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The Gwalior Gharana (Gwalior school of classical music) is one of the oldest Khyal Gharana in Indian classical music. The rise of the Gwalior Gharana started with the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar (1542–1605).
The Gwalior Gharana evolved during the time of the Mughal Empire (1526CE – 1857 CE). Among the early masters (ustad) were Naththan Khan, Naththan Pir Bakhsh and his grandsons Haddu, Hassu and Natthu Khan. The head musician in the imperial court was Bade Mohammad Khan, who was famous for his taan bazi style. Both Bade Mohammad Khan and Naththan Pir Bakhsh belonged to the same tradition of Shahi Sadarang (also known as Nemat Khan, dhrupad singer and veena player in the court of Mohammad Shah (1702 CE – 1748 CE).
Hassu Khan (died 1859 CE) and Haddu Khan (died 1875 CE) continued to develop the Gwalior style of singing. Haddu Khan's son Ustad Bade Inayat Hussain Khan (1852 – 1922) was also a singer but his style departed from the methodical Gwalior style.
Among the brothers' students were Vasudeva Buwa Joshi (died 1890), who became a teacher; and Ramkrishna Deva, who became a musician in Dhar. It was Ramkrishna Deva's student, Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar (1849 – 1926) who brought the Gwaliori gaeki (singing style) to Maharashtra state.
Another prominent disciple of the duo was a Muslim dhrupad and dhamar singer from Amritsar, Miyan Banney Khan (1835 – 1910). He introduced Khyal in Punjab and Sindh and then took a musical position at the court of Nizam of Hyderabad. Miyan Banney Khan's pupils included his cousin, Amir Khan (also known as "Meeran Bukhsh Khan"), Gamman Khan, Bhai Atta, Ali Bukhsh ,Kale Khan, Mian Qadir (sarangi), Bhai Wadhawa and Bhai Wasawa.
These all disciples started their own Gharanas and their descendants are still the most respected musicians of the subcontinent. Amir Khan also shared Miyan Banney khan's cheejs with the pupils of Pt. Balkrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar when he stayed in Miraj for sometime. However, his disciples included among others his four sons. One of the sons, Pyare Khan, became a professional musician. Another son, Baba Sindhe Khan (1885 – 18 June 1950) became a music teacher and trained pupils such as the educator B. R. Deodhar (1901 – 1990); the singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1902 – 1968), and Farida Khanam (born 1935).
On 19 August 1922, Pyare Khan performed at the second annual celebration of the independence of India. He became a mentor to a singer from Afghanistan, also performing at the celebration. This was the singer, Qasim Afghan ("Qasimju") (born 1878, Kabul). Pyare Khan also remained a musician at the court of Maharajadhiraj Maharawal (Sir Jawahir Singh) of Jaisalmer (1914 – 1949). He was also a teacher of Seth Vishandas of Hyderabad in Sindh near Karachi and Mahant Girdharidas of Bhuman Shah, Punjab.
Pyare Khan's sons were Umeed Ali Khan (1910 – 1979) and Ghulam Rasool Khan. They became respected classical vocalists of their times. Ghulam Rasool Khan had two sons, Hameed Ali Khan and Fateh Ali Khan.
Krishnarao Shankar Pandit (1893 – 1989) was a musician of the Gwalior gharana heritage. His father, Shankarrao Pandit was a student of Haddu Khan, Nathu Khan and Nissar Hussain Khan, Nathu Khan's son. Krishnarao Shankar Pandit practiced Khayal, Tappa and Tarana singing as well as layakari.
In 1914, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit opened a school in Gwalior, the Shankar Gandharva Mahavidyalaya. In 1921, he was awarded the title Gayak Shiromani at the All India Congress. Pandit became the court musician to Madhavrao Scindia of Gwalior; the State Musician of Maharashtra, an emeritus professor at Madhav Music College, Gwalior and an emeritus producer at All India Radio and Doordarshan. For his contribution to the world of classical music, he received awards including the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and the Tansen Award in 1980.
The students of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit included his son, Laxman Krishnarao Pandit, Sharadchandra Arolkar, Balasaheb Poochwale, and his granddaughter Meeta Pandit.
The following map is based on accounts that Makkan Khan and Shakkar Khan were not related. These accounts are supported by research indicating that Makkan Khan's descendants were dhrupadiyas and Shakkar Khan's descendants were khayaliyas, thus reflecting different genealogies.
