stored program digital computers in the late 1940s had its instructions written directly in binary code, generally written for mainframe computers. Later, the development of modern programming languages alongside the advancement of the home computer would greatly widen the scope and breadth of available software, beginning with assembly language, and continuing on through functional programming and object-oriented programming paradigms.
Before stored-program digital computersEdit
Origins of computer scienceEdit
Computing as a concept goes back to ancient times, beginning with devices such as the abacus and continuing on through early examples of computing such as the Antikythera mechanism. However, these devices were pure hardware and had no software - their computing powers were directly tied to their specific form and engineering.
Software requires the concept of a general-purpose processor - what is now described as a Turing machine - as well as computer memory in which reusable sets of routines and mathematical functions comprising programs can be stored, started, and stopped individually, and only appears recently in human history.
The first known computer algorithm was written by Ada Lovelace in the 19th century for her friend and collaborator Charles Babbage's planned Analytical Engine, to translate Luigi Menabrea's work on Bernoulli numbers for machine instruction. However, this remained theoretical only - the lesser state of electrical engineering in the lifetime of these two mathematicians proved insufficient to construct the Analytical Engine.
This eventually led to the creation of the twin academic fields of computer science and software engineering, which both study software and its creation. Computer science is more theoretical (Turing's essay is an example of computer science), whereas software engineering is focused on more practical concerns.
However, prior to 1946, software as we now understand it – programs stored in the memory of stored-program digital computers – did not yet exist. The very first electronic computing devices were instead rewired in order to "reprogram" them. Computers like the ENIAC, were programmed largely by women who had been previously working as human computers. Programming the computers was considered "women's work," while designing the hardware was seen as "men's work." Engineers would give the programmers blueprints of the ENIAC wiring and expected them to figure out how to program the machine. The women who worked as programmers prepped the ENIAC for its first public reveal, writing the code for the demonstrations. However, none were publicly recognized for their work at the time. Kathleen Booth developed Assembly Language in 1950 to make it easier to program the computers she worked on at Birkbeck College.
Grace Hopper worked as one of the first programmers of the Harvard Mark I. She later created a 500 page manual for the computer. which became widely cited, even though she was not credited for her work. Hopper often is credited with coining the terms "bug" and "debugging," when she found a moth in the Mark II, causing a malfunction. But the term was already in use when she found the moth. Hopper developed the first compiler and brought her idea from working on the Mark computers to working on UNIVAC in the 1950s. Hopper also developed the programming language FLOW-MATIC to program the UNIVAC. Frances E. Holberton, also working at UNIVAC, developed a code, C-10, which let programmers use keyboard inputs and created the Sort-Merge Generator in 1951. Adele Mildred Koss and Hopper also created the precursor to a report generator.
Early days of computer software (1948–1979)Edit
In his manuscript "A Mathematical theory of Communication", Claude Shannon (1916–2001) provided an outline for how binary logic could be implemented to program a computer. Subsequently, the first computer programmers used binary code to instruct computers to perform various tasks. Nevertheless, the process was very arduous. Computer programmers had to enter long strings of binary code to tell the computer what data to store. Computer programmers had to load information onto computers using various tedious mechanisms, including flicking switches or punching holes at predefined positions in cards and loading these punched cards into a computer. With such methods, if a mistake was made, the whole program might have to be loaded again from the beginning.
The very first time a stored-program computer held a piece of software in an electronic memory, and executed it successfully, was 11am, 21 June 1948, at the University of Manchester, on the Manchester Baby computer. It was written by Tom Kilburn, and calculated the highest factor of the integer 2^18 = 262,144. Starting with a large trial divisor, it performed division of 262,144 by repeated subtraction then checked if the remainder was zero. If not, it decremented the trial divisor by one and repeated the process. Google released a tribute to the Manchester Baby, celebrating it as the "birth of software". In the late 1950's and early 1960's, a popular innovation was the development of computer languages such as Fortran, COBOL and BASIC. These languages allowed programs to be specified in an abstract way, independent of the precise details of the hardware architecture of the computer. The languages were primarily intended only for specifying numerical calculations.
