Open main menu

This is the history of Amazon, an American internet sales company.

Amazon founder Jeff Bezos

Contents

FoundingEdit

The company was founded as a result of what Jeff Bezos called his "regret minimization framework", which described his efforts to fend off any regrets for not participating sooner in the Internet business boom during that time.[1] In 1994, Bezos left his employment as vice-president of D. E. Shaw & Co., a Wall Street firm, and moved to Seattle, Washington, where he began to work on a business plan[2] for what would become Amazon.com.

On July 5, 1994, Bezos initially incorporated the company in Washington State with the name Cadabra, Inc.[3] He later changed the name to Amazon.com, Inc. a few months later, after a lawyer misheard its original name as "cadaver".[4] In its early days, the company was operated out of the garage of Bezos's house on Northeast 28th Street in Bellevue, Washington.[5] In September 1994, Bezos purchased the domain name relentless.com and briefly considered naming his online store Relentless, but friends told him the name sounded a bit sinister. The domain is still owned by Bezos and still redirects to the retailer.[6][7]

Choosing a nameEdit

Bezos selected the name Innovation by looking through the dictionary; he settled on "Amazon" because it was a place that was "exotic and different", just as he had envisioned for his Internet enterprise. The Amazon River, he noted, was the biggest river in the world, and he planned to make his store the biggest bookstore in the world.[8] Additionally, a name that began with "A" was preferred because it would probably be at the top of an alphabetized list.[8] Bezos placed a premium on his head start in building a brand and told a reporter, "There's nothing about our model that can't be copied over time. But you know, McDonald's got copied. And it's still built a huge, multibillion-dollar company. A lot of it comes down to the brand name. Brand names are more important online than they are in the physical world."[9]

Online bookstore and IPOEdit

After reading a report about the future of the Internet that projected annual web commerce growth at 2,300%, Bezos created a list of 20 products that could be marketed online. He narrowed the list to what he felt were the five most promising products, which included: compact discs, computer hardware, computer software, videos, and books. Bezos finally decided that his new business would sell books online, because of the large worldwide demand for literature, the low unit price for books, and the huge number of titles available in print.[10] Amazon was founded in the garage of Bezos' rented home in Bellevue, Washington.[8][11][12] Bezos' parents invested almost $250,000 in the start-up.[13]

In July 1995, the company began service as an online bookstore.[14] The first book sold on Amazon.com was Douglas Hofstadter's Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.[15] In the first two months of business, Amazon sold to all 50 states and over 45 countries. Within two months, Amazon's sales were up to $20,000/week.[16] In October 1995, the company announced itself to the public.[17] In 1996, it was reincorporated in Delaware. Amazon issued its initial public offering of stock on May 15, 1997, at $18 per share, trading under the NASDAQ stock exchange symbol AMZN.[18]

Barnes & Noble sued Amazon on May 12, 1997, alleging that Amazon's claim to be "the world's largest bookstore" was false because it "...isn't a bookstore at all. It's a book broker." The suit was later settled out of court and Amazon continued to make the same claim.[19] Walmart sued Amazon on October 16, 1998, alleging that Amazon had stolen Walmart's trade secrets by hiring former Walmart executives. Although this suit was also settled out of court, it caused Amazon to implement internal restrictions and the reassignment of the former Walmart executives.[19]

In 1999, Amazon first attempted to enter the publishing business by buying a defunct imprint, "Weathervane", and publishing some books "selected with no apparent thought", according to The New Yorker. The imprint quickly vanished again, and as of 2014 Amazon representatives said that they had never heard of it.[20] Also in 1999, Time magazine named Bezos the Person of the Year when it recognized the company's success in popularizing online shopping.[21]

 
Amazon Toys Team employees circa 2000 during a summer Amazon party. Jeff Bezos is wearing the black shirt.

2000sEdit

Since June 19, 2000, Amazon's logotype has featured a curved arrow leading from A to Z, representing that the company carries every product from A to Z, with the arrow shaped like a smile.[22]

According to sources, Amazon did not expect to make a profit for four to five years. This comparatively slow growth caused stockholders to complain that the company was not reaching profitability fast enough to justify their investment or even survive in the long-term. The dot-com bubble burst at the start of the 21st century and destroyed many e-companies in the process, but Amazon survived and moved forward beyond the tech crash to become a huge player in online sales. The company finally turned its first profit in the fourth quarter of 2001: $5 million (i.e., 1¢ per share), on revenues of more than $1 billion. This profit margin, though extremely modest, proved to skeptics that Bezos' unconventional business model could succeed.[23]

2010 to presentEdit

In 2011, Amazon had 30,000 full-time employees in the USA, and by the end of 2016, it had 180,000 employees.