A distinguishing feature of the gharana is its simplicity: well known ragas (melodic modes) rather than obscure ones are selected and sapaat (straight) taans (fast melodic sequences) is emphasized. While there is some limited raga vistar (melodic expansion) and alankar (melodic ornamentation) to enhance the beauty and meaning of the raga, there is no slow-tempo alap as in Kirana and there is no attempt to include tirobhava or melodic phrases to obscure the identity of the raga or add complexity. When the gharana is performed, the bandish (composition) is key as it provides the melody of the raga and indications on its performance. While doing bol-baant (rhythmic play using the words of the bandish) the Gwalior style uses all the words of sthayi or antara in proper sequence, without disturbing their meaning.
The behlava is a medium tempo rendition of the notes which follows the pattern of the aroha (ascent) and the avaroha (descent) of the raga. The behlava is divided into the asthayi (notes from "Ma" to "Sa") and the antara (noted from "Ma", "Pa", or "Dha" to "Pa" of the higher register). The asthayi section is sung twice before the antara. Then follows a swar-vistar in a medium tempo using heavy meends (glides) and taans. The dugun-ka-alap follows in which groups of two or four note combinations are sung in quicker succession while the basic tempo remains the same. The bol-alap is the next part where the words of the text are sung in different ways. Then there is in faster tempo the murki where notes are sung with ornamentation. The bol-taans have melodic sequences set to the words of the bandish. The other taans, including the gamak, follow.
The sapat taan is important to the Gwalior style. It is the singing of notes in a straight sequence and at a vilambit pace. Both Dhrupad and Khyal singing evolved in Gwalior and there are many overlaps. In the khyal style there is one form, Mundi Dhrupad, that incorporates all the features of dhrupad singing but without the Mukhda.
Gururao Deshpande - (1889 – 1982)
19th Century and EarlierEdit
- Ghulam Rasool, music luminary of Lucknow.
- Makkhan Khan, son and disciple of Gulam Rasool.
- Nathan Peer Baksh, son and disciple of Makkhan Khan.
- Kadar Baksh, disciple of Nathan Peer Baksh.
- Natthu Khan, disciple of Kadar Baksh.
- Haddu Khan (d. 1875), disciple of Kadar Baksh.
- Hassu Khan (d. 1859), disciple of Kadar Baksh.
- Rahimat Khan (1852 – 1922), son and disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Chote Mohammed Khan (d. 1874), son and disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Boorey Khan, nephew and disciple of Banney Khan.
- Jamal Khan, son and disciple of Banney Khan.
- Misri Khan, son and disciple of Banney Khan.
- Saindhey Khan, son and disciple of Banney Khan.
- Vasudevbuwa Joshi, disciple of Hassu Khan.
- Ramkrishnadev Paranjpe "Devjibuwa", disciple of Hassu Khan.
- Babasaheb Dixit, disciple of Hassu Khan.
- Vishnupant Chattre (840 – 1905), disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Banney Khan (1835 – 1910), disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Ghagge Nazir Khan (c. 1850 – c. 1920), Qawwal Bacchon who learned from Chote Mohammed Khan and co-founded the Mewati Gharana.
- Faiz Mohammed Khan (d. 1920), disciple of Kadar Khan.
- Bade Nissar Hussain Khan (1844 – 1916), adopted son and disciple of Natthu Khan.
- Bade Inayat Hussain Khan (1840 – 1923), son of Ustad Haddu Khan Saheb
- Meeran Baksh "Amir" Khan, son and disciple of Boorey Khan.
- Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar (1849 – 1926), disciple of Vasudevbuwa Joshi, Devjibuwa, and Chote Mohammed Khan.
- Bhaiyya Ganpatrao (1852 – 1920), disciple of Bande Ali Khan and Inayat Hussain Khan.
- Shankar Vishnu Pandit (1863 – 1917), disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Eknath Vishnu Pandit (1870 – c. 1936), disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Vishnu Digambar Paluskar (1872 – 1931), disciple of Balkrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar.
- Madhav Moreshvar Kale "Balasaheb Guruji" (d. 1919), disciple of Haddu Khan.
- Ata Muhammad Khan, disciple of Banney Khan.
- Balwantrao Bapat, disciple of Vasudevbuwa Joshi.
