A stereotypical gopnik in a khrushchyovka

A gopnik (Russian: го́пник, IPA: [ˈɡopnʲɪk], Belarusian: гопнік)[1] is a member of a subculture in Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, and other former Soviet republics - a young man of lower-class suburban areas (usually from Generation Z and Millennials)[2] coming from families of poor education and income.[3] The female form is gopnitsa (Russian: го́пница), and the collective noun is gopota (Russian: гопота́). The subculture of gopniks has its roots in the late Russian Empire, and evolved during the 20th century in many cities in the Soviet Union.[4][5] As of the late 2010s, the subculture has faded for the most part, although youth gangs (such as the A.U.E.) that resemble gopniks still exist in Russia and in other Slavic countries.

EtymologyEdit

Gopnik is most likely derived from the Russian slang term for a street robbery: gop-stop (Russian: гоп-стоп).[6]

However, it could also be related to GOP, the acronym for the Gorodskoye Obshchestvo Prizreniya. These were almshouses for the destitute created by the Bolshevik government after the October Revolution in 1917. According to Dahl's Explanatory Dictionary, a Russian explanatory dictionary (first published in the 19th century), an old slang word for "sleeping on street" was "гопать" (literally, "to gop") something that was related to the "mazuricks", or the criminals of Saint Petersburg.[6]

Stereotypical appearance and behaviourEdit

 
A Gopnik squatting

Gopniks are often seen squatting in groups "in court" (на корта́х) or "doing the crab" (на крабе) outside blocks of flats or schools with their heels on the ground.[7][8] It is described as a learned behavior attributed to Russian prison culture to avoid sitting on the cold ground.[8]

Gopniks are often seen wearing Adidas or Puma tracksuits (mostly Adidas), which were popularised by the 1980 Moscow Olympics Soviet team.[9] Sunflower seeds (colloquially semki (семки) or semechki (семечки)) are habitually eaten by gopniks, especially in Ukraine and Russia. Gopniks can also be seen wearing flat caps and Adidas backpacks.

Gopniks are often associated with cheap alcohol, such as low-quality vodka and light beer, cheap cigarettes, low-end mobile devices, and sometimes even firearms. They also utilize common Russian profanities and often behave rudely. Gopniks often drive Lada Classics or older BMWs as their primary means of transport.

The subculture is stereotypically associated with Russian chanson music, specifically the blatnaya pesnya subgenre (prisoner's songs, lyrics etc...); also, since the mid-2010s, in internet memes and viral videos, with hardbass and Russian rock.[citation needed]

Gopniks commonly have Russian nationalism or Pan-Slavism as their primary political views[10], though there are also leftist or even far-right gopnik communities. Gopniks typically hold strong anti-Western views.[3]

Similar subculturesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Russian plural гопники (gopniki), also гопота (gopota), and гопари (gopari). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y90yaLFoYoA
  2. ^ Beiträge der Europäischen Slavistischen Linguistik (POLYSLAV)., https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y90yaLFoYoA Volume 8, 2005, ISBN 3-87690-924-4, p. 237
  3. ^ a b Michele A. Berdy (2014-04-10). "Thugs, Rednecks, Nationalists: Understanding Russia's Gopnik Culture". Moscow Times.
    Anastasiya Fedorova (2014-07-30). "An Ode to Russia's Ugly, Mean Suburbs". Moscow Times.
  4. ^ "Slav Squat – Russian Disturbing Street Trend".
  5. ^ "Russia's original gangstas: meet the gopniki". 22 July 2011.
  6. ^ a b "Британский исследовательский центр предлагает отказаться от слова "гопник"". Англия, Великобритания: энциклопедия, новости, фото. Всё об Англии и про Англию. Аделанта. July 17, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2013.
  7. ^ Flynn, Moya; Kay, Rebecca; Oldfield, Jonathan D. (1 June 2008). Trans-national issues, local concerns and meanings of post-socialism: insights from Russia, Central Eastern Europe, and beyond. University Press of America. ISBN 0761840559 – via Google Books.
  8. ^ a b Ханипов Р. «Гопники» – значение понятия, и элементы репрезентации субкультуры «гопников» в России // "Social Identities in Transforming Societies"
  9. ^ "Why is Adidas so Popular Among Russians?". 4 January 2015.
  10. ^ Anastasiia Fedorova (2014-05-28). "Russia's suburbs lack charm ... which may be why they're creative hotspots". Guardian.