 
Day 1 building in Seattle

In June 2017, Amazon announced that it would acquire Whole Foods, a high-end supermarket chain with over 400 stores, for $13.4 billion.[24][25] The acquisition was seen by media experts as a move to strengthen its physical holdings and challenge Walmart's supremacy as a brick and mortar retailer. This sentiment was heightened by the fact that the announcement coincided with Walmart's purchase of men's apparel company Bonobos.[26] On August 23, 2017, Whole Foods shareholders, as well as the Federal Trade Commission, approved the deal.[27][28]

In September 2017, Amazon announced plans to locate a second headquarters in a metropolitan area with at least a million people.[29] Cities needed to submit their presentations by October 19, 2017 for the project called HQ2.[30] The $5 billion second headquarters, starting with 500,000 square feet and eventually expanding to as much as 8 million square feet, may have as many as 50,000 employees.[31] In 2017, Amazon announced it would build a new downtown Seattle building with space for Mary's Place, a local charity in 2020.[32]

At the end of 2017, Amazon had over 566,000 employees worldwide.[33][34]

According to an August 8, 2018 story in Bloomberg Businessweek, Amazon has about a 5 percent share of U.S. retail spending (excluding cars and car parts and visits to restaurants and bars), and a 43.5 share of American online spending in 2018. The forecast is for Amazon to own 49 percent of the total American online spending in 2018, with two-thirds of Amazon's revenue coming from the U.S.[35]

Amazon launched the last-mile delivery program and ordered 20,000 Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Vans for the service in September 2018.[36][37]

To make data transfers from space cheaper and easier Amazon added 12 antennas for the satellite data in November 2018.[38]

Amazon will generate $258.22 billion in US retail ecommerce sales this year, up 29.2% over last year. Amazon’s Marketplace sales will represent an increasingly dominant portion of its ecommerce business—68.0% this year, compared with 32.0% for Amazon direct sales. By the end of 2018, sales generated from Amazon’s Marketplace will be more than double that of Amazon’s direct sales in the US.[39]

HQ2Edit

In November 2018, Amazon announced it would open its highly sought-after new headquarters, known as (HQ2) in Long Island City, Queens, New York City,[40][41] and in Crystal City, Virginia.[42] Despite mixed reception, some people expected HQ2 to expand the job ecosystem on Long Island.[43] On February 14, 2019, Amazon announced it was not moving forward with plans to build HQ2 in Queens.[44]

Amazon GoEdit

On January 22, 2018, Amazon Go, a store that uses cameras and sensors to detect items that a shopper grabs off shelves and automatically charges a shopper's Amazon account, was opened to the general public in Seattle.[45][46] Customers scan their Amazon Go app as they enter, and are required to have an Amazon Go app installed on their smartphone and a linked Amazon account to be able to enter.[45] The technology is meant to eliminate the need for checkout lines.[47][48][49] Amazon Go was initially opened for Amazon employees in December 2016.[50][51][52] By the end of 2018, there will be 8 total Amazon Go stores located in Seattle, Chicago, San Francisco and New York.[53] Amazon has plans to open as many as 3,000 Amazon Go locations across the United States by 2021.[54]

Amazon 4-StarEdit

Amazon announced to debut the Amazon 4-star in New York, Soho neighborhood Spring Street between Crosby and Lafayette on 27 September 2018. The store carries the 4-star and above rated products from around New York.[55] The Amazon website searches for the most rated, highly demanded, frequently bought and most wished for products which are then sold in the new Amazon store under separate categories. Along with the paper price tags, the online-review cards will also be available for the customers to read before buying the product.[56][57]

Mergers and acquisitionsEdit

Amazon has grown through a number of mergers and acquisitions over the years.

