The Gwalior Gharana (Gwalior school of classical music) is one of the oldest Khyal Gharana in Indian classical music. The rise of the Gwalior Gharana started with the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar (1542–1605).

The favourite singers of this patron of the arts, such as Miyan Tansen, who was the most famous vocalist at the court of Akbar, came from the town of Gwalior.

History edit

The Gwalior Gharana evolved during the time of the Mughal Empire (1526CE – 1857 CE). Among the early masters (ustad) were Naththan Khan, Naththan Pir Bakhsh and his grandsons Haddu, Hassu and Natthu Khan.[1] The head musician in the imperial court was Bade Mohammad Khan, who was famous for his taan bazi style.[citation needed] Both Bade Mohammad Khan and Naththan Pir Bakhsh belonged to the same tradition of Shahi Sadarang (also known as Nemat Khan, dhrupad singer and veena player in the court of Mohammad Shah (1702 CE – 1748 CE).[2]

Hassu Khan (died 1859 CE) and Haddu Khan (died 1875 CE) continued to develop the Gwalior style of singing.[3] Haddu Khan's son Ustad Bade Inayat Hussain Khan (1852 – 1922) was also a singer but his style departed from the methodical Gwalior style.

Among the brothers' students were Vasudeva Buwa Joshi (died 1890), who became a teacher; and Ramkrishna Deva, who became a musician in Dhar.[4] It was Ramkrishna Deva's student, Balakrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar (1849 – 1926) who brought the Gwaliori gaeki (singing style) to Maharashtra state.[5]

Another prominent disciple of the duo was a Muslim dhrupad and dhamar singer from Amritsar, Miyan Banney Khan. He introduced Khyal in Punjab and Sindh and then took a musical position at the court of Nizam of Hyderabad.[6] Miyan Banney Khan's pupils included his cousin, Amir Khan (also known as "Meeran Bukhsh Khan"), Gamman Khan, Bhai Atta Muhammad, Ali Baksh Khan(father of Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan), Kale Khan, Mian Qadir(sarangi), Bhai Wadhawa, Bhai Wasawa, Baba Rehman Baksh.

These all disciples started their own Gharanas and their descendants are still the most respected musicians of the subcontinent. Amir Khan also shared Miyan Banney khan's cheejs with the pupils of Pt. Balkrishnabuwa Ichalkaranjikar when he stayed in Miraj for sometime. However, his disciples included among others his four sons. One of the sons, Pyare Khan, became a professional musician.[7] Another son, Baba Sindhe Khan (1885 – 18 June 1950) became a music teacher and trained pupils such as the educator B. R. Deodhar (1901 – 1990); the singer Bade Ghulam Ali Khan (1902 – 1968),[8] and Farida Khanam (born 1935).

On 19 August 1922, Pyare Khan performed at the second annual celebration of the independence of Afghanistan. He became a mentor to a singer from Afghanistan, also performing at the celebration. This was the singer, Qasim Afghan ("Qasimju") (born 1878, Kabul).[9] Pyare Khan also remained a musician at the court of Maharajadhiraj Maharawal (Sir Jawahir Singh) of Jaisalmer (1914 – 1949). He was also a teacher of Seth Vishandas of Hyderabad in Sindh near Karachi and Mahant Girdharidas of Bhuman Shah, Punjab.

Mian Pyare Khan's sons were Ustad Umeed Ali Khan (1910 – 1979) and Ustad Ghulam Rasool Khan. They became respected classical vocalists of their times.[10] Ustad Ghulam Rasool Khan had two sons, Ustad Hameed Ali Khan and Ustad Fateh Ali Khan.[11] Ustad Fateh Ali Khan's son is Izat Fateh Ali Khan.[12]

Krishnarao Shankar Pandit (1893 – 1989) was a musician of the Gwalior gharana heritage. His father, Shankarrao Pandit was a student of Haddu Khan, Nathu Khan and Nissar Hussain Khan, Nathu Khan's son. Krishnarao Shankar Pandit practiced Khayal, Tappa and Tarana singing as well as layakari.

In 1914, Krishnarao Shankar Pandit opened a school in Gwalior, the Shankar Gandharva Mahavidyalaya. In 1921, he was awarded the title Gayak Shiromani at the All India Congress. Pandit became the court musician to Madhavrao Scindia of Gwalior; the State Musician of Maharashtra, an emeritus professor at Madhav Music College, Gwalior and an emeritus producer at All India Radio and Doordarshan. For his contribution to the world of classical music, he received awards including the Padma Bhushan in 1973 and the Tansen Award in 1980.

The students of Krishnarao Shankar Pandit included his son, Laxman Krishnarao Pandit, Sharadchandra Arolkar, Balasaheb Poochwale, and his granddaughter Meeta Pandit.