COBOL was first conceived of when Mary K. Hawes convened a meeting (which included Grace Hopper) in 1959 to discuss how to create a computer language to be shared between businesses. Hopper's innovation with COBOL was developing a new symbolic way to write programming. Her programming was self-documenting. Betty Holberton helped edit the language which was submitted to the Government Printing Office in 1960. FORMAC was developed by Jean E. Sammet in the 1960s. Her book, Programming Languages: History and Fundamentals (1969), became an influential text.
The Apollo Mission to the moon depended on software to program the computers in the landing modules. The computers were programmed with a language called Basic. The software also had an Interpreter which was made up of a series of routines and an Executive, which specified which programs to run and when. Both were designed by Hal Laning. Margaret Hamilton, who had previously been involved with software reliability issues when working on the US SAGE air defense system, was also part of the Apollo software team. Hamilton was in charge of the onboard flight software for the Apollo computers. Hamilton felt that software operations were not just part of the machine, but also intricately involved with the people who operated the software. Hamilton also coined the term "software engineering" while she was working at NASA.
The actual "software" for the computers in the Apollo missions was made up of wires that were threaded through magnetic cores. Where the wire went through a magnetic core, that represented a "1" and where the wire went around the core, that represented a "0." Each core stored 64 bits of information. Hamilton and others would create the software by punching holes in punch cards, which were then later processed on a Honeywell mainframe where the software could be simulated. When the code was "solid," then it was sent to be woven into the magnetic cores at Raytheon, where women known as "Little Old Ladies" worked on the wires. The program itself was "indestructible" and could even withstand lightning strikes, which happened to Apollo 12. Wiring the computers took several weeks to do, freezing software development during that time.
While using the simulators to test the programming, Hamilton discovered ways that code could produce dangerous errors when human mistakes were made while using it. NASA believed that the astronauts would not make mistakes due to their training. Hamilton was not allowed to program code to prevent errors that would lead to system crash, so she notated the code in the program documentation. Her ideas to add error-checking code was rejected as "excessive." However, exactly what Hamilton predicted would happen occurred on the Apollo 8 flight, when human error caused the computer to wipe out all of the navigational data.
Bundling of software with hardware and its legal issuesEdit
Later, software was sold to multiple customers by being bundled with the hardware by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) such as Data General, Digital Equipment and IBM. When a customer bought a minicomputer, at that time the smallest computer on the market, the computer did not come with Pre-installed software, but needed to be installed by engineers employed by the OEM.
This bundling attracted the attention of US antitrust regulators, who sued IBM for improper "tying" in 1969, alleging that it was an antitrust violation that customers who wanted to obtain its software had to also buy or lease its hardware in order to do so. Although the case was dropped by the US Justice Department after many years of attrition as "without merit".
Very quickly, commercial software started to be pirated, and commercial software producers were very unhappy at this. Bill Gates, cofounder of Microsoft, was an early moraliser against software piracy with his famous Open Letter to Hobbyists in 1976.
Data General also encountered legal problems related to bundling – although in this case, it was due to a civil suit from a would-be competitor. When Data General introduced the Data General Nova, a company called Digidyne wanted to use its RDOS operating system on its own hardware clone. Data General refused to license their software and claimed their "bundling rights". The US Supreme Court set a precedent called Digidyne v. Data General in 1985 by letting a 9th circuit appeal court decision on the case stand, and Data General was eventually forced into licensing the operating system because it was ruled that restricting the license to only DG hardware was an illegal tying arrangement. Even though the District Court noted that "no reasonable juror could find that within this large and dynamic market with much larger competitors", Data General "had the market power to restrain trade through an illegal tie-in arrangement", the tying of the operating system to the hardware was ruled as per se illegal on appeal.
In 2008, Psystar Corporation was sued by Apple Inc. for distributing unauthorized Macintosh clones with OS X preinstalled, and countersued. One of the arguments in the countersuit - citing the Data General case - was that Apple dominates the market for OS X compatible computers by illegally tying the operating system to Apple computers. District Court Judge William Alsup rejected this argument, saying, as the District Court had ruled in the Data General case over 20 years prior, that the relevant market was not simply one operating system (Mac OS) but all PC operating systems, including Mac OS, and noting that Mac OS did not enjoy a dominant position in that broader market. Alsup's judgement also noted that the surprising Data General precedent that tying of copyrighted products was always illegal had since been "implicitly overruled" by the verdict in the Illinois Tool Works Inc. v. Independent Ink, Inc. case.