The company has also invested in a number of growing firms, both in the United States and Internationally.[58][59] In 2014, Amazon purchased top level domain .buy in auction for over $4 million.[60][61] The company has invested in brands that offer a wide range of services and products, including Engine Yard, a Ruby-on-Rails platform as a service company,[62] and Living Social, a local deal site.[63]

TimelineEdit

OverviewEdit

Time period Key developments at Amazon
1994–1998 Amazon starts off as an online bookstore selling books, primarily competing with local booksellers and Barnes & Noble. It IPOs in 1997.
1998–2004 Amazon starts to expand its services beyond books. It also starts offering convenience services, such as Free Super Savers Shipping.
2005–2011 Amazon moves into the cloud computing area with Amazon AWS, as well as the crowdsourcing area with Amazon Mechanical Turk. By being an early player, it eventually dominates the cloud computing scene, allowing it to control much of the physical infrastructure of the Internet.[64] Amazon also offers the Amazon Kindle for people to purchase their books as eBooks, and by 2010, more people buy ebooks than physical books off of Amazon.
2011–2015 Amazon starts offering streaming services like Amazon Music and Amazon Video. By 2015, its market capitalization surpasses that of Walmart.

Full timelineEdit

Year Month and date Event type Details
1994 July 5 Company Amazon founded.[65]
1997 May 15 Company Amazon IPOs at $18.00/share, raising $54 million.[65]
1998 April 27 Acquisitions Amazon acquires the Internet Movie Database, a comprehensive repository for movie information on the Internet.[66]
1998 August 5 Company Direction Amazon announces that it will move beyond books.[67]
1998 December Competition Jack Ma launches Alibaba in China, which would later grow to dominate the Chinese online retail market, and provide an obstacle to Amazon's attempts to expand in China.[68][69]
2002 January Product Amazon launches Free Super Saver Shipping, which allows customers to get free shipping for orders above $99.[65]
2002 March Legal, Competition Amazon settles its October 1999 patent infringement suit against Barnes & Noble (over its 1-Click checkout system, which it received a patent for in September 1999). It originally charged that Barnes&Noble.com had essentially copied Amazon's 1-Click technology.[70]
2003 October Product Amazon launches A9.com, a subsidiary of Amazon.com based in Palo Alto, California that develops search and advertising technology.[71]
2004 August 19 International Amazon acquires Joyo, an online bookstore in China, for $75 million, which then becomes the 7th regional website of Amazon.com. joyo later becomes Amazon China.[72]
2005 February Product Amazon launches Amazon Prime, a membership offering free two-day shipping within the contiguous United States on all eligible purchases for a flat annual fee of $79.[65]
2005 November Product Amazon launches Amazon Mechanical Turk, an application programming interface (API) allowing any Internet user to perform "human-intelligence" tasks such as transcribing podcasts, often at very low wages.[65]
2006 August 25 Product Amazon launches Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), a virtual site farm allowing users to use the Amazon infrastructure to run applications ranging from running simulations to web hosting.[73]
2006 September 19 Product Amazon launches Fulfillment by Amazon, giving small businesses the ability to use Amazon.com's own order fulfillment and customer service infrastructure - and customers of Amazon.com shipping offers when buying from 3rd-party sellers.[74]
2006 Legal Amazon agrees to settle a legal dispute with Toys R Us (over a partnership that gave Toys R Us exclusive rights to supply some toy products on Amazon's website) and pays $51 million.[75]
2006 March Product Amazon launches Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), which allows other websites/developers to store computer files on Amazon's servers.[65]
2007 August Product CreateSpace announces launch of Books on Demand service, which makes it easy for authors who want to self-publish their books to distribute them on Amazon.com.[76]
2007 August Product Amazon launches AmazonFresh, a grocery service offering perishable and nonperishable foods.[77]
2007 September 25 Product Amazon launches Amazon Music, an online music store and music locker.[78]
2007 November 19 Product Amazon launches the Amazon Kindle.[65]
2009 July 22 Acquisitions, Competition Amazon acquires Zappos for $850 million.[79]
2009 October 20 Competition Barnes & Noble announces the Nook, an eReader.[80]
2010 January Competition Apple introduces its own virtual bookstore, called iBooks, and then partners with five major book publishers.[81] It later convinces them to raise the price of ebooks (using the agency pricing model that gives publishers full control over ebook prices).
2010 February 1 Competition Microsoft launches Microsoft Azure, a cloud computing platform that will compete with Amazon AWS over cloud services.
2010 July Product Amazon announced that e-book sales for its Kindle reader outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever.[82]
2011 January Acquisitions, International Amazon acquires Lovefilm, a DVD rental service known as the Netflix of Europe.[83]
2011 February 16 Competition Borders Group, outcompeted by Amazon, applies for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.[84]
2011 February 22 Product Amazon rebrands its Amazon Video service as Amazon Instant Video and adds access to 5,000 movies and TV shows for Amazon Prime members.[85][86]
2011 March 22 Product Amazon launches the Amazon Appstore for Android devices and the service was made available in over 200 countries.[87]
2011 July 1 Legal California starts collecting sales taxes on Amazon.com purchases.[88]
2011 September Product Amazon launches Amazon Locker, a delivery locker system that allows users to get items delivered at specially-designed lockers.[89]
2011 September 28 Product Amazon announces the Kindle Fire, a tablet computer that takes aim at Apple's iPad with a smaller device that sells at $199, compared with the $499 value of Apple's cheapest iPad.[90]
2012 April Legal The Department of Justice files suit against Apple Inc and five major publishing houses (the "Big Five"), alleging that they colluded in 2010 to raise the price of ebooks (using the agency pricing model that gives publishers full control over ebook prices).[91] Amazon had originally set the price of ebooks at $9.99 (using the wholesale pricing model giving Amazon full control over ebook prices).
2012 March 19 Acquisitions Amazon acquires Kiva Systems for $775 million, a robotics company that creates robots that can move items around warehouses.[92]
2012 April Legal Amazon agrees to allow collection of sales taxes in both Nevada and Texas (starting on July 1), and agrees to create 2,500 jobs and invest $200 million in new distribution centers in Texas.[93]
2012 September 6 Product Amazon announces the Kindle Fire HD series of touchscreen tablet computers.[94]
2013 March Acquisitions Amazon acquires social reading and book-review site GoodReads.[95]
2013 June International Amazon launches in India.[96][97]
2014 July 25 Product Amazon launches the Amazon Fire.[98]
2014 August 25 Acquisitions Amazon announced its intent to acquire the video game streaming website Twitch for $970 million.[99]
2014 October Legal Amazon reaches agreement with Simon & Schuster, allowing the publisher to adopt the agency pricing model and set prices on its books sold on Amazon.[100]
2014 November 6 (announcement), actual rollout occurs through 2015 Product Amazon unveils Amazon Echo, a wireless speaker and voice command device that can take commands and queries, and be used to add items to the Amazon.com shopping cart, among other things.[101][102] The Alexa Voice Service that is built into Amazon Echo can also be added to other Amazon devices.[103]
2014 November Legal Amazon resolves dispute with Hachette, allowing Hachette to adopt the agency-pricing model and set prices on Hachette books sold on Amazon.[104]
2015 July Competition, International Alibaba announces that it will invest $1 billion into its Aliyun cloud computing arm, some of which would go into new Aliyun international data centers. This would allow Aliyun to compete with Amazon Web Services outside of China.[105]
2015 August 26 Product Amazon launches Amazon Underground, an Android app through which users can get gaming and other apps for free that they would otherwise have to pay for, and also get in-app purchases for free. App creator participation is voluntary. App creators are paid $0.002 for every minute a user spends in the app.[106][107][108]
2015 September 8 Product Amazon launches its Amazon Restaurants service that delivers food from nearby restaurants, for Amazon Prime customers in Seattle.[109][110] The service would subsequently be rolled out to many other cities.
2015 November 2 Product Amazon opened its first physical retail store, a bookstore in the University Village shopping center in Seattle. The store, known as Amazon Books, has prices matched to those found on the Amazon website and integrate online reviews into the store's shelves.[111]
2015 December 14 Company Amazon begins moving into their new headquarters campus in the Denny Triangle neighborhood of Seattle, beginning with the 38-story Amazon Tower I (nicknamed "Doppler" after the codename for Amazon Echo).[112] The three towers are scheduled to be completed by 2020.
