Gene Tunney

James Raj "Gene" Tunney (May 25, 1897 – November 7, 1978) was an American professional boxer who competed from 1915 to 1928. He held the world heavyweight title from 1926 to 1928, and the American light heavyweight title twice between 1922 and 1923. A highly technical boxer, Tunney had a five-fight light heavyweight rivalry with Harry Greb in which he won three, drew once, and lost once, though many ringside reporters believed Greb should have won the decision in their 2nd meeting. He also knocked out Georges Carpentier and defeated Jack Dempsey twice; first in 1926 and again in 1927. Tunney's successful title defense against Dempsey remains one of the most famous bouts in boxing history and is known as The Long Count Fight. He retired undefeated as a heavyweight after his victory over Tom Heeney in 1928, after which Tunney was named Fighter of the Year by The Ring magazine.

Gene Tunney
Gene Tunney Portrait LOC.jpg
Tunney c. 1925
Statistics
Real nameJames Joseph Tunney
Nickname(s)The Fighting Marine
Weight(s)
Height6 ft 0 in (183 cm)
Reach76 in (193 cm)
NationalityAmerican
Born(1897-05-25)May 25, 1897
New York City, U.S.
DiedNovember 7, 1978(1978-11-07) (aged 81)
Greenwich, Connecticut, U.S.
StanceOrthodox
Boxing record
Total fights88
Wins82
Wins by KO49
Losses1
Draws4
No contests1

Early lifeEdit

Mary Lydon from Culleen House, Gorthgarve, Kiltimagh, County Mayo, Ireland, emigrated to the United States after the Great Famine. She settled in New York City, where she met John Tunney, also from Cill Aodain, Kiltimagh. They married after a short courtship. The Tunneys had seven children; one son was murdered around 1920, another was a New York Police Department detective from 1924 to 1951, dying in 1971, while Gene would become famous as a World Heavyweight Boxing Champion. At an early age, Tunney was inspired by President Theodore Roosevelt to become physically fit.[1]

CareerEdit

 
Tunney in Marine uniform

Tunney fought some 68 official professional fights, losing only one, to Harry Greb, while fighting as a light heavyweight. Tunney fought many other fights whose scoring was unofficial, judged by newspaper reporters. He also lost none of these "newspaper decisions." He reported that he lost a second fight during World War I, a 10-round decision, to Tommy Loughran, as a Marine before he began his professional boxing career. Tunney was regarded as an extremely skillful boxer who excelled in defense. In addition to beating Dempsey, the most famous fighter of his era, Tunney defeated Tