Green Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Green Line is a 20-mile (32 km) light rail line running between Redondo Beach and Norwalk within Los Angeles County. It is one of six lines forming the Los Angeles Metro Rail system. The line opened on August 12, 1995. It became the third line in the Metro Rail system after the opening of the Blue Line and Red Line. The line was delayed due to a change of the line's route from Los Angeles International Airport to El Segundo. In addition to Redondo Beach and Norwalk, the route also serves El Segundo, Hawthorne, South Los Angeles, Lynwood, Downey, and Willowbrook (in South Los Angeles). It serves the Plaza Mexico shopping center at the Long Beach Boulevard station in the city of Lynwood. A free shuttle bus to Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) is available at the line's Aviation/LAX Station. The line is mostly suburb-to-suburb service, so it is the only one in the entire Metro Rail system not to serve Downtown Los Angeles but passengers can reach it by connecting with the Metro Silver Line busway at the Harbor Freeway Station, the Metro Blue Line light rail at Willowbrook Station or Metro Express 460 at Norwalk Station.
|Metro Green Line|
|Other name(s)||C Line (beginning 2019)|
|System||Los Angeles Metro Rail|
|Daily ridership||36,141 (July 2016; avg. weekday)|
|Opened||August 12, 1995|
|Character||Predominantly elevated and fully grade-separated, mostly in freeway median.|
|Rolling stock||Trains run in 1-2 car consists|
|Line length||20.0 mi (32.2 km)|
|Number of tracks||2|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm)|
|Electrification||750 V DC overhead catenary|
|Operating speed||65 mph (105 km/h)|
The fully grade-separated route runs mostly in the median of the Century Freeway (Interstate 105) with a mostly elevated section to the west. The line is operated and maintained by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Green Line is internally known as Line 803: this designation appears on internal operating schedules, as well as in the hyperlink on Metro's timetable website. The Green Line is the fastest light rail line (excluding the heavy rail Red Line and Purple Line) in the Metro light rail network. Green Line trains typically operate at 55–65 mph on the I-105 freeway portion and around 40 mph on the elevated portion west of Aviation/LAX Station. When the Green Line began service in 1995, it operated with only one-car trains. As ridership increased, two-car trains were then used. Ridership on the Green Line has not been as high as the Blue Line, although it did have a higher ridership than the Gold Line until 2013. Additionally, the Green Line runs with one-car trains in the early mornings (3:35 A.M.–5:30 A.M.) and late evenings (9:00P.M.–12:55 A.M.) on weekdays, and on weekends. Although nearly all of the Green Line stations were built to accommodate three-car trains, the Green Line has never used trains consisting of more than two cars. The stations west of Aviation/LAX Station were not built to accommodate three-car trains. However, it is possible that the Green Line would use three-car trains when the Crenshaw/LAX Line is complete.
Beginning in 2019, Metro will rename all of their rail and BRT lines from colors to letters. As such, the bulk of the current Green Line, combined with the soon-to-open Crenshaw/LAX Line project, will be renamed as C Line while retaining the current green coloring on maps.
The entire route of the Green Line is grade-separated, with its tracks following a fully elevated route, either on a guideway or in the median of the Century Freeway (Interstate 105). The line begins in the west at Redondo Beach station, then heads roughly north through El Segundo. At Aviation/LAX, passengers can transfer to any one of several bus lines from different operators, particularly Shuttle Bus "G", a shuttle bus from the Green Line to LAX. From here, the Green Line heads east in the median of the Century Freeway, with a connection to the Metro Silver Line bus rapid transit line at the Harbor Freeway Station. It then continues to a major transfer connection at the Willowbrook Station (transfer point to the Metro Blue Line). Finally, the line terminates in the city of Norwalk, just east of the 605 Freeway.
Hours of operationEdit
Metro Green Line trains run between approximately 3:36 a.m. and 11:55 p.m. daily. Service on Friday and Saturday nights continues until approximately 2:15 a.m. First and last train times are as follows:
To Norwalk Station
- First Train to Norwalk from Willowbrook/Rosa Parks Station: 3:33 a.m.