2016 December 7 Delivery Amazon Prime Air (Amazon's drone-based delivery system) makes its first delivery in Cambridge in the United Kingdom. The successful delivery is announced a week later, on December 14, along with video.[113][114]
2017 June 15 Acquisitions Amazon acquires Whole Foods for $13.7 billion, a high end grocery store located throughout the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada.[115]
2017 September 7 Company Amazon began search for Amazon HQ2, a second company headquarters to house up to 50,000 employees.[116][117]
2018 January 18 Company Amazon narrows down the choices of its second headquarters location to 20 places.[118]
2018 January 22 Company Amazon opens a cashier-less grocery store to the public.[119]
2018 September 19 International Amazon launches in Turkey.[120]
2018 October 2 Company After widespread criticism, Amazon raises its minimum wage for all U.S. and U.K. employees to $15 an hour, including Whole Foods and seasonal employees, beginning November 1, 2018.[121][122]
2018 November 13 Company Amazon CEO announces that the new headquarters HQ2 will be split between New York City and Northern Virginia.[123]
2019 February 14 Company Amazon cancels plans to open new HQ2 in New York City after massive backlash from local politicians and community members. Plans in Northern Virginia remain unchanged.[124]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Person of the Year – Jeffrey P. Bezos". Time. December 27, 1999. Archived from the original on April 8, 2000. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
  2. ^ "Jeff Bezos: The King of e-Commerce". Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved August 23, 2017.
  3. ^ "AMAZON COM INC (Form: S-1, Received: 03/24/1997 00:00:00)". nasdaq.com. March 24, 1997. Retrieved July 15, 2014.
  4. ^ Amazon's Jeff Bezos: With Jeremy Clarkson, we're entering a new golden age of television Retrieved August 18, 2015.
  5. ^ https://gizmodo.com/you-can-now-buy-the-house-where-jeff-bezos-started-amaz-1832547232
  6. ^ Nazaryan, Alexander (July 12, 2016). "How Jeff Bezos is Hurtling Toward World Domination". Newsweek. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  7. ^ Staff, Writer (June 21, 2014). "Relentless.com". The Economist. Retrieved July 12, 2016.
  8. ^ a b c Byers, Ann (2006), Jeff Bezos: the founder of Amazon.com, The Rosen Publishing Group, pp. 46–47, ISBN 9781404207172
  9. ^ Murphy Jr., Bill. "'Follow the Money' and Other Lessons From Jeff Bezos".
  10. ^ "Amazon Company History". Retrieved May 6, 2013.
  11. ^ Spiro, Josh. "The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com". Inc.com. Retrieved February 7, 2013.
  12. ^ Neate, Rupert (June 22, 2014). "Amazon's Jeff Bezos: the man who wants you to buy everything from his company". The Guardian. Retrieved June 28, 2018.
  13. ^ Tom Metcalf (August 1, 2018). "A hidden Amazon fortune: Bezos' parents may be worth billions". Los Angeles Times.
  14. ^ Rivlin, Gary (July 10, 2005). "A Retail Revolution Turns 10". The New York Times. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
  15. ^ "Amazon company timeline". Corporate IR. January 2015.
  16. ^ Spiro, Josh. "The Great Leaders Series: Jeff Bezos, Founder of Amazon.com".
  17. ^ "World's Largest Bookseller Opens on the Web". URLwire. October 4, 1995.
  18. ^ "If You Invested in Amazon at Its IPO, You Could Have Been a Millionaire". Fortune. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Forming a Plan, The Company Is Launched, One Million Titles". Reference for Business: Encyclopedia of Business, 2nd ed. Retrieved September 1, 2012.
  20. ^ Packer, George (February 10, 2014). "Cheap Words". The New Yorker. Retrieved February 15, 2018.
  21. ^ Ramo, Joshua Cooper (December 27, 1999). "Jeffrey Preston Bezos: 1999 PERSON OF THE YEAR". Time. ISSN 0040-781X. Retrieved July 13, 2018.
  22. ^ "Amazon.com Introduces New Logo; New Design Communicates Customer Satisfaction and A-to-Z Selection". Corporate IR.net. January 5, 2000.
  23. ^ Spector, Robert (2002). Amazon.com: Get Big Fast.
  24. ^ Michael J. de la Merced; Nick Wingfield (16 June 2017). "Amazon to Buy Whole Foods in $13.4 Billion Deal". The New York Times.
  25. ^ La Monica, Paul; Isidore, Chris. "Amazon is buying Whole Foods for $13.7 billion". CNN Money. CNNMoney. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  26. ^ Merced, Michael (June 16, 2017). "Walmart to Buy Bonobos, Men's Wear Company, for $310 Million". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2017.