Pedagogical genealogy edit

The following map is based on accounts that Makkan Khan and Shakkar Khan were not related.[13] These accounts are supported by research indicating that Makkan Khan's descendants were dhrupadiyas and Shakkar Khan's descendants were khayaliyas, thus reflecting different genealogies.[14]

Nathan Peer Baksh
Ghagge Khuda
Natthu KhanHaddu Khan
Hassu Khan
Agra Gharana
Faiz Mohammed
Bade Nissar
Hussain Khan
Rehmat Khan
"Bhu Gandharva"
Bade Inayat
Hussain Khan
Inayat Hussain
Meeran Baksh
"Amir" Khan
Ali Baksh &
Fateh Ali Khan
Gharana Parampara
Eknath "Mao"
Patiala Gharana
Mewati Gharana
Qurban Hussain
Vishnu Digambar
Anant Manohar
Raja Bhaiya
Yashwant Sadashiv
Krishnarao Shankar

Recent pedagogy edit

Singing style edit

A distinguishing feature of the gharana is its simplicity: well known ragas (melodic modes) rather than obscure ones are selected and sapaat (straight) taans (fast melodic sequences) is emphasized. While there is some limited raga vistar (melodic expansion) and alankar (melodic ornamentation) to enhance the beauty and meaning of the raga, there is no slow-tempo alap as in Kirana and there is no attempt to include tirobhava or melodic phrases to obscure the identity of the raga or add complexity. When the gharana is performed, the bandish (composition) is key as it provides the melody of the raga and indications on its performance. While doing bol-baant (rhythmic play using the words of the bandish) the Gwalior style uses all the words of sthayi or antara in proper sequence, without disturbing their meaning.

The behlava is a medium tempo rendition of the notes which follows the pattern of the aroha (ascent) and the avaroha (descent) of the raga. The behlava is divided into the asthayi (notes from "Ma" to "Sa") and the antara (noted from "Ma", "Pa", or "Dha" to "Pa" of the higher register). The asthayi section is sung twice before the antara. Then follows a swar-vistar in a medium tempo using heavy meends (glides) and taans. The dugun-ka-alap follows in which groups of two or four note combinations are sung in quicker succession while the basic tempo remains the same. The bol-alap is the next part where the words of the text are sung in different ways. Then there is in faster tempo the murki where notes are sung with ornamentation. The bol-taans have melodic sequences set to the words of the bandish. The other taans, including the gamak, follow.

The sapat taan is important to the Gwalior style. It is the singing of notes in a straight sequence and at a vilambit pace. Both Dhrupad and Khyal singing evolved in Gwalior and there are many overlaps. In the khyal style there is one form, Mundi Dhrupad, that incorporates all the features of dhrupad singing but without the Mukhda.

Exponents edit

19th Century and Earlier edit

20th Century edit

Contemporary artists edit

References edit

  1. ^ Mukherji, Kumar Prasad (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music (2006 ed.). Delhi: Penguin Books. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.
  2. ^ Kumar, Kuldeep (14 October 2016). "Exploring the syntax of syncretism". The Hindu. Retrieved 27 November 2017.
  3. ^ "Hassu Khan Haddu Khan". Oxford Index. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  4. ^ Wade, B. C. (1984). Khyal: Creativity Within North India's Classical Music Tradition. CUP Archive. p. 47. ISBN 0521256593. Retrieved 28 November 2017.
  5. ^ The Gazetteer of India vol 2. Publications Division Ministry of Information & Broadcasting. ISBN 9788123022659.
  6. ^ Wade, Bonnie C. (1 January 1984). Khyal: Creativity Within North India's Classical Music Tradition. CUP Archive. ISBN 9780521256599.
  7. ^ Ranade, A. D. (2006). Hindi Film Song: Music Beyond Boundaries. Bibliophile South Asia. p. 207. ISBN 9788185002644.
  8. ^ a b "Gwalior gharana". ITC Sangeet Research Academy website. Archived from the original on 23 May 2012. Retrieved 29 December 2023.
  9. ^ "Afghanistan Ustad Qasim Afghan". Archived from the original on 4 July 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  10. ^ "Ummeed Ali Khan". Vijaya Parrikar Library of Indian Classical Music. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  11. ^ "Oriental Traditional Music from LPs & Cassettes: Hameed Ali Khan & Fateh Ali Khan (Gwalior Gharana) - Vol. 2 - Lok Virsa CL-0023 (1987)". Oriental Traditional Music from LPs & Cassettes. 12 June 2011. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
  12. ^ Hasan, Shazia (6 March 2023). "Soulful music tugs at the audience's heartstrings". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 26 May 2023.
  13. ^ Te Nijenhuis, Emmie (1974). Indian Music: History and Structure. Belgium: E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-03978-3.
  14. ^ Nadkarni, Mohan (1999). The Great Masters: profiles in Hindustani classical vocal music. India: HarperCollins Publishers India. p. 38.
  15. ^ Joshi, Lakshman Dattatray (1935). Sangeetshastrakar va Kalavant Yancha Itihas. Pune: Aryabhushan Press. pp. 108–109.
  16. ^ Kumr, Ranee (29 March 2013). "Music from the 'school'". Retrieved 19 October 2014.
  17. ^ "Impassioned recital by Arolkar | the writings of Mohan Nadkarni".
  18. ^ Deodhar, B. R. Gayanacharya Pandit Vishnu Digambar. pp. 104–105.
  19. ^ Bakhle, Janaki (2005). Two Men and Music: Nationalism in the Making of an Indian Classical Tradition. Oxford University Press. p. 297. ISBN 9780195166101.
  20. ^ "Mahal, once the citadel of musicians, now strums broken notes | Nagpur News - Times of India". The Times of India. 9 April 2017.
  21. ^ "Sahitya Akademi broadcasts recitation of Sant Singaji verses under 'Gamak'".
  22. ^ Banerjee, Shoumojit (27 November 2017). "Pandit Narayanrao Bodas no more". The Hindu.
  23. ^ "Shankar Abhyankar".
  24. ^ Sarvamangala, C.S. (5 October 2012). "The eternal note". The Hindu. Retrieved 7 October 2014.