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Squatting is a posture where the weight of the body is on the feet (as with standing) but the knees and hips are bent. In contrast, sitting, involves taking the weight of the body, at least in part, on the buttocks against the ground or a horizontal object such as a chair seat. The angle between the legs when squatting can vary from zero to widely splayed out, flexibility permitting. Squatting may be either:

  • full - known as full squat, deep squat, (sitting) on one's haunches, (sitting) on one's hunkers, or hunkering (down) – see text and see image gallery
  • partial - known as partial, standing, half, semi, parallel, shallow, intermediate, incomplete or monkey squat etc. – see text and see image gallery.

Crouching is usually considered to be synonymous with squatting. It is common to squat with one leg and kneel with the other leg.[1] One or both heels may be up when squatting. Young children often instinctively squat. Among Chinese, Southeast Asian, and Eastern European adults, squatting often takes the place of sitting or standing.[2]

Contents

VariationsEdit

The variations in this section particularly apply to full squatting but can apply to or have elements of partial squatting.

Both legs squattingEdit

Squatting for both legs can involve:

Heels down squatting for both feet is the most stable arrangement of the three but most Western adults cannot do it.

Where the heel is up for one foot, the thigh for that leg is typically more parallel to the ground than the other leg, additionally the heel up foot is typically planted further back than the heel down foot.

Where the heel is up for both feet, it can be by different degrees thus giving two different thigh angles.

Squat/kneel combinationEdit

It is common for one leg to be kneeling, while the other leg is:

Genuflection typically requires the heel down version of the squat/kneel combination.

The kneel in the squat/kneel combination is effectively just taking the heel up for one foot variant of both legs squatting a stage further. Similarly, the heel up squat version of the squat/kneel combination is potentially a stage before both legs kneeling.

EtymologyEdit

As a verb - early 15th century. Squatting in the sense of "crouch on the heels" is from the Old French words esquatir and escatir. Squatting in the sense of "compress, press down, lay flat, crush" is from about 1400. Meaning "posture of one who squats" is from 1570s. Act of squatting is from 1580s. Weight-lifting sense is from 1954.[3]

Young childrenEdit

 
Young girl playing at ease in a squatting position

Young children squat instinctively as a continuous movement from standing up whenever they want to lower themselves to ground level. One- and two-year-olds can commonly be seen playing in a stable squatting position, with feet wide apart and bottom not quite touching the floor, although at first they need to hold onto something to stand up again.[4]

Resting positionEdit

 
Squatting on the ground as a resting position.

Full squatting involves resting one's weight on the feet with the buttocks resting on the backs of the calves. It may be used as a posture for resting or working at ground level particularly where the ground is too dirty or wet to sit or kneel.[1]

Most Western adults cannot place their heels flat on the ground when squatting because of shortened Achilles tendons largely caused by habitually:[5][6][7]

  • sitting on chairs or seats
  • wearing shoes with heels (especially high heels)

For this reason the squatting position is usually not sustainable for them for more than a few minutes as heels-up squatting is a less stable position than heels-down squatting.[8][9] See also dorsiflexion.

In sportEdit

Catchers in baseball[10] and wicket-keepers in cricket facing slow deliveries assume full squatting positions. Australian wicket-keeper Sammy Carter (1878 to 1948) was the first to squat on his haunches rather than bend over from the waist (stooping).[11] (See full squats gallery for images.)

Hunkerin'Edit

"Hunkerin'" is, in particular, the name applied to the American fad of resting in the squatting position in the late 1950s. Life referred to it as "sociable squatting". Such behavior had been seen in many cultures, particularly in Asia, for centuries when it suddenly became a fad in the United States in 1959.[12]While the word "hunkerin'" is believed to originate from the Scots word for "haunches",[13] claims were made for Yorkshire, Korea and Japan.

Time reported that the craze started at the University of Arkansas when a shortage of chairs at a fraternity house led students to imitate their Ozark forefathers, who hunkered regularly.[13] The fad spread first to Missouri, Mississippi and Oklahoma, then across the U.S. While males were the predominant hunkerers, it was reported that females were welcomed by many groups.[13] Within months, regional competitions were being held to crown champions.[13]

Considered by authorities as preferable to the earlier fad of phonebooth stuffing,[13] people hunkered for hours on car roofs, in phone booths and wherever people gathered.[12] Different styles were reported as "sophisticates" tended to use a flatfooted posture while others hunkered with their elbows inside the knees.[13]

Reasons for the spread of the activity included the ability for large groups of people to participate together peacefully to discuss issues such as politics or sport. When asked about this popularity, one participant described it as

"A respite from a world of turmoil. The main purpose of hunkerin' is to get down and hunker together. It's a friendship thing: get your friends to hunker with you. The man you don't know is the man you haven't hunkered with."[13]

Proponents urged United States President Dwight Eisenhower and General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Nikita Khrushchev to hunker together to end their differences.[13] By 1960 the fad was fading.

GopniksEdit

One of the distinctive characteristics of gopniks is that they will often be seen squatting, a learned behavior attributed to prison habits or disadvantaged origins.[14]

Grand HowlEdit

 
Baden-Powell's illustration in The Wolf Cub's Handbook (1916) showing how a Wolf Cub's squatting posture imitates a wolf at the Grand Howl.

The Grand Howl is a ceremony used by Cub Scouts. It was devised by Robert Baden-Powell and is based on the Mowgli stories in Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book. In the ceremony, Cubs act out the wolves greeting Akela, the "Old Wolf" at the Council Rock and are reminded of the Cub Scout Promise. For this ceremony cubs assume the squatting position to imitate a wolf's posture.

Childbirth positionEdit

Engelmann's seminal work "Labor among primitive peoples" publicised the childbirth positions amongst primitive cultures to the Western world. They frequently use squatting, standing, kneeling and all fours positions, often in a sequence.[15]

Various people have promoted the adoption of these alternative birthing positions, particularly squatting, for Western countries, such as Grantly Dick-Read, Janet Balaskas, Moysés Paciornik and Hugo Sabatino. The adoption of these alternative positions is also promoted by the natural childbirth movement.

The squatting position gives a greater increase of pressure in the pelvic cavity with minimal muscular effort. The birth canal will open 20 to 30% more in a squat than in any other position. It is recommended for the second stage of childbirth.[16]

As most Western adults find it difficult to squat with heels down, compromises are often made such as putting a support under the elevated heels or another person supporting the squatter.[17]

In ancient Egypt, women delivered babies while squatting on a pair of bricks, known as birth bricks.[18]

Sexual positionEdit

 
The "riding" position (Mulier equitans) was popular in ancient Roman erotic art (wall painting from Pompeii, 62–79 BC

There are versions of the "cowgirl" sex position where the woman is squatting over the man, who is lying on his back, instead of kneeling over him. These are referred to by different names such as Asian cowgirl, frog squat position or riding position.[19] The woman can face forwards[20] or backwards (reverse).[21]

Female urination positionEdit

 
The Jeanneke Pis statue in Brussels, a female counterpoint to the city's Manneken Pis

When not urinating into a toilet, squatting is the easiest way for a female to direct the urine stream (although many women find that they can do so standing up). If done this way, the urine will go forward. Some females use one or both hands to focus the direction of the urine stream, which is more easily achieved while in the squatting position.

Acceptability of outdoor urination in a public place other than at a public urinal varies with the situation and customs. In Western countries, males typically do this standing up, while females squat.

A partial squatting position (or "hovering") while urinating is often done to avoid sitting on a potentially contaminated toilet seat, although it may leave urine behind in the bladder.[22]

Defecation positionEdit

 
Some toilets allow the user to defecate in either the squatting or the sitting position

The squatting defecation posture involves squatting by standing with knees and hips sharply bent and the buttocks suspended near the ground. Squat toilets are designed to facilitate this posture. This is less common in the Western world.