Unix was an early operating system which became popular and very influential, and still exists today. The most popular variant of Unix today is macOS (previously OS X and Mac OS X), while Linux is closely related to Unix.
Pre-Internet source code sharingEdit
Before the Internet – and indeed in the period after the internet was created, but before it came into widespread use by the public – computer programming enthusiasts had to find other ways to share their efforts with each other, and also with potentially-interested computer users who were not themselves programmers. Such sharing techniques included distribution of tapes, such as the DECUS tapes, and later, electronic bulletin board systems. However, a particularly popular and mainstream early technique involved computer magazines.
Source code listings in computer magazinesEdit
Tiny BASIC was published as a type-in program in Dr. Dobb's Journal in 1975, and developed collaboratively (in effect, an early example of open source software, although that particular term was not to be coined until two decades later).
It was an inconvenient and slow process to type in source code from a computer magazine, and a single mistyped – or worse, misprinted – character could render the program inoperable, yet people still did so. (Optical character recognition technology to scan in the listings rather than transcribe them by hand was not yet available).
However, even with the widespread use of cartridges and cassette tapes in the 1980s for distribution of commercial software, free programs (such as simple educational programs for the purpose of teaching programming techniques) were still often printed, because it was cheaper than manufacturing and attaching cassette tapes to each copy of a magazine. Many of today's IT professionals who were children at the time had a lifelong interest in computing in general or programming in particular sparked by such first encounters with source code.
However, eventually a combination of four factors brought this practice of printing complete source code listings of entire programs in computer magazines to an end:
- programs started to become very large
- floppy discs started to be used for distributing software, and then came down in price
- more and more people started to use computers – computing became a mass market phenomenon, and most ordinary people were far less likely to want to spend hours typing in listings than the earlier enthusiasts
- partly as a consequence of all of the above factors, computer magazines started to attach free cassette tapes, and free floppy discs, with free or trial versions of software on them, to their covers
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Before the microcomputer, a successful software program typically sold up to 1,000 units at $50,000–60,000 each. By the mid-1980s, personal computer software sold thousands of copies for $50–700 each. Companies like Microsoft, MicroPro, and Lotus Development had tens of millions of dollars in annual sales. They similarly dominated the European market with localized versions of already successful products.
Just like the auto industry, the software industry has grown from a few visionaries operating (figuratively or literally) out of their garage with prototypes. Steve Jobs and Bill Gates were the Henry Ford and Louis Chevrolet of their times, who capitalized on ideas already commonly known before they started in the business. A pivotal moment in computing history was the publication in the 1980s of the specifications for the IBM Personal Computer published by IBM employee Philip Don Estridge, which quickly led to the dominance of the PC in the worldwide desktop and later laptop markets – a dominance which continues to this day.
Free and open source softwareEdit
Applications for mobile devices (cellphones and tablets) have been termed "apps" in recent years. Apple chose to funnel iPhone and iPad app sales through their App Store, and thus both vet apps, and get a cut of every paid app sold. Apple does not allow apps which could be used to circumvent their app store (e.g. virtual machines such as the Java or Flash virtual machines).
This move was replicated for desktop operating systems with GNOME Software (for Linux), the Mac App Store (for macOS), and the Windows Store (for Windows). All of these platforms remain, as they have always been, non-exclusive: they allow applications to be installed from outside the app store, and indeed from other app stores.
The explosive rise in popularity of apps, for the iPhone in particular but also for Android, led to a kind of "gold rush", with some hopeful programmers dedicating a significant amount of time to creating apps in the hope of striking it rich. As in real gold rushes, not all of these hopeful entrepreneurs were successful.
Formalization of software developmentEdit
The development of curricula in computer science has resulted in improvements in software development. Components of these curricula include:
- Structured and Object Oriented programming
- Data structures
- Analysis of Algorithms
- Formal languages and compiler construction
- Computer Graphics Algorithms
- Sorting and Searching
- Numerical Methods, Optimization and Statistics
- Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
How software has affected hardwareEdit
As more and more programs enter the realm of firmware, and the hardware itself becomes smaller, cheaper and faster as predicted by Moore's law, an increasing number of types of functionality of computing first carried out by software, have joined the ranks of hardware, as for example with graphics processing units. (However, the change has sometimes gone the other way for cost or other reasons, as for example with softmodems and microcode.)