  27. ^ Press, The Associated (August 23, 2017). "Whole Foods shareholders say yes to Amazon deal". KXAN.com. Archived from the original on August 24, 2017. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  28. ^ Johnson, Alex (August 23, 2017). "Amazon's Acquisition of Whole Foods Won't Be Blocked by FTC". NBC News. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
  29. ^ Barron, Richard M. (September 8, 2017). "Triad to take regional approach to Amazon proposal". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  30. ^ Craver, Richard (October 19, 2017). "Triad woos Amazon in bid for second headquarters". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  31. ^ Craver, Richard (September 16, 2017). "Triad economic officials prepare to cast long-shot bid for second Amazon headquarters". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  32. ^ "Amazon donates space in headquarters to Seattle nonprofit | 790 KGMI". 790 KGMI. Retrieved May 12, 2017.
  33. ^ Yurieff, Kaya. "Amazon: We hired 130,000 workers in 2017". CNN Tech.
  34. ^ Schlosser, Kurt. "Amazon now employs 566,000 people worldwide — a 66 percent jump from a year ago". GeekWire.
  35. ^ Ovide, Shira (2018-08-08). "Amazon Captures 5 Percent of American Retail Spending. Is That a Lot?". Bloomberg Businessweek. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
  36. ^ "Amazon Orders 20,000 Mercedes Vans to Bolster Delivery Program". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  37. ^ Stevens, Laura (2018-09-05). "Amazon Orders 20,000 Mercedes-Benz Vans for New Delivery Service". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2018-09-06.
  38. ^ Dastin, Jeffrey. "Amazon adds antenna service for satellite data; courts space industry". U.S. Retrieved 2018-11-29.
  39. ^ "Amazon Now Has Nearly 50% of US Ecommerce Market". eMarketer. eMarketer.
  40. ^ Taibbi, Matt (November 14, 2018). "Amazon's Long Game Is Clearer Than Ever". Rolling Stone. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  41. ^ Stevens, Laura; Morris, Keiko; Honan, Katie (November 13, 2018). "Amazon Picks New York City, Northern Virginia for Its HQ2 Locations". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
  42. ^ Martz, Michael. "How Virginia sealed the deal on Amazon's HQ2, 'the biggest economic development project in U.S. history'". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Retrieved November 17, 2018.
  43. ^ Schachter, Ken; Clukey, Keshia. "Experts: Amazon will compete with and invigorate LI tech scene". Newsday. Retrieved November 21, 2018.
  44. ^ Goodman, J. David (2019-02-14). "Amazon Pulls Out of Planned New York City Headquarters". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-02-14.
  45. ^ a b Day, Matt (January 22, 2018). "Amazon Go cashierless convenience store opens to the public in Seattle". Seattle Times. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  46. ^ Weise, Elizabeth (January 21, 2018). "Amazon opens its grocery store without a checkout line to the public". USAToday. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  47. ^ Silver, Curtis (December 5, 2016). "Amazon Announces No-Line Retail Shopping Experience With Amazon Go". Forbes. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  48. ^ Heater, Brian (December 5, 2016). "Amazon launches a beta of Go, a cashier-free, app-based food shopping experience". TechCrunch. Retrieved December 6, 2016.
  49. ^ Garun, Natt (December 5, 2016). "Amazon just launched a cashier-free convenience store". The Verge. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
  50. ^ Leswing, Kif (December 5, 2016). "This is Amazon's grocery store of the future: No cashiers, no registers and no lines". Business Insider. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  51. ^ Hardawar, Devindra (December 5, 2016). "Amazon Go is a grocery store with no checkout lines". Engadget. Retrieved December 5, 2016.
  52. ^ Say, My. "Amazon Go Is About Payments, Not Grocery". Forbes. Retrieved January 24, 2017.
  53. ^ Statt, Nick (October 23, 2018). "Amazon's latest cashier-less Go store opens in San Francisco today". The Verge. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  54. ^ Soper, Spencer (September 19, 2018). "Amazon Will Consider Opening Up to 3,000 Cashierless Stores by 2021". Bloomberg News. Retrieved November 2, 2018.
  55. ^ "Amazon's new retail store only stocks items rated 4 stars and up". Engadget. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
  56. ^ Thomas, Lauren (2018-09-26). "Amazon is opening a new store that sells items from its website rated 4 stars and above". CNBC. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
  57. ^ "Amazon's new store only sells products with 4-star ratings and above". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-09-27.
  58. ^ "Modi effect: Amazon to pour additional $3 billion into India, says Jeff Bezos". June 8, 2016.
  59. ^ "Amazon India Investments". Quartz. July 30, 2014.
  60. ^ Domainnamewire.com (September 14, 2014). "Wow: Amazon.com buys .Buy for $4.6 million, .Tech sells for $6.8 million".
  61. ^ ".Buy Domain Sold to Amazon.com for $4,588,888". Uttamujjwal. September 2014. Archived from the original on September 24, 2014. Retrieved September 18, 2014.
  62. ^ Olsen, Stefanie (July 14, 2008). "Amazon invests in Engine Yard's cloud computing". News.cnet.com. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
  63. ^ Isaac, Mike (December 2, 2010). "LivingSocial Receives $175 Million Investment From Amazon". Forbes. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
  64. ^ "Amazon and Google are in an epic battle to dominate the cloud—and Amazon may already have won - Quartz". Qz.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  65. ^ a b c d e f g Stone, Brad (2013). The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. New York: Little Brown and Co. ISBN 9780316219266. OCLC 856249407.
  66. ^ "Amazon Media Room: Press Releases". Phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  67. ^ "Amazon.com Is Expanding Beyond Books". The New York Times. August 5, 1998. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  68. ^ "Alibaba chief Jack Ma disappoints investors with London no-show". The Daily Telegraph. September 17, 2014. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  69. ^ "Why Amazon Should Fear Alibaba". Forbes. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  70. ^ "Amazon, Barnes&Noble settle patent suit - CNET". Cnet.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  71. ^ "Amazon releases A9 search engine". Macworld.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  72. ^ "Joyo Amazon was renamed to Amazon China" (in Chinese). NetEase. October 27, 2011. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  73. ^ Barr, Jeff (August 25, 2006). "Amazon EC2 Beta". Amazon Web Services Blog. Retrieved May 31, 2013.
  74. ^ "Amazon.com Investor Relations: Press Release". Phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  75. ^ "Amazon to pay Toys R Us $51M to settle suit - ABC News". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  76. ^ "CreateSpace: Self Publishing and Free Distribution for Books, CD, DVD". Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  77. ^ Harris, Craig; Cook, John (2007-08-01). "Amazon starts grocery delivery service". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 2008-11-26.
  78. ^ "Amazon.com Launches Public Beta of Amazon MP3". BusinessWire (Press release). September 25, 2007. Archived from the original on January 2, 2013.
  79. ^ "Here's Why Amazon Bought Zappos". Mashable.com. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  80. ^ Jeffrey A. Trachtenberg and Geoffrey A. Fowler (October 20, 2009). "B&N Reader Out Tuesday". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on October 21, 2009. Retrieved October 20, 2009.
  81. ^ "Apple introduces iBooks store for iPad". Appleinsider.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  82. ^ "Amazon Says E-Books Now Top Hardcover Sales". The New York Times. July 19, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  83. ^ Tim Bradshaw In London, Jonathan Birchall In New York (January 20, 2011). "Amazon acquires Lovefilm for £200m". Financial Times. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  84. ^ "Borders Closing: Why the Bookstore Chain Failed". Ibtimes.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  85. ^ Christina Warren2011-02-22 12:45:05 UTC (2011-02-22). "HANDS ON: Amazon's Prime Instant Video". Mashable.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
  86. ^ "Amazon Media Room: Press Releases". corporate-ir.net.
  87. ^ Amazon.com (2013-05-23). "Developers Can Now Distribute Apps in Nearly 200 Countries Worldwide on Amazon - Amazon Mobile App Distribution Blog". Developer.amazon.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
  88. ^ "California Becomes Seventh State to Adopt "Amazon" Tax on Out-of-State Online Sellers". Taxfoundation.org. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  89. ^ "Photos: A look at Amazon's new delivery locker at 7-Eleven - GeekWire". Geekwire.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  90. ^ "Amazon Unveils $199 Kindle Fire Tablet, Taking on Apple IPad - Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  91. ^ "The Justice Department Just Made Jeff Bezos Dictator-for-Life - The Atlantic". Theatlantic.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  92. ^ "Amazon Acquires Kiva Systems in Second-Biggest Takeover - Bloomberg Business". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  93. ^ "Documents: Amazon risking little in Texas sales tax deal". Statesman.com. Retrieved January 10, 2016.