Dynamic exerciseEdit

As strength trainingEdit

 
Weightlifting moving from a full squat to standing position.

In strength training, the squat is a full body exercise that trains primarily the muscles of the thighs, hips and buttocks, as well as strengthening the bones, ligaments and insertion of the tendons throughout the lower body. Squats are considered a vital exercise for increasing the strength and size of the legs and buttocks.

BurpeeEdit

The burpee is a full body exercise used in strength training and as an aerobic exercise. The basic movement is performed in four steps and known as a "four-count burpee". Step 1 requires you to drop into the squatting position.

Taoist Tai ChiEdit

In Taoist Tai Chi, the "Dan Yu" (spine stretching) exercise involves squatting. It is intended to work primarily the pelvic region, the legs and the lower back. Fifty or more repetitions may be performed in advanced classes. The feet are placed in a stance wider than the shoulders. When squatting the knees move in the direction of the feet.[23][24][25]

Mālāsana or Upavesasana in YogaEdit

Mālāsana (literally sitting down pose), also known as the yoga squat, is an asana.[26]

The asana is a squat with heels flat on the floor and hip-width apart (or slightly wider if necessary), toes pointing out on a diagonal. The torso is brought forward between the thighs, elbows are braced against the inside of the knees, and the hands press together in front of the chest in Añjali Mudrā.[27]

Partial squatEdit

 
The demi-plié in ballet
 
The Besti squat in figure skating, legs splayed out wide.
 
The Utkatasana pose in yoga

A partial squat (also known as standing, half, semi, parallel, intermediate, shallow, incomplete or monkey squat etc.) is an intermediate stage between standing and full squatting, that is, standing but with the knees and hips bent. (In contrast, stooping involves bending at the waist rather than just the knees and hips). It may be used in a variety of contexts often as a "ready for action" posture:

For more partial squatting images see here.

LungingEdit

A lunge is a variation of the partial squat where a leg is moved forwards with the knee bent but the other remains straight thus moving the upper body forward in line with the bent knee. For example:

Stalking, prowling and duckwalkingEdit

 
US Airmen duck walk with their weapons held atop of their heads during the Air Force Pararescuemen Indoctrination "Hell Week" Course.

Stalking, prowling and duckwalking is walking that maintains a low profile by assuming a low partial squatting position.[36] It is a stage element of guitar showmanship popularized by Chuck Berry.[37][38]

Duckwalking is used to strengthen the ankles and thighs. It is also a test of balance, flexibility, and agility.[39]

The duckwalk is one out of 25 exercises in the physical test at United States Military Entrance Processing Command (MEPS). The duckwalk tests to see if a trainee is flat footed or if it hurts to perform the exercise. It also makes sure that the trainee has proper ranges of motion. Trainees who fail the duckwalk are temporarily suspended from MEPS and have to try again at a later date.[40][41]

DancingEdit

Squatting features heavily in some forms of dancing such as Cossack dancing.

Health effectsEdit

There is increased incidence of knee osteoarthritis amongst squatters who squat for hours a day for many years.[42] There is evidence that sustained squatting may cause bilateral peroneal nerve palsy. A common name for this affliction is squatter's palsy although there may be reasons other than squatting for this to occur.[43][44][45]

Tetralogy of FallotEdit

Older children will often squat during a Tetralogy of Fallot "tet spell". This increases systemic vascular resistance and allows for a temporary reversal of the shunt. It increases pressure on the left side of the heart, decreasing the right to left shunt thus decreasing the amount of deoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation.[46][47]

Squatting facetsEdit

The existence of squatting facets on the distal tibia and talar articular surfaces of skeletons, which result from contact between the two bones during hyperdorsiflexion, have been used as markers to indicate if that person habitually squatted.[48][49]