- First Train to Norwalk from Douglas Station: 3:41 a.m.
- Last Train to Norwalk: 11:59 p.m. (2:01 a.m. Friday and Saturday nights)
To Redondo Beach Station
- First Train to Redondo Beach Station: 4:04 a.m.
- Last Train to Redondo Beach Station: 12:50 a.m. (2:12 a.m. Friday and Saturday nights)
Trains on the Green Line operate every seven to eight minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday. They operate every 15 minutes during the midday and all day on the weekends, with night service running every 20 minutes.
As part of the consent decree signed by Caltrans in 1972 to allow construction of the fiercely opposed Century Freeway, provisions were made for a transit corridor in the freeway's median. Construction began in 1987 on the line as a light rail line, with a route mostly following I-105 but a short section in the South Bay following the Harbor Subdivision. This western alignment was originally planned and partially constructed to connect with LAX, but the airport was planning a major renovation during the line's construction. Los Angeles World Airports wanted the connection to LAX to be integrated with this construction, but there were concerns from the Federal Aviation Administration that the overhead lines of the rail line would interfere with the landing paths of airplanes.
Various studies have suggested extending the Green Line north to LAX, Westchester, Loyola Marymount University, and even Santa Monica. A possible southern extension could take the Green Line's southern terminus farther southeast, to the South Bay Galleria or beyond. And on the line's east end, the line may one day be extended from its current terminus at Norwalk station to Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs station.
Integration with Crenshaw/LAX LineEdit
The Crenshaw/LAX Line project extends from the existing Green Line, and the question of how the new segment would be integrated into the Metro Rail system was the subject of some controversy in 2018 as completion of the project loomed. Early proposals had suggested that a new line would operate between Expo/Crenshaw station in the north and Aviation/Century in the south, or possibly extend to Redondo Beach station once the stations west of Aviation/LAX station could accommodate 3-car trains, with the stretch southwest of the wye continuing to be served by the Metro Green Line as well. An additional service would have connected Norwalk to the new Aviation/Century station and planned 96th Street Transit station and the Airport Metro Connector.
But this would require trains passing all three directions through the wye connecting the new and existing infrastructure, which Metro staff felt would unduly wear down the points. Instead, in 2018 Metro proposed a service plan that would see the newly opened segment connected to the bulk of the current Green Line; the southwest segment of the Green Line in the South Bay would operate as a separate shuttle between Redondo Beach and the new Aviation/Century station. The arrangement was meant to provide a seamless rail option for the many passengers who currently transfer between the Green Line and north-south bus lines in the area, as well as operationally combine the Norwalk-LAX and Crenshaw/Expo-LAX legs, which have matching capacity needs, rather than combining either with the more sparsely used Redondo Beach leg.
However, the plan was met with resistance from some board members, particularly Supervisor Janice Hahn, because it would require South Bay passengers to make multiple transfers to complete trips currently possible with only one transfer.  A faction of the Metro board led by Hahn proposed a one-year pilot of an alternative routing scheme under which one line would travel from Norwalk to Expo/Crenshaw and another from Redondo Beach to Willowbrook/Rosa Parks.
The proposal, dubbed C-3, was approved by the Metro board on December 6, 2018. This option will entail an additional $10 million annual operating cost over Metro's initial proposal, in large part because a substantial segment of the current Green Line between Willowbrook and Aviation/LAX will see three-minute headways at peak hours. The adopted proposal will also limit the potential length of trains on the new segment to two cars due to power constraints, and will preclude a one-seat ride from the South Bay to LAX, but will maintain the ability of South Bay passengers to transfer directly to the Silver and Blue Lines.
