Heqin, also known as marriage alliance, refers to the historical practice of Chinese emperors marrying princesses—usually members of minor branches of the ruling family—to rulers of neighboring states.[1] It was often adopted as an appeasement strategy with an enemy state that was too powerful to defeat on the battlefield. The policy was not always effective. It implied an equal diplomatic status between the emperor and the ruler of the other state. As a result, it was controversial and had many critics.[1]

Heqin
Traditional Chinese和親
Simplified Chinese和亲
Literal meaningpeace marriage

Lou Jing (Chinese: 娄敬, later granted the royal surname Liu 刘), the architect of the policy, proposed granting the eldest daughter of Emperor Gaozu of Han to the Modu Chanyu of the Xiongnu. His proposal was adopted and implemented with a treaty in 198 BC, following the Battle of Baideng two years prior.[2][3] Wang Zhaojun, of the Han dynasty, and Princess Wencheng, of the Tang dynasty, are among the most famous heqin princesses.

The 20th-century scholar Wang Tonglin praised heqin for facilitating the "melting of races" in China.[4]

Han dynastyEdit

There were a total of fifteen instances of heqin marriage alliances during the Han dynasty.[5][3]

XiongnuEdit

The Xiongnu practiced marriage alliances with Han dynasty officers and officials. The older sister of the Chanyu (the Xiongnu ruler) was married to the Xiongnu General Zhao Xin, the Marquis of Xi who was serving the Han dynasty. The daughter of the Qiedihou Chanyu was married to the Han Chinese General Li Ling after he surrendered and defected.[6][7][8][9] The Yenisei Kirghiz Khagans claimed descent from Li Ling.[10][11] Another Han Chinese General who defected to the Xiongnu was Li Guangli who also married a daughter of the Chanyu.[12] The Han Chinese diplomat Su Wu married a Xiongnu woman given by Li Ling when he was arrested and taken captive.[13] Han Chinese explorer Zhang Qian married a Xiongnu woman and had a child with her when he was taken captive by the Xiongnu. Han Emperor Wu dispatched the Han Chinese explorer Zhang Qian to explore the mysterious kingdoms to the west and to form an alliance with the Yuezhi people in order to combat the Xiongnu. During this time Zhang married a Xiongnu wife, who bore him a son, and gained the trust of the Xiongnu leader.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20]

Kingdom of KhotanEdit

 
A daughter of the King of Khotan married to the ruler of Dunhuang, Cao Yanlu, is here shown wearing elaborate headdress decorated with jade pieces. Mural in Mogao Cave 61, Five Dynasties.

The Chinese Cao family ruling Guiyi Circuit established marriage alliances with the Saka Kingdom of Khotan, with both the Cao rulers marrying Khotanese princesses and with Cao princesses marrying Khotan rulers. A Khotan princess who was the daughter of the King of Khotan married Cao Yanlu.[21]

Sixteen KingdomsEdit

During the Sixteen Kingdoms period, there were a total of six recorded instances of heqin marriage. Heqin marriage alliances during the Sixteen Kingdoms period differed from those practiced during the Han dynasty in two main ways. First, they involved "real" princesses (i.e. daughters of emperors or rulers). Second, unlike during the Han dynasty, when most heqin marriages were aimed at establishing peace with foreign nations, heqin marriages during the Sixteen Kingdoms period were made primarily to settle rivalries and maintain a balance of power between the various states in China at the time.[5]

  • Fu Jian (337–385), Emperor Xuanzhao of Former Qin, married one of his daughters to Yang Ding, ruler of the state of Chouchi.
  • Fu Deng, Emperor Gao of Former Qin, married his younger sister, Princess Dongping (东平公主) to Qifu Gangui, Prince of Western Qi.
  • 441: Feng Ba, Emperor Wencheng of Northern Yan, married his daughter, Princess Lelang (乐浪公主), to Yujiulü Hulü, Khan Aidougai of Rouran.
  • 415: Yao Xing, Emperor Wenhuan of Later Qin, married his daughter, Princess Xiping (西平公主), to Emperor Mingyuan of Northern Wei. Because she was unable to forge a golden statue with her own hands, she was never formally empress, but was nevertheless recognized and respected as Emperor Mingyuan's wife, Consort Yao.
  • Qifu Chipan, Prince Wenzhao of Western Qin, married his daughter, Princess Xingping (兴平公主), to Juqu Mengxun, Prince of Northern Liang's son Juqu Xingguo.
  • 433: Juqu Mengxun, Prince of Northern Liang, marries his daughter, Princess Xingping (兴平公主), to Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei. She became Emperor Taiwu's concubine.

Northern and Southern dynastiesEdit

During the Northern and Southern dynasties period, China was divided into many rival states. A complicated system of rivalries and vassalage existed. Heqin marriage was employed as a method to maintain a balance of power or to solidify alliances between states.[5]

During the Northern and Southern dynasties, there were five instances of heqin marriage.

Northern WeiEdit

The Xianbei Tuoba royal family of Northern Wei started to arrange for Han Chinese elites to marry daughters of the royal family in the 480s.[22] More than fifty percent of Tuoba Xianbei princesses of the Northern Wei were married to southern Han Chinese men from the imperial families and aristocrats from southern China of the Southern dynasties who defected and moved north to join the Northern Wei.[23] Some Han Chinese exiled royalty fled from southern China and defected to the Xianbei. Several daughters of the Xianbei Emperor Xiaowen of Northern Wei were married to Han Chinese elites, the Han Chinese Liu Song royal Liu Hui 刘辉, married Princess Lanling 蘭陵公主 of the Northern Wei,[24][25][26][27][28][29] Princess Huayang 華陽公主 to Sima Fei 司馬朏, a descendant of Jin dynasty (265–420) royalty, Princess Jinan 濟南公主 to Lu Daoqian 盧道虔, Princess Nanyang 南阳长公主 to Xiao Baoyin 萧宝夤, a member of Southern Qi royalty.[30] Emperor Xiaozhuang of Northern Wei's sister the Shouyang Princess was wedded to The Liang dynasty ruler Emperor Wu of Liang's son Xiao Zong 蕭綜.[31]

When the Eastern Jin dynasty ended Northern Wei received the Jin prince Sima Chuzhi (司馬楚之) as a refugee. A Northern Wei Princess married Sima Chuzhi, giving birth to Sima Jinlong 司馬金龍. Northern Liang Xiongnu King Juqu Mujian's daughter married Sima Jinlong.[32]

RouranEdit

The Rouran Khaganate arranged for one of their princesses, Khagan Yujiulü Anagui's daughter Princess Ruru 蠕蠕公主 to be married to the Han Chinese ruler Gao Huan of the Eastern Wei.[33][34]

GaochangEdit

The Kingdom of Gaochang was made out of Han Chinese colonists and ruled by the Han Chinese[35][36] Qu family which originated from Gansu.[37] Jincheng commandery (金城 in Lanzhou), district of Yuzhong (榆中) was the home of the Qu Jia.[38] The Qu family was linked by marriage alliances to the Turks, with a Turk being the grandmother of King Qu Boya's.[39][40]

Sui dynastyEdit

With the establishment of the Sui dynasty in 581, much of China was once again unified under one dynasty. Heqin marriage during the Sui dynasty therefore returned to its original purpose of trying to appease barbarian tribes surrounding the Sui.[5] There were a total of seven instances of heqin marriage during the Sui dynasty.

Tang dynastyEdit

During the Tang dynasty, heqin marriage alliances were aimed primarily aimed at the Tuyuhun, the Tibetan Empire, the Khitans and the allied Kumo Xi, the Uyghur Khaganate, and Nanzhao.[5]

There were a total of twenty-one instances of heqin marriage alliances during the Tang dynasty, including:

  • 640: Emperor Taizong of Tang marries Princess Honghua (弘化公主) to Murong Nuohebo, Khan of Tuyuhun.
  • 641: Emperor Taizong of Tang marries Princess Wencheng to Emperor Songtsän Gampo of Tibet.
  • 642: Emperor Taizong proposed the marriage of his fifteenth daughter, Princess Xinxing (新兴公主), to Zhenzhu Khan, Khan of Xueyantuo. The heqin was called off.
  • 664: Emperor Gaozong of Tang marries Lady Jincheng (金城县主), the third daughter of Li Dao'en, Prince of Guiji (会稽郡王李道恩), to Prince Sudumomo of Tuyuhun (吐谷浑王子苏度摸末).
  • 664: Emperor Gaozong marries Lady Jinming (金明县主), the daughter of a Tang imperial clansman, to Prince Talumomo of Tuyuhun (吐谷浑王子闼卢摸末).
  • 698: A daughter of Qapaghan, Khagan of the Second Eastern Turkic Khaganate marries Wu Zetian's great-nephew Wu Chengsi, Prince of Huaiyang (淮阳王武延秀).
  • 703: A daughter of Qapaghan Khagan marries Crown Prince Li Dan's eldest son Li Chengqi, Prince of Song.
  • 709: Empress Wu Zetian marries her great-granddaughter Princess Jincheng (金城公主), the daughter of her grandson Li Shouli, Prince of Bin, to Emperor Me Agtsom of Tibet
  • 712: Emperor Ruizong of Tang marries his granddaughter, Princess Jinshan (金山公主), the daughter of his son Li Chengqi, to Qapaghan Khagan
  • 717: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang marries Princess Yongle (永乐公主), the daughter of Yang Yuansi (杨元嗣) and a daughter of Li Xu, Prince of Dongping (东平王李续, son of Li Shen, Prince of Ji, the seventeenth son of Emperor Taizong), to Li Shihuo (李失活), leader of the Khitans.
  • 717: Princess Jianghe (交河公主), the daughter of Ashina Nahuaidao, 10th Khagan of the Western Turkic Khaganate, marries Sulu Khan, Khagan of Turgesh.
  • 722: Emperor Xuanzong of Tang marries Princess Yanjun (燕郡公主) (surname Murong (慕容)), a Tang "princess", to Khitan prince Li Yuyu (李郁于).
  • 726: Emperor Xuanzong marries his niece, Princess Donghua (东华公主, surname Chen 陈), to Khitan prince Li Shaogu (李邵固).
  • 726: Emperor Xuanzong marries Princess Dongguang (东光公主), the daughter of Emperor Xuanzong's first cousin Li Jijiang, Princess Cheng'an (成安公主李季姜 eighth daughter of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang) and Wei Jie (韦捷), to Li Lusu (李鲁苏), ruler of Kumo Xi.
  • 744: Emperor Xuanzong marries Princess Heyi (和义公主), a daughter of Li Can, Magistrate of Gaocheng (告城县令李参), to Axilan Dagan (阿悉烂达干), King of Ningyuan (宁远国王) in the Fergana Valley.
  • 745: Emperor Xuanzong marries his granddaughter, Princess Jingle (静乐公主, daughter of his fifteenth daughter Princess Xincheng 信成公主 and Dugu Ming 独孤明), to Khitan prince Li Huaixiu (李怀秀).
  • 745: Emperor Xuanzong marries Princess Yifang (宜芳公主), daughter of Princess Changning (长宁公主, daughter of Emperor Zhongzong of Tang) and Yang Shenjiao (杨慎交), to Khitan prince Li Yanchong (李延宠)
  • 756: Emperor Suzong of Tang marries his daughter, Princess Ninguo to Bayanchur, Khagan of the Uyghur Khaganate. In exchange, Princess Pijia (毗伽公主), daughter of Bayanchur, marries Li Chengcai (李承采), Prince of Dunhuang (敦煌王李承采), son of Li Shouli, Prince of Bin.