Image galleryEdit

Full squatsEdit

With heels down on both feetEdit

With heels up on both feetEdit

With heel up on one footEdit

Heel down squat/kneel combinationEdit

Heel up squat/kneel combinationEdit

Partial squatsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hewes, GW (April 1955). "World distribution of certain postural habits". American Anthropologist. 57 (2): 231–44. JSTOR 666393. doi:10.1525/aa.1955.57.2.02a00040. 
  2. ^ Dobrzynski, Judith H. (2004-10-17). "An Eye on China's Not So Rich and Famous". The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-04-07. 
  3. ^ Online etymology dictionary
  4. ^ Slentz K, Krogh S Early Childhood Development and Its Variations (2001)
  5. ^ Kasuyama, Tatsuya, Masaaki Sakamoto, and Rie Nakazawa. "Ankle Joint Dorsiflexion Measurement Using the Deep Squatting Posture." Journal of Physical Therapy Science 21.2 (2009): 195-199.
  6. ^ Krause DA, Cloud BA, Forster LA, Schrank JA, Hollman JH. Measurement of ankle dorsiflexion: a comparison of active and passive techniques in multiple positions. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation 2011 Aug;20(3):333-44.
  7. ^ Ausinheiler B The number 1 reason why people find deep squatting difficult 27 Nov 2012
  8. ^ Mauss, Marcel. Les Techniques du corps 1934. Journal de Psychologie 32 (3-4). Reprinted in Mauss, Sociologie et anthropologie, 1936, Paris: PUF.
  9. ^ Bookspan, Jolie. "Save knees when squatting". Healthline.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  10. ^ See "Catcher's Stance" at Baseball-Catcher.com.
  11. ^ The Oxford Companion to Australian Cricket, Oxford, Melbourne, 1996, p. 100.
  12. ^ a b Panati, Charles (1991). Panati's Parade of Fads, Follies, and Manias. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-055191-9. OCLC 24318503. 
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Staff writers (November 9, 1959). "Hanker to Hunker?". Time Magazine. Time. LXXIV (19). Archived from the original on 16 November 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2008. 
  14. ^ Ханипов Р. «Гопники» – значение понятия, и элементы репрезентации субкультуры «гопников» в России // "Social Identities in Transforming Societies"
  15. ^ Engelmann GJ Labor among primitive peoples (1883)
  16. ^ Russell JG. Moulding of the pelvic outlet. J Obstet Gynaecol Br Commonw 1969;76:817-20.
  17. ^ "Balaskas J Using the squatting position during labour and for birth" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  18. ^ Wilkinson, Richard H. (2003). The complete gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt. London: Thames & Hudson. pp. 152–153. ISBN 0-500-05120-8. 
  19. ^ "Discovery Health Sexual Positions". healthguide.howstuffworks.com. Retrieved 2010-10-22.
  20. ^ Asian Cowgirl Sex Position Sexinfo101.com
  21. ^ Reverse Asian Cowgirl Sex Position Sexinfo101.com
  22. ^ a b "Preventing kidney infection". nhs.uk. National Health Service. 11 December 2012. Retrieved 22 September 2014. 
  23. ^ Yang Chengfu (1931), Taijiquan Shiyongfa (Application methods of Taijiquan)
  24. ^ Yang Chengfu (1934), Taijiquan Tiyong Quanshu (Complete Book of the Essence and Applications of Taijiquan)
  25. ^ Yang Chengfu and Louis Swaim, tr. (2005). The Essence and Applications of Taijiquan. North Atlantic Books. ISBN 978-1-55643-545-4.
  26. ^ {https://www.elephantjournal.com/2013/10/5-yoga-tips-to-open-up-the-hips/
  27. ^ "Garland Pose". Yoga Journal. Retrieved 2009-06-12. 
  28. ^ "The Monkey Squat". easyvigour.net.nz/. Retrieved 2014-09-09. 
  29. ^ "Lifting technique". Back.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  30. ^ Judith Martin (2005). Miss Manners' guide to excruciatingly correct behavior. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 692. ISBN 978-0-393-05874-1. 
  31. ^ "ISU Communication No. 1445". Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. 
  32. ^ Twerk, Oxford Dictionaries Online. Retrieved 28 August 2013
  33. ^ Tarian Tradisional|Johor State Government Official Portal
  34. ^ Robbins A Pledged: The Secret Life of Sororities (2005)
  35. ^ Sorority squat
  36. ^ Duck walk
  37. ^ Guitar Gods: The 25 Players Who Made Rock History. ABC-CLIO. 2008. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-313-35806-7. Retrieved 2010-02-17. 
  38. ^ Chuck Berry duck walk
  39. ^ Erickson, Rose. "Walking like a duck exercise". healthyliving.azcentral.com. Healthy Living. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  40. ^ "MEPS: Physical Exam". TodaysMilitary. Department of defence. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  41. ^ "Meps at a Glance". Military.com. Military.com. Retrieved 10 April 2017. 
  42. ^ Liu CM, Xu L Retrospective study of squatting with prevalence of knee osteoarthritis - 2007
  43. ^ Macpherson JM, Gordon AJ Squatter's palsy British Medical Journal, 1983
  44. ^ Kumaki DJ. The facts of Kathmandu: squatter's palsy. Journal of the American Medical Association 2 Jan 1987;257(1):28.
  45. ^ "Toğrol E. Bilateral peroneal nerve palsy induced by prolonged squatting. Mil Med. 2000 Mar;165(3):240-2". Findarticles.com. Retrieved 2013-11-24. 
  46. ^ Murakami T (2002). "Squatting: the hemodynamic change is induced by enhanced aortic wave reflection". Am. J. Hypertens. 15 (11): 986–8. PMID 12441219. doi:10.1016/S0895-7061(02)03085-6. 
  47. ^ Guntheroth WG, Mortan BC, Mullins GL, Baum D. Am Venous return with knee-chest position and squatting in tetralogy of Fallot. Heart J. 1968 Mar;75(3):313-8.
  48. ^ Barnett CH Squatting facets on the European talus J Anat. 1954 October; 88(Pt 4): 509–513.
  49. ^ Trinkaus E Squatting among the neandertals: A problem in the behavioral interpretation of skeletal morphology Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 2, Issue 4, December 1975, Pages 327-351