  94. ^ "Kobo Announces Their New E-Readers". Wired.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  95. ^ "Amazon Acquires Social Reading Site Goodreads, Which Gives The Company A Social Advantage Over Apple". TechCrunch. March 28, 2013. Retrieved March 29, 2013.
  96. ^ "Amazon now in India - The Hindu". Thehindu.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  97. ^ "Amazon Invades India - Fortune". Fortune.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  98. ^ "Amazon's Fire Phone to sell exclusively on AT&T for $199.98 starting July 25th". Theverge.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  99. ^ "Amazon acquires Twitch: World's largest e-tailer buys largest gameplay-livestreaming site". Venturebeat.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  100. ^ "Amazon Closes Multi-Year Deal With Simon & Schuster - Business Insider". Businessinsider.com. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  101. ^ Stone, Brad; Soper, Spencer (2014-11-06). "Amazon Unveils a Listening, Talking, Music-Playing Speaker for Your Home". Bloomberg Businessweek. Bloomberg L.P. Retrieved 2014-11-07.
  102. ^ "Amazon Echo is now available for everyone to buy for $179.99, shipments start on July 14". Android Central.
  103. ^ "Amazon Unbundles Alexa Virtual Assistant From Echo With New Dev Tools". TechCrunch. AOL. 25 June 2015.
  104. ^ "Amazon and Hachette have finally resolved their bitter dispute". The Verge. November 13, 2014. Retrieved January 15, 2016.
  105. ^ "Alibaba $1 Billion Dollar Cloud Investment - International Competition Mounting »". Cloudtweaks.com. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  106. ^ Dillet, Romain (August 26, 2015). "Amazon Underground Features An Android App Store Focused On "Actually Free" Apps". TechCrunch. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  107. ^ Singleton, Micah (August 26, 2015). "Amazon launches Underground to promote free apps and games. The Free App of the Day program has also come to a close". The Verge. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  108. ^ Barrett, Brian (August 29, 2015). "Has Amazon Cracked the Problem With In-App Payments?". Wired Magazine. Retrieved April 26, 2016.
  109. ^ Duryee, Tricia (September 8, 2015). "Amazon confirms Prime Now restaurant delivery launch in Seattle area, hints at broader rollout". GeekWire. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  110. ^ Jennings, Lisa (September 8, 2015). "Amazon launches restaurant delivery in Seattle. Service is available to Amazon Prime Now customers only". Nation's Restaurant News. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  111. ^ "Amazon is opening its first physical bookstore today". The Verge. November 2, 2015. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  112. ^ Greene, Jay (December 14, 2015). "Workers move in to the first of Amazon's downtown towers". The Seattle Times. Retrieved January 17, 2016.
  113. ^ Reisinger, Don (December 14, 2016). "Watch Amazon's Prime Air Complete Its First Drone Delivery". Fortune Magazine. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  114. ^ Fierberg, Emma (December 14, 2016). "Watch Amazon make its first drone delivery". Business Insider. Retrieved December 21, 2016.
  115. ^ "Amazon to Acquire Whole Foods for $13.7 Billion". Bloomberg.com. 2017-06-16. Retrieved 2017-06-19.
  116. ^ "Amazon HQ2". Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  117. ^ "8 cities fit for Amazon's second headquarters". CNN. September 11, 2017. Retrieved September 14, 2017.
  118. ^ "Amazon Chooses 20 Finalists for Second Headquarters". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  119. ^ "Amazon opens its grocery store without a checkout line to the public". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  120. ^ "Amazon launches in Turkey". Reuters. September 19, 2018. Retrieved September 19, 2018.
  121. ^ Isidore, Danielle Wiener-Bronner and Chris. "Amazon announces $15 minimum wage for all US employees". Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  122. ^ Partington, Richard (2 October 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage for US and UK employees". the Guardian. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  123. ^ Yurieff, Kaya (13 November 2018). "Amazon picks New York and Northern Virginia for HQ2". cnn.com. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
  124. ^ DePillis, Lydia; Sherman, Ivory. "Amazon's extraordinary evolution: A timeline". www.cnn.com. Retrieved 2019-03-07.