Liao, Song, Jin dynastiesEdit

Song dynastyEdit

The Khitan Liao dynasty asked for a Song princess to marry the Liao emperor in the negotiations leading up to the Chanyuan Treaty but the Song dynasty refused to give a princess. The Jurchen Jin dynasty later rebelled against the Liao dynasty, sacked and destroyed the Liao supreme capital and burned the ancestral tombs of the Liao emperors. The Emperor Tianzuo of Liao was executed by the Jurchens during a polo match. Liao imperial princesses from the Yelü family and Xiao family were also distributed to Jin princes as concubine. Wanyan Liang married the Khitan women Lady Xiao (蕭氏), Consort Chen (宸妃), Lady Yelü (耶律氏), Consort Li (麗妃), Lady Yelü (耶律氏), Consort Rou (柔妃) and Lady Yelü (耶律氏), Zhaoyuan (昭媛).

The Jurchens then attacked the Northern Song dynasty in the Jingkang incident and seized a large number of the Song imperial family. Song princesses were married off to Jurchen princes such as Emperor Xizong of Jin. The Song male Chinese princes who were captured were given Khitan women to marry from the Liao dynasty palace by the Jurchens, who had also defeated and conquered the Khitan. The original Han wives of the Song princes were confiscated and replaced with Khitan ones. One of the Emperor Huizong of Song's sons was given a Khitan consort from the Liao palace, and another one of his sons was given a Khitan princess by the Jin at the Jin supreme capital. The Jurchens continued to give new wives to the captured Song royals, the grandsons and sons of the Emperor Huizong of Song after they took away their original Chinese wives.[41] The Jin told the Song royals that they were fortunate because the Liao royals were being treated much worse by the Jurchen than the Song Chinese royals, Jurchen soldiers were given the children of the Emperor Tianzuo of Liao as gifts while the Song Emperor was allowed to keep his children while he was in captivity.[42]

Liao dynastyEdit

The Liao dynasty arranged for women from the Khitan royal consort Xiao clan to marry members of the Han Chinese Han 韓 clan, which originated in Jizhou 冀州 before being abducted by the Khitan and becoming part of the Han Chinese elite of the Liao.[43][44][45]

Han Chinese Geng family intermarried with the Khitan and the Han 韓 clan provided two of their women as wives to Geng Yanyi and the second one was the mother of Geng Zhixin.[46] Empress Rende's sister, a member of the Xiao clan, was the mother of Han Chinese General Geng Yanyi.[47]

Han Durang (Yelu Longyun) was the father of Queen dowager of the State of Chen, who was the wife of General Geng Yanyi and buried with him in his tomb in Zhaoyang in Liaoning.[48] His wife was also known as "Madame Han".[49] The Geng's tomb is located in Liaoning at Guyingzi in Chaoying.[50][51]

Ganzhou Uyghur KingdomEdit

The Chinese Cao family ruling Guiyi Circuit established marriage alliances with the Uighurs of the Ganzhou Kingdom, with both the Cao rulers marrying Uighur princesses and with Cao princesses marrying Uighur rulers. The Ganzhou Uighur Khagan's daughter was married to Cao Yijin in 916.[52][53][54]

Yuan dynastyEdit

The Jurchen Jin emperor Wanyan Yongji's daughter Princess Qiguo was married to Genghis Khan in exchange for relieving the Mongol siege upon Zhongdu (Beijing) in the Mongol conquest of the Jin dynasty.[55]

The Emperor Gong of Song surrendered to the Yuan dynasty in 1276 and was married off to a Mongol princess of the royal Borjigin family of the Yuan dynasty. Zhao Xian had one son with the Borjigin Mongol woman, Zhao Wanpu. Zhao Xian's son Zhao Wanpu was kept alive by the Mongols because of his mother's royal Mongolian Borjigin ancestry even after Zhao Xian was ordered killed by the Mongol Emperor Yingzong. Instead Zhao Wanpu was only moved and exiled. The outbreak of the Song loyalist Red Turban Rebellion in Henan led to a recommendation that Zhao Wanpu should be transferred somewhere else by an Imperial Censor in 1352. The Yuan did not want the Chinese rebels to get their hands on Zhao Wanpu so no one was permitted to see him and Zhao Wanpu's family and himself were exiled to Shazhou near the border by the Yuan Emperor. Paul Pelliot and John Andrew Boyle commented on Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's chapter The Successors of Genghis Khan in his work Jami' al-tawarikh, identified references by Rashid al-Din to Zhao Xian in his book where he mentions a Chinese ruler who was an "emir" and son-in-law to the Qan (Khan) after being removed from his throne by the Mongols and he is also called "Monarch of Song", or "Suju" (宋主; Songzhu) in the book.[56]

The King of Dali Duan Gong was married to the Mongol Borjigin princess Agai, daughter of the Yuan dynasty Mongol Prince of Liang, Basalawarmi. They had a son and a daughter, Duan Sengnu.[57][58][59][60][61][62][63][64][65][66] their children were also called Duan Qiangna and Duan Bao.[67] Duan Sengnu raised Duan Bao to take revenge against Basalawarmi for the killing of Duan Gong.[68][69] A play was made based on these events.[70][71] According to Yuan documents, the Duan family were originally Han Chinese from Wuwei commamdery, Gansu.[72][73][74] Other Duan families also originated from Wuwei.[75][76]

Ming dynastyEdit

The Oirat leader Esen Taishi captured the Zhengtong Emperor of the Ming dynasty. Esen Taishi tried to force the Zhengtong Emperor to marry Esen's sister in a heqin marriage[77] and then placing him back in Beijing with his new wife.[78][79][80] The emperor rejected the marriage proposal.[81]

A Mongol account in the Altan Tobchi said that Zhengtong Emperor had a son with a Mongol woman he married while he was prisoner.[82]

A Mongol girl was given in marriage by the Gün-bilig-mergen Mongol Ordos leader Rinong (Jinong) to a Han Chinese, Datong Army officer Wang Duo's (王鐸) son Wang San (王三) because Rinong wanted to hold on to Wang San and make him stay with the Mongols. The Ming arrested and executed Wang San in 1544 because Mongol soldiers were being guided by Wang San. Builders, carpenters, officers, and important prisoners such as the Ming Zhengtong Emperor often received Mongol wives.[83]

Qing dynastyEdit

In the total span of the Qing dynasty, the number of Mongol grooms of Qing princesses was the largest. More than 58 percent of imperial sons-in-law were Mongols. A total of 32 princesses married Mongols but the majority of these were in the early Qing like Emperor Hongtaiji who married off 12 of his daughters to Mongols, when the Qing needed military support.[84] In the early period of Qing, a large amount of intermarriage between the two groups happened, and the Manchu rulers used this tie to gain the military support from Mongols. The marriage also benefited the Qing Dynasty in expanding its empire into Mongolia and further west into Inner Asia. The marriage between Manchu princesses and Mongol princes continued to the end of Qing Dynasty, although becoming less prominent after the 18th century due to the decline of the Mongols' political and military influence and the Qing after 1770 totally ceased marrying princesses off to North and Western Mongols, only marrying them off to princes from the southern Mongols who voluntarily surrendered to them before the establishment of the Qing, who numbered 7 tribes and 13 banners since the locations they inhabited were vital to Qing security unlike the steppes of the North and Western Mongols since the wars between the Zunghars and Khalkhas was over. During the Qianlong reign in 1751 and Jiaqing reign in 1801, the Qing emperors deliberately issued decrees eliminating Mongols from potential grooms of Qing princesses and started replacing them with majority Manchu grooms. The Qing at this time no longer needed the support of Mongols and started marrying off their daughters to majority Manchu grooms instead of Mongols.[84]

Han Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu in the early Qing were sometimes married to Aisin Gioro imperial daughters due to the desperate need of the Qing for military allies at that time and their use of marrying their women off to get them, although this is less frequent than the case where Aisin Giroro women married to Mongolian aristocrats or other Manchu elite. Unlike the marriage between Manchu and southern Mongolians that lasted throughout the Qing Dynasty, the marriages between Emperor's daughters and Han Generals ceased before 1750 as Qing rule was consolidated by then.[84]

The Manchu Imperial Aisin Gioro clan practiced marriage alliances with Han Chinese Ming Generals and Mongol princes. Aisin Gioro women were married to Han Chinese Generals who defected to the Manchu side during the Transition from Ming to Qing. The Manchu leader Nurhaci married one of his granddaughters, a daughter of Abatai, to the Ming General Li Yongfang,[85][86][87][88] the ancestor of Li Shiyao (李侍堯).[89][90][91] The offspring of Li received the "Third Class Viscount" (三等子爵; sān děng zǐjué) title[92] after he surrendered Fushun in Liaoning to the Manchu in 1618. A mass marriage of Han Chinese officers and officials to Manchu women numbering 1,000 couples was arranged by Prince Yoto 岳托 (Prince Keqin) and Hongtaiji in 1632 to promote harmony between the two ethnic groups.[93][94] Aisin Gioro women were married to the sons of the Han Chinese Generals Sun Sike (孫思克), Geng Jimao, Shang Kexi, and Wu Sangui.[95]

The "Dolo efu" 和碩額駙 rank was given to husbands of Qing princesses. Geng Zhongming, a Han bannerman, was awarded the title of Prince Jingnan, and his son Geng Jingmao managed to have both his sons Geng Jingzhong and Geng Zhaozhong 耿昭忠 become court attendants under the Shunzhi Emperor and marry Aisin Gioro women, with Prince Abatai's granddaughter marrying Geng Zhaozhong 耿昭忠 and Haoge's (a son of Hong Taiji) daughter marrying Geng Jingzhong.[96] A daughter 和硕柔嘉公主 of the Manchu Aisin Gioro Prince Yolo 岳樂 (Prince An) was wedded to Geng Juzhong who was another son of Geng Jingmao.[97]