Southern Extension to South BayEdit
Metro is currently working on the initial environmental study of a corridor extension of the Green Line, from its Redondo terminus toward the southeast. The "South Bay Metro Green Line Extension" would roughly follow the Harbor Subdivision ROW into the South Bay, to the Torrance Regional Transit Center (RTC).
Metro and the public are considering two alternatives in the DEIR: an elevated light-rail extension, and an at-grade extension over existing tracks, with vehicle type still to be determined. Study of the South Bay Extension will lead to publication of a Draft Environmental Impact Report (DEIR). The study was expected to be completed in 2011. Project was placed on hold in Spring 2012 due to uncertain funding. With the passage of Measure M in 2016, $619 million was cited for the Green Line Extension south and the study resumed. The (EIR/EIS) resumed, which is currently scheduled for Spring 2019 release. According to the LA County Expenditure Plan (Measure M), groundbreaking for the project is currently scheduled for 2026, with expected opening in 2030-2033. The timeline is expected to be accelerated under the Twenty-eight by '28 initiative.
The Green Line's eastern terminus suffers from the fact that it stops two miles (3 km) just short of the heavily used Norwalk/Santa Fe Springs Metrolink station, where several Metrolink lines operate. Local bus service is provided between the Metrolink station and the Green Line terminus, but schedules are not coordinated with the Green Line arrivals. While plans exist to close the gap, any potential funding is currently years away.
The Green Line consists of the following 14 stations (from west to east):
|Station||Station Connections||Date Opened||Station Parking||City/ Neighborhood|
|Redondo Beach||Metro Local: 126, 215
Beach Cities Transit 102
LADOT Commuter Express: 438, 574
Lawndale Beat Express, Residential Routes
|August 12, 1995||403 Spaces||Hawthorne|
|Douglas||Metro Local: 125||August 12, 1995||30 Spaces||El Segundo|
|El Segundo||LADOT Commuter Express: 574
Torrance Transit: 8
|August 12, 1995||91 Spaces|
|Mariposa||Metro Local: 232
Torrance Transit: 8
|August 12, 1995||No parking|
|Aviation/LAX||Metro Local: 40 (Late Night/ Owl service only), 120, 625
LAX Shuttle: Route G (serves LAX Terminals 1-8 and the Tom Bradley International Terminal)
Santa Monica Transit: 3, Rapid 3
Culver City Transit: 6, Rapid 6
Beach Cities Transit: 109
Gardena Transit: 5
LADOT Commuter Express: 438
|August 12, 1995||390 Spaces||Westchester|
|Hawthorne/Lennox||Metro Local: 40, 126, 212, 312
Metro Express: 442
Metro Rapid: 740
The Link: Lennox Shuttle
|August 12, 1995||623 Spaces||Hawthorne|
|Crenshaw||Metro Local: 126, 207 (Weekdays selected Rush Hour AM/PM trips, & Weekends Only), 210
Metro Rapid: 710, 757
Torrance Transit: 5, 10
|August 12, 1995||513 Spaces|
|Vermont/Athens||Metro Local: 204, 206, 209
Metro Rapid: 754
Gardena Transit: 2
|August 12, 1995||155 Spaces||Athens|
|Harbor Freeway|| Metro Silver Line
Metro Local: 45, 81, 120
Metro Express: 550
Metro Rapid: 745
LADOT Commuter Express: 448
Orange County Transportation Authority: 721
Gardena Transit: 1X
Torrance Transit: 1, 2, 4
|August 12, 1995||253 Spaces||South Los Angeles|
|Avalon||Metro Local: 48, 51, 52, 53, 351
LADOT DASH: Watts
The Link: Willowbrook Shuttle
|August 12, 1995||158 Spaces|
|Willowbrook|| Metro Blue Line
Metro Local: 55, 120, 202, 205, 355, 612
Gardena Transit: 5
LADOT DASH: Watts
Lynwood Breeze Route D
The Link: Willowbrook Shuttle: A, B, King Medical Center
|August 12, 1995||231 Spaces||Willowbrook|
|Long Beach Boulevard||Metro Local: 60, 251
Metro Rapid: 760
Lynwood Trolley: A
|August 12, 1995||646 Spaces||Lynwood|
|Lakewood Boulevard||Metro Local: 117, 265, 266||August 12, 1995||414 Spaces||Downey|
|Norwalk||Metro Local: 111, 115, 120, 125, 311
Metro Express: 460, 577X
Norwalk Transit: 2, 4, 5, 7
Long Beach Transit: 172, 173
|August 12, 1995||1,792 Spaces||Norwalk|
The Green Line is operated out of the Division 22 Yard (Aviation Street Yard) and the Division 16 Yard (Southwestern Yard). These yards stores the fleet used on the Green line. Light maintenance is done on the fleet in Division 22 where as heavier maintenance is done in Division 16. Division 22 is located between Redondo Beach and Douglas stations. Trains enter the yard via a junction halfway between the two stations. Douglas bound trains (Northbound) may enter but there is no exit track to continue North. Redondo Beach bound trains (Southbound) may enter and exit the Yard to continue south. Division 16 is located on the completed section of the Crenshaw/LAX Line in Westchester.