Further readingEdit

Resting position

Dynamic exercise

Parturition

  • Gardosi J., Hutson N Randomised, Controlled Trial Of Squatting In the Second Stage of Labour 1989 The Lancet, Volume 334, Issue 8654, Pages 74–77
  • McKay S. Squatting: An Alternate Position For The Second Stage Of Labour The American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing 1984;9:181-183.
  • Nasir A., Korejo R., Noorani K.J. Child birth in squatting position. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association 2007/1;57:19-22
  • Paciornik M., Paciornik C., Birth in the Squatting Position (1979) Polymorph Films
  • Paciornik M., Paciornik C., Commentary: arguments against episiotomy and in favor of squatting for birth. Birth 1990 Dec;17(4):234, 236. and Birth 1991 Jun;18(2):119.
  • Paciornik M Use of the squatting position for birth. Birth 1992 Dec;19(4):230-1.

Health effects

  • Chakravarty A, Chatterjee S.K., Chakrabarti S. Blood pressure changes during squatting—a study in normal subjects and its possible clinical significance. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India. 2001 Jun; 49(): 678-9

Circulation

  • O'Donnell TV, McIlroy MB. The circulatory effects of squatting. American Heart Journal 1962 Sep;64:347-56.
  • Sharpey-Schafer EP Effects of Squatting on the Normal and Failing Circulation Br Med J. 12 May 1956; 1(4975): 1072–1074.

External linksEdit