Most hardware companies today have more software programmers on the payroll than hardware designers, since software tools have automated many tasks of printed circuit board (PCB) engineers.
Computer software and programming language timelineEdit
The following tables include year by year development of many different aspects of computer software including:
- High level languages
- Operating systems
- Networking software and applications
- Computer graphics hardware, algorithms and applications
- Word processing
- Computer aided design
|DEC RSTS-11||Data General
|Soviet ALGOL 68||DEC DOS-11|
|Bob Metcalfe develops
|Newell & Sancha visible
|Catmull & Straber|
|CAD/CAM||MCS founded||ADAM||Auto-Draft||Tektronix 4014|
|CAD/CAM||Solid modeling||McDonnell Douglas
|Forerunner to CATIA||Raster graphics display|
C with classes
|Atari DOS||86-DOS||MS-DOS 1
for DG Mini
|CAD/CAM||IGES||VersaCAD||Dassault Systems||Autodesk founded|
Good Old MAD (GOM)
Research In Motion founded
|ATI founded||Intel 82786|
|Word 1 for DOS||Word 1 for Mac||WordPerfect 4.2
|Spreadsheet||Excel for Mac|
|AutoCAD 2||Bentley Systems
|Ada ISO 8652
Hamilton C shell
Turbo Pascal OOP
|Windows 2.0||MS-DOS 4
|Morris worm||World Wide Web
|JPEG and GIF||Pixar's Tin Toy
|AutoDesk 3D Studio|
|Microsoft Works for DOS||PC Magazine Reviews
Word for Windows
|Microsoft Office for Windows|
|Spreadsheet||Excel for Windows||Quattro Pro|
|Parametric T-Flex||Visionary Design Systems founded|
ANSI Common Lisp
|AIX 4.0, 4.1|
|Mosaic web browser||NetWare 4||Netscape Navigator|
|Microsoft Works||Novell buys WordPerfect|
|CADAM & CATIA
|AutoCAD 12||Simple Vector|
Perl Data Language
Open Source Erlang
|Windows NT 4.0
Mac OS 7.6
Mac OS 8
Solaris 7 64-bit
|The research proposal
for Google was formed.
|Mosaic web browser
|NetWare 4||Netscape Navigator|
|Pixar Goes Public
after Toy Story
|3Dfx Voodoo||ATI Rage Pro||Voodoo Banshee|
|Word 95 for Windows||Corel buys WordPerfect
|Canvas 5||ISO 13567
|Dassault Systems buys|
Matra Datavision products
Visual Basic .NET
|Mac OS X Server 1.0
Mac OS 9
Mac OS X Public Beta
|Windows XP 64-bit Edition|
|BlackBerry 850||NetWare 4||Netscape Navigator|
|S3 Savage 4
|Radeon DDR (R100)||Nvidia Kyro II
|Sun buys Star Division|
|CAD/CAM||Pro/Engineer 2000||AutoCAD 2000||EDS buys SDRC||Unigraphics NX|
Autodesk buys Revit
Windows Server 2003
Windows XP Professional x64 Edition
|BlackBerry Pearl 8100|
RPG Open Access
v10.6 Snow Leopard
Android 1.5 "Cupcake"
Android 1.6 "Donut"
Android 2.0–2.1 "Eclair"
|Android 2.2 "Froyo"|
Android 2.3 "Gingerbread"
|Assassin's Creed||Up Cloth
OpenOffice from Sun
|Oracle releases OpenOffice
to Apache Software Foundation
|CAD/CAM||Siemens buys UGS|
Android 3.x "Honeycomb"
Android 4.0 "Ice Cream Sandwich"
v10.8 Mountain Lion
Android 4.1.x–4.2.x "Jelly Bean"
Android 4.3 "Jelly Bean"
Android 4.4 "KitKat"
Android 5.0 "Lollipop"
|Hugo wins Oscar
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- Justice WHITE, with whom Justice BLACKMUN joins, dissenting.
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