- Krishnabua Lalit, disciple of Vasudevbuwa Joshi.
- Ravjibua Masurkar, disciple of Vasudevbuwa Joshi.
- Gopalrao Marathe, disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Bhaurao Joshi, disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze (1871 – 1945), disciple of Bade Nissar Hussain Khan.
- Gundobua Ingle, disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar.
- Nanubhaiya Telang (1879 – 1948), disciple of Madhav Moreshvar Kale.
- Anant Manohar Joshi (1881 – 1967), disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar, received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1955).
- Raja Bhaiya Poonchwale (1882 – 1956), disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar
- Yashwant Sadashiv Mirashibuwa (1883 – 1966), dsciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar.
- Gururao Deshpande (1889 – 1982), disciple of Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze. Also learned from his father, Narayanrao Deshpande (a Carnatic musician, Dattopant Joshi, and T. K. Pitre.
- Krishnarao Shankar Pandit (1894 – 1989)
- Omkarnath Thakur (1897 – 1967), disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar.
- Lal Mohammad Khan (d. 1962), son and disciple of Ata Muhammad Khan.
- Vinayakrao Patwardhan (1898 – 1975), disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar and Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze, awarded Padma Bhushan (1972).
- B. R. Deodhar (1901 – 1990), disciple of Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar, Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, Abdul Karim Khan, and Vinayakrao Patwardhan, received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1964) and Padma Shri (1976).
- Shankarrao Sapre, disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar who founded Shriram Sangeet Vidyalaya at Nagpur in 1926.
- V. A. Kashalkar, disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar.
- Shivrambua Vaze, son and disciple of Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze.
- Deenanath Mangeshkar, disciple of Ramkrishnabuwa Vaze.
- Qurban Hussain Khan (1901 – 1970), son and disciple of Bade Inayat Hussain Khan.
- Narayanrao Vyas (1902 – 1984), disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar, received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1976).
- Shankar Shripad Bodas (b. c. 1900 – d. c. 1970), disciple of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar.
- Laxman Krishnarao Pandit (b. 1938), son and disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit.
- Umeed Ali Khan (1910 – 1979), son and disciple of Meeran Baksh Khan who also learned Patiala gayaki.
- Sharadchandra Arolkar (1912 – 1994), disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit, Eknath Pandit, and Krishnarao Mulye, received Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1979)
- Jal Balporia, disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit.
- Govindrao Rajurkar, disciple of Rajabhaiyya Poonchwale.
- Keshavbuwa Ingle, son and disciple of Gundobuwa Ingle.
- Balwantrai Bhatt (1921 – 2016), disciple of Omkarnath Thakur.
- Dattatreya Vishnu Paluskar (1921 – 1955), son of Vishnu Digambar Paluskar who learned from Mirashibuwa, Narayanrao Vyas, and Vinayakrao Patwardhan.
- Manzoor Ali Khan (1922 – 1980), son and disciple of Jamalo Khan who also learned from Seendo Khan.
- Kumar Gandharva (1924 – 1992), disciple of B. R. Deodhar.
- Gajananbuwa Joshi (1911 – 1987), son and disciple of Anant Manohar Joshi. Also learned from Vilayat Hussain Khan of Agra gharana and Bhurji Khan of Jaipur-Atrauli gharana.
- Vinayakbuva Utturkar (Joshi) (1914 - 1989), son of Pt. Vishnu Keshav Utturkar (Joshi), Disciple of Yashwantbuwa Mirashi (Mirashi_Buwa).
- D. V. Kanebuwa, disciple of Neelkanthbuwa Jangam, Vinayakrao Patwardhan, and Yashwantbuwa Mirashi (Mirashi_Buwa). Also learned from Vilayat Hussain Khan of Agra gharana.
- Ghulam Hassan Shaggan (1928 – 2015), disciple of Bhai Lal Muhammad, awarded Sitara-e-Imtiaz (2000).
- Vasundhara Komkali (1931 – 2015), wife and disciple of Kumar Gandharva. Awarded Sangeet Natak Akademi Award and the Padma Shri.
- Sharad Sathe (1932 – 2019), disciple of Dattatreya Vishnu Paluskar. Also learned from B. R. Deodhar and Sharadchandra Arolkar.