The 4th daughter of Kangxi (和硕悫靖公主) was wedded to the son (孫承恩) of the Han Chinese Sun Sike (孫思克).[98]

Imperial Duke Who Assists the State (宗室輔國公) Aisin Gioro Suyan's (蘇燕) daughter was married to Han Chinese Banner General Nian Gengyao.[99][100][101] She was Manchu Prince Ajige's great-great-granddaughter.[102]

Manchu Prince Aisin Gioro Yuntang's fourth daughter married Han Chinese Bannerman Zhao Shiyang (趙世揚) in 1721. Manchu Prince Aisin Gioro Yunsi's first daughter married Han Chinese Bannerman Sun Wufu (孫五福) in July/August 1724. Manchu Prince Aisin Gioro Yunzhi, Prince Zhi's second daughter married Han Chinese Bannerman Li Shu'ao (李淑鰲) in September/October 1707 and his fourth daughter married Han Chinese Bannerman Sun Cheng'en (孫承恩) in February/March 1710.

VietnamEdit

The Lý, Trần, Hồ dynasties ruled Dai Viet (Vietnam) in a succession of heqin alliances.

Lý, Trần, Hồ dynastiesEdit

The Lý dynasty married its princesses off to regional rivals to establish alliances with them. The Lý family married one of their princesses (Lý Chiêu Hoàng) to a member of the Chinese Trần (Chen 陈) clan, Trần Thái Tông. This then enabled the Trần to topple the Lý and establish their own Trần dynasty.[103][104]

The Tran dynasty engaged in a similar practice, marrying Tran princesses to regional allies. Later, the Hồ family, which was also of Chinese origin, established the Hồ dynasty, taking power after having a Tran princess marry one of their members, Hồ Quý Ly. A Lý princess also married into the Ho family. [105][106]

Nguyen lordsEdit

The Cambodian King Chey Chettha II married the Vietnamese Nguyễn lord Princess Nguyễn Thị Ngọc Vạn, a daughter of Lord Nguyễn Phúc Nguyên, in 1618.[107][108] In return, the king granted the Vietnamese the right to establish settlements in Mô Xoài (now Bà Rịa), in the region of Prey Nokor—which they colloquially referred to as Sài Gòn, and which later became Ho Chi Minh City.[109][110]

JoseonEdit

After the Qing conquest of Joseon, Joseon Korea was forced to give several of their royal princesses as concubines to the Qing Manchu regent Prince Dorgon.[111][112][113][114][115][116][117] In 1650, Dorgon married the Korean Princess Uisun (義順).[118] She was a collateral branches of the Korean royal family, and daughter of Yi Gae-yun (李愷胤).[119] Dorgon married two Korean princesses at Lianshan.[120]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b Slobodník (2006), p. 268.
  2. ^ Di Cosmo (2004), p. 193.
  3. ^ a b Rui Chuanming (芮传明). 古代和亲利弊论 (PDF) (in Chinese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 18 October 2014.
  4. ^ Bulag (2002), p. 83.
  5. ^ a b c d e Cui (2005), pp. 631–688.
  6. ^ [1], p. 31.
  7. ^ Qian Sima; Burton Watson (January 1993). Records of the Grand Historian: Han dynasty. Renditions-Columbia University Press. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-231-08166-5.
  8. ^ Monumenta Serica. H. Vetch. 2004. p. 81.
  9. ^ Frederic E. Wakeman (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
  10. ^ Veronika Veit, ed. (2007). The role of women in the Altaic world: Permanent International Altaistic Conference, 44th meeting, Walberberg, 26–31 August 2001. Volume 152 of Asiatische Forschungen (illustrated ed.). Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 61. ISBN 978-3447055376. Retrieved 8 February 2012. |volume= has extra text (help)
  11. ^ Michael Robert Drompp (2005). Tang China and the collapse of the Uighur Empire: a documentary history. Volume 13 of Brill's Inner Asian library (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004141294. Retrieved 8 February 2012. |volume= has extra text (help)
  12. ^ Lin Jianming (林剑鸣) (1992). 秦漢史 [History of Qin and Han]. Wunan Publishing. pp. 557–8. ISBN 978-957-11-0574-1.
  13. ^ Hong, Yuan (2018). The Sinitic Civilization Book II: A Factual History Through the Lens of Archaeology, Bronzeware, Astronomy, Divination, Calendar and the Annals (abridged ed.). iUniversе. p. 419. ISBN 1532058306.
  14. ^ James A. Millward (2007). Eurasian crossroads: a history of Xinjiang. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-231-13924-3. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  15. ^ Julia Lovell (2007). The Great Wall: China Against the World, 1000 BC – AD 2000. Grove Press. p. 73. ISBN 978-0-8021-4297-9. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  16. ^ Alfred J. Andrea; James H. Overfield (1998). The Human Record: To 1700. Houghton Mifflin. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-395-87087-7. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  17. ^ Yiping Zhang (2005). Story of the Silk Road. China Intercontinental Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-7-5085-0832-0. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  18. ^ Charles Higham (2004). Encyclopedia of ancient Asian civilizations. Infobase Publishing. p. 409. ISBN 978-0-8160-4640-9. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  19. ^ Indian Society for Prehistoric & Quaternary Studies (1998). Man and environment, Volume 23, Issue 1. Indian Society for Prehistoric and Quaternary Studies. p. 6. Retrieved 2011-04-17.
  20. ^ Adrienne Mayor (22 September 2014). The Amazons: Lives and Legends of Warrior Women across the Ancient World. Princeton University Press. pp. 422–. ISBN 978-1-4008-6513-0.
  21. ^ Lilla Russell-Smith (2005). Uygur Patronage In Dunhuang: Regional Art Centres On The Northern Silk Road In The Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. BRILL. pp. 23–. ISBN 90-04-14241-X.
  22. ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. pp. 80–. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7.
  23. ^ Tang, Qiaomei (May 2016). Divorce and the Divorced Woman in Early Medieval China (First through Sixth Century) (PDF) (A dissertation presented by Qiaomei Tang to The Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the subject of East Asian Languages and Civilizations). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University. pp. 151, 152, 153.
  24. ^ Lee (2014) harvp error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFLee2014 (help).
  25. ^ Papers on Far Eastern History. Australian National University, Department of Far Eastern History. 1983. p. 86.
  26. ^ Hinsch, Bret (2018). Women in Early Medieval China. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 97. ISBN 978-1538117972.
  27. ^ Hinsch, Bret (2016). Women in Imperial China. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 72. ISBN 978-1442271661.
  28. ^ Lee, Jen-der (2014). "9. Crime and Punishment The Case of Liu Hui in the Wei Shu". In Swartz, Wendy; Campany, Robert Ford; Lu, Yang; Choo, Jessey (eds.). Early Medieval China: A Sourcebook (illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. pp. 156–165. ISBN 978-0231531009.
  29. ^ Australian National University. Dept. of Far Eastern History (1983). Papers on Far Eastern History, Volumes 27–30. Australian National University, Department of Far Eastern History. pp. 86, 87, 88.
  30. ^ China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200–750 AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004. pp. 30–. ISBN 978-1-58839-126-1. Xiao Baoyin.
  31. ^ Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.3 & 4): A Reference Guide, Part Three & Four. BRILL. 22 September 2014. pp. 1566–. ISBN 978-90-04-27185-2.
  32. ^ China: Dawn of a Golden Age, 200–750 AD. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2004. pp. 18–. ISBN 978-1-58839-126-1. sima.
  33. ^ Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Antiquity Through Sui, 1600 B.C.E.-618 C.E. M.E. Sharpe. 2007. pp. 316–. ISBN 978-0-7656-4182-3.
  34. ^ Gao Huan, as demanded by Yujiulü Anagui as one of the peace terms between Eastern Wei and Rouran, married the Princess Ruru in 545, and had her take the place of Princess Lou as his wife, but never formally divorced Princess Lou. After Gao Huan's death, pursuant to Rouran customs, the Princess Ruru became married to Gao Huan's son Gao Cheng, who also, however, did not formally divorce his wife.
  35. ^ Baij Nath Puri (1987). Buddhism in Central Asia. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 78–. ISBN 978-81-208-0372-5.
  36. ^ Charles Eliot; Sir Charles Eliot (1998). Hinduism and Buddhism: An Historical Sketch. Psychology Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-7007-0679-2.
  37. ^ Marc S. Abramson (31 December 2011). Ethnic Identity in Tang China. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-0-8122-0101-7.
  38. ^ Roy Andrew Miller (1959). Accounts of Western Nations in the History of the Northern Chou Dynasty [Chou Shu 50. 10b-17b]: Translated and Annotated by Roy Andrew Miller. University of California Press. pp. 5–. GGKEY:SXHP29BAXQY.
  39. ^ Jonathan Karam Skaff (1998). Straddling steppe and town: Tang China's relations with the nomads of inner Asia (640–756). University of Michigan. p. 57. ISBN 9780599084643.
  40. ^ Asia Major. Institute of History and Philology of the Academia Sinica. 1998. p. 87.
  41. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2014). Emperor Huizong (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 488. ISBN 978-0674726420.
  42. ^ Ebrey, Patricia Buckley (2014). Emperor Huizong (illustrated, reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 482. ISBN 978-0674726420.
  43. ^ Biran 2012, p. 88.
  44. ^ Biran 2012, p. 88.
  45. ^ Cha 2005, p. 51. [2][3][4]
  46. ^ Yang, Shao-yun (2014). "Fan and Han: The Origins and Uses of a Conceptual Dichotomy in Mid-Imperial China, ca. 500–1200". In Fiaschetti, Francesca; Schneider, Julia (eds.). Political Strategies of Identity Building in Non-Han Empires in China. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 22.
  47. ^ Orient. Maruzen Company. 2004. p. 41.
  48. ^ Orient. Maruzen Company. 2004. p. 41.
  49. ^ Hsueh-man Shen; Asia Society; Asia Society. Museum; Museum für Ostasiatische Kunst (Berlin, Germany), Museum Rietberg (1 September 2006). Gilded splendor: treasures of China's Liao Empire (907–1125). 5 continents. p. 106. ISBN 978-88-7439-332-9.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  50. ^ Jiayao An (1987). Early Chinese Glassware. Millennia. p. 12.
  51. ^ http://kt82.zhaoxinpeng.com/view/138019.htm[permanent dead link] https://www.academia.edu/4954295/La_Steppe_et_l_Empire_la_formation_de_la_dynastie_Khitan_Liao_
  52. ^ Eighteen Lectures on Dunhuang. BRILL. 7 June 2013. pp. 44–. ISBN 978-90-04-25233-2.
  53. ^ Lilla Russell-Smith (2005). Uygur Patronage In Dunhuang: Regional Art Centres On The Northern Silk Road In The Tenth and Eleventh Centuries. BRILL. pp. 63–. ISBN 90-04-14241-X.
  54. ^ Wenjie Duan; Chung Tan (1 January 1994). Dunhuang Art: Through the Eyes of Duan Wenjie. Abhinav Publications. pp. 189–. ISBN 978-81-7017-313-7.
  55. ^ Broadbridge, Anne F. (2018). Women and the Making of the Mongol Empire (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-1108636629.
  56. ^ Hua, Kaiqi (2018). "Chapter 6 The Journey of Zhao Xian and the Exile of Royal Descendants in the Yuan Dynasty (1271 1358)". In Heirman, Ann; Meinert, Carmen; Anderl, Christoph (eds.). Buddhist Encounters and Identities Across East Asia. Leiden, Netherlands: BRILL. p. 213. doi:10.1163/9789004366152_008. ISBN 978-9004366152.
  57. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Wiles, Sue (2015). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, Volume II: Tang Through Ming 618 – 1644. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1317515623.
  58. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Wiles, Sue, eds. (2014). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Tang Through Ming, 618–1644. M.E. Sharpe. p. 5. ISBN 978-0765643162.
  59. ^ Mair, Victor H, ed. (2016). Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours. Flipside Digital Content Company Inc. p. 269. ISBN 978-9814620550.
  60. ^ Mair, Victor H; Kelley, Liam (2015). Imperial China and Its Southern Neighbours. CHINA SOUTHEAST ASIA History (illustrated, reprint ed.). Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. p. 269. ISBN 978-9814620536.
  61. ^ Chen 陈, Lufan 吕范 (1990). 泰族起源问题研究. 国际文化出版公司. pp. 271, 285. Retrieved Sep 9, 2008.
  62. ^ Mao yi yu lü you: Trade and tours. 1986. p. 19. Retrieved Jul 31, 2007.
  63. ^ Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente (1991). Cina, Volumes 23–25. Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente. pp. 157, 159. Retrieved Jun 13, 2011.
  64. ^ Cina, Volumes 15–16. Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente. 1979. p. 295. Retrieved Jun 13, 2011.CS1 maint: others (link)
  65. ^ Cina, Volumes 15–16. Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, Istituto italiano per l'Africa e l'Oriente. Istituto italiano per il medio ed estremo oriente. 1979. p. 295. Retrieved Jun 13, 2011.CS1 maint: others (link)
  66. ^ Robinson, David M. "Part III – A Tough Crowd". In the Shadow of the Mongol Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 187–270.
  67. ^ Bryson, Megan (2016). Goddess on the Frontier: Religion, Ethnicity, and Gender in Southwest China. Stanford University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-1503600454.
  68. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Wiles, Sue (2015). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women, Volume II: Tang Through Ming 618 – 1644. Routledge. p. 55. ISBN 978-1317515623.
  69. ^ Lee, Lily Xiao Hong; Wiles, Sue, eds. (2014). Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Women: Tang Through Ming, 618–1644. M.E. Sharpe. p. 55. ISBN 978-0765643162.
  70. ^ Malmqvist, Nils Göran David, ed. (1989). A Selective Guide to Chinese Literature 1900–1949: The Drama. Volume 4 of Selected Guide to Chinese Literature 1900-1949, Vol 4. European Science Foundation (illustrated ed.). BRILL. p. 126. ISBN 9004090983. |volume= has extra text (help)
  71. ^ Renger, Almut-Barbara; Fan, Xin (2019). Receptions of Greek and Roman Antiquity in East Asia. BRILL. p. 316. ISBN 978-9004370715.
  72. ^ Bryson, Megan (2016). Goddess on the Frontier: Religion, Ethnicity, and Gender in Southwest China. Stanford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 978-1503600454.
  73. ^ Mote, Frederick W. (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. Volume 0 of Titolo collana (illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 710. ISBN 0674012127. |volume= has extra text (help)
  74. ^ Mote, Frederick W. (1999). Imperial China 900–1800. Volume 0 of Titolo collana (2, illustrated ed.). Harvard University Press. p. 710. ISBN 0674445155. |volume= has extra text (help)
  75. ^ Reed, Carrie Elizabeth (2003). A Tang Miscellany: An Introduction to Youyang Zazu. Volume 57 of Asian thought and culture. Peter Lang. pp. 11, 121. ISBN 0820467472. ISSN 0893-6870. Retrieved Sep 9, 2008. |volume= has extra text (help)
  76. ^ Shang, Huping (2019). The Belt and Road Initiative: Key Concepts. Springer. p. 81. ISBN 978-9811392016.
  77. ^ Carlos Rojas (1 April 2011). The Great Wall. Harvard University Press. pp. 102–. ISBN 978-0-674-05880-4.
  78. ^ Denis Crispin Twitchett; John King Fairbank (1978). The Cambridge History of China. Cambridge University Press. pp. 326–. ISBN 978-0-521-24332-2.
  79. ^ Ph. De Heer (1986). The Care-taker Emperor: Aspects of the Imperial Institution in Fifteenth-century China as Reflected in the Political History of the Reign of Chu Chʾi-yü. BRILL. pp. 24–. ISBN 90-04-07898-3.
  80. ^ History today. 1976. p. 460.
  81. ^ Central Asiatic Journal. O. Harrassowitz. 1983. p. 67.
  82. ^ Dmitriĭ Dmitrievich Pokotilov (1947). History of the eastern Mongols during the Ming dynasty from 1368 to 1634, part. I, translation of the Russian text. Chinese Cultural Studies Research Institute, West China Union University. p. 51.
  83. ^ Henry Serruys (1959). Chinese in Southern Mongolia During the Sixteenth Century. C.I.C.M. p. 75.
  84. ^ a b c Walthall, Anne (2008). Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Pr. pp. 148–152.
  85. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-03. Retrieved 2018-04-14.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  86. ^ http://www.fs7000.com/wap/?9179.html[permanent dead link]
  87. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-10-07. Retrieved 2016-06-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  88. ^ "第一個投降滿清的明朝將領結局如何?".
  89. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/LI_SHIH-YAO.html
  90. ^ http://12103081.wenhua.danyy.com/library1210shtml30810106630060.html
  91. ^ "公主被送去部落聯姻,婚禮當天竟成了一張人皮...揭開血腥文化的恐怖真相". 2019-07-20.
  92. ^ Evelyn S. Rawski (15 November 1998). The Last Emperors: A Social History of Qing Imperial Institutions. University of California Press. pp. 72–. ISBN 978-0-520-92679-0.
  93. ^ Anne Walthall (2008). Servants of the Dynasty: Palace Women in World History. University of California Press. pp. 148–. ISBN 978-0-520-25444-2.
  94. ^ Frederic Wakeman (1 January 1977). Fall of Imperial China. Simon and Schuster. pp. 79–. ISBN 978-0-02-933680-9.
  95. ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7.
  96. ^ FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 1017–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
  97. ^ FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 1018–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1.
  98. ^ Rubie Sharon Watson (1991). Marriage and Inequality in Chinese Society. University of California Press. pp. 179–. ISBN 978-0-520-07124-7.
  99. ^ 唐博 (2010). 清朝權臣回憶錄. 遠流出版. pp. 108–. ISBN 978-957-32-6691-4.
  100. ^ 施樹祿 (17 May 2012). 世界歷史戰事傳奇. 華志文化. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-986-5936-00-6.
  101. ^ "清代第一战神是谁? 年羹尧和岳钟琪谁的成就更高?". 历史网. 7 March 2016. Archived from the original on 28 August 2016.
  102. ^ Hummel, Arthur W., ed. (2010). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing Period, 1644–1912 (2 vols) (reprint ed.). Global Oriental. p. 8. ISBN 978-9004218017.
  103. ^ Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400–1800. Lexington Books. pp. 159–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0. Archived from the original on 22 June 2015.
  104. ^ Ainslie Thomas Embree; Robin Jeanne Lewis (1988). Encyclopedia of Asian history. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 9780684189017. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  105. ^ K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 166–. ISBN 978-0-521-87586-8.
  106. ^ Kenneth R. Hall (2008). Secondary Cities and Urban Networking in the Indian Ocean Realm, C. 1400-1800. Lexington Books. pp. 161–. ISBN 978-0-7391-2835-0.
  107. ^ Mai Thục, Vương miện lưu đày: truyện lịch sử, Nhà xuất bản Văn hóa – thông tin, 2004, p.580; Giáo sư Hoàng Xuân Việt, Nguyễn Minh Tiến hiệu đính, Tìm hiểu lịch sử chữ quốc ngữ, Ho Chi Minh City, Công ty Văn hóa Hương Trang, pp.31–33; Helen Jarvis, Cambodia, Clio Press, 1997, p.xxiii.
  108. ^ Nghia M. Vo; Chat V. Dang; Hien V. Ho (29 August 2008). The Women of Vietnam. Saigon Arts, Culture & Education Institute Forum. Outskirts Press. ISBN 978-1-4327-2208-1.
  109. ^ Henry Kamm (1998). Cambodia: report from a stricken land. Arcade Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 1-55970-433-0. chey chettha II.
  110. ^ "Nguyễn Bặc and the Nguyễn". Archived from the original on 13 April 2009. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  111. ^ Frank W. Thackeray; John E. Findling (31 May 2012). Events That Formed the Modern World. ABC-CLIO. pp. 200–. ISBN 978-1-59884-901-1. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  112. ^ Arthur W. Hummel (1991). Eminent Chinese of the Ch'ing period: 1644-1912. SMC publ. p. 217. ISBN 978-957-638-066-2. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  113. ^ Library of Congress. Orientalia Division (1943). 清代名人傳略: 1644-1912. 經文書局. p. 217. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  114. ^ FREDERIC WAKEMAN JR. (1985). The Great Enterprise: The Manchu Reconstruction of Imperial Order in Seventeenth-century China. University of California Press. pp. 892–. ISBN 978-0-520-04804-1. Archived from the original on 30 September 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  115. ^ Raymond Stanley Dawson (1972). Imperial China. Hutchinson. p. 275. ISBN 9780091084806. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  116. ^ Raymond Stanley Dawson (1976). Imperial China. Penguin. p. 306.
  117. ^ DORGON
  118. ^ 梨大史苑. 梨大史學會. 1968. p. 105. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
  119. ^ "The annals of the Joseon princesses. – the Gachon Herald".
  120. ^ Li Ling (1995). Son of Heaven. Chinese Literature Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-7-5071-0288-8. Archived from the original on 22 October 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.

BibliographyEdit