At the time the Green Line opened, the line used rolling stock made by Nippon Sharyo similar to those used on the Metro Blue Line. In late 2001, the Nippon Sharyo P2020's were transferred to the Blue Line, and the Green Line received new Siemens P2000 railcars which have been operating on the Green Line ever since. Kinkisharyo P3010 trains are also used. Trains are limited to two-car sets due to limitations at some stations along the line.
- On February 22, 2015, a train near the Hawthorne/Lennox station struck and killed a man who was trespassing onto the tracks.
- On August 24, 2018, a collision involving a tanker truck on the westbound lanes of the I-105 between Vermont Avenue and Crenshaw Boulevard exploded with flames that crawled onto the Green Line tracks and damaged the catenary system. The Green Line and the freeway as well were temporarily suspended.
- "Ridership Statistics - Rail Ridership Estimates". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. August 20, 2013. Retrieved August 25, 2013.
- "Monthly Ridership Plot" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 2013. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- "Facts at a Glance". Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
- "Because they're out of colors, LA Metro will rename all its train lines and rapid busways with letters in 2019". Daily News. December 13, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Metro Moves Ahead with Changes to How They Name Rail/BRT". Streetsblog Los Angeles. November 20, 2018. Retrieved December 19, 2018.
- "Green Line timetable" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 24, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
- "Metro Bus & Rail System Map" (PDF). Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. December 2013. Retrieved January 15, 2014.
- Maddaus, Gene (January 9, 2008). "Why Green Line stopped short of LAX". Los Angeles Daily News. Retrieved September 2, 2016.
- Sumers, Brian (January 21, 2014). "Metro breaks ground on new $2 billion L.A. Crenshaw/LAX Line". Daily Breeze. Retrieved January 31, 2016.
- "City Council approves long-awaited people mover to LAX". Los Angeles Times. April 11, 2018. Archived from the original on April 12, 2018. Retrieved April 12, 2018.
- "Exploring The South Bay Metro Green Line Extension". KCET. Archived from the original on November 21, 2013. Retrieved November 18, 2013.
- Sharp, Steven (November 27, 2018). "Here are the 28 Projects that Metro Could Complete Before the 2028 Olympics". Urbanize. Retrieved July 2, 2018.
- Nelson, Laura J. (November 24, 2018). "Westside and South Bay clash over how to connect two rail lines". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved November 27, 2018.
- "PEDESTRIAN FATALLY STRUCK BY GREEN LINE TRAIN IN HAWTHORNE". ABC7. February 23, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Man struck, killed by Metro Green Line train in Hawthorne". Daily Breeze (February 23, 2015). Retrieved October 20, 2015.
- "Eastbound lanes of 105 Freeway in Hawthorne reopened after fiery crash that killed two". LA Times (November 26, 2018). Retrieved August 24, 2018.