- Narayanrao Bodas (1933 – 2017), son and disciple of Laxmanrao Bodas. Also learned from Pralhad Ganu.
- Sunanda Patnaik (1934 – 2020), disciple of Vinayakrao Patwardhan.
- Shankar Abhyankar (b. 1934), disciple of Narayanrao Vyas.
- Kashinath Shankar Bodas (1935 – 1995), son and disciple of Shankar Bodas.
- Ashok Ranade (1937 – 2011), disciple of B. R. Deodhar, Gajananrao Joshi, and Laxman Bodas. Also learned from Pralhad Ganu of Agra gharana.
- Laxman Krishnarao Pandit (b. 1938), son and disciple of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit.
- Malini Rajurkar (b. 1941), disciple of Govindrao Rajurkar, awarded Sangeet Natak Akademi award.
- Neela Bhagwat (b. 1942), disciple of Sharadchandra Arolkar and Jal Balporia.
- Iqbal Hussain Khan (1942 – 2010), son and disciple of Qurban Hussain Khan.
- Arun Kashalkar (b. 1943), disciple of Gajananrao Joshi. Also learned from Ram Marathe, D. V. Panke, Rajabhau Kogje, and Babanrao Haldankar.
- Vidyadhar Vyas (b. 1944), son and disciple of Narayanrao Vyas.
- Veena Sahasrabuddhe (1948 – 2016), daughter and disciple of Shankar Bodas, also learned from older brother, Kashinath.
- Vinayak Torvi (b. 1948), disciple of Gururao Deshpande, also learned from Bhimsen Joshi of Kirana gharana.
- Vijay Sardeshmukh (1952 – 2019), disciple of Kumar Gandharva.
- Vikas Kashalkar (b. 1955), disciple of Gajananrao Joshi.
- Ulhas Kashalkar (b. 1955), disciple of Gajananrao Joshi. Also learned from Ram Marathe of Agra gharana.
- Kedar Bodas (b. c. 1970s), son and disciple of Narayanrao Bodas. Also learned from Ashok Ranade.
- Meeta Pandit (b. 1967), daughter and disciple of Laxman Krishnarao Pandit. Also learned from grandfather, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit.
- Shashwati Mandal (b. 1971), disciple of Balasaheb Poonchwale.
- Manjusha Kulkarni-Patil (b. 1971), disciple of D. V. Kanebuwa.
- Pallavi Joshi (b. c. 1970s), disciple of Gajananrao Joshi, Madhukar Joshi, Sucheta Bidkar, Manohar Joshi, and Arun Kashalkar.
- Apoorva Gokhale (b. c. 1970s), disciple of Gajananrao Joshi, Madhukar Joshi, Sucheta Bidkar, Manohar Joshi, Arun Kashalkar, and Ulhas Kashalkar. Also studied with Manik Bhide, Yashwant Mahale, Shankar Abhyankar, and Ashwini Bhide-Deshpande.
- Ateeq Hussain Khan (b. 1980), son and disciple of Iqbal Hussain Khan.
- Mukherji, Kumar Prasad (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music (2006 ed.). Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.
- Kumar, Kuldeep (14 October 2016). "Exploring the syntax of syncretism". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
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- Wade, B. C. (1984). Khyal: Creativity Within North India's Classical Music Tradition. CUP Archive. p. 47. ISBN 0521256593. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
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- "ITC SRA's Tribute to the Great Maestros of Hindustani Classical Music". www.itcsra.org. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
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- "Ummeed Ali Khan". Vijaya Parrikar Library of Indian Classical Music. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Oriental Traditional Music from LPs & Cassettes: Hameed Ali Khan & Fateh Ali Khan (Gwalior Gharana) - Vol. 2 - Lok Virsa CL-0023 (1987)". Oriental Traditional Music from LPs & Cassettes. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
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- Joshi, Lakshman Dattatray (1935). Sangeetshastrakar va Kalavant Yancha Itihas. Pune: Aryabhushan Press. pp. 108–109.
- Kumr, Ranee (29 March 2013). "Music from the 'school'". Retrieved 19 October 2014.
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- Deodhar, B. R. Gayanacharya Pandit Vishnu Digambar. pp. 104–105.
- Bakhle, Janaki (2005). Two Men and Music: Nationalism in the Making of an Indian Classical Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 297. ISBN 9780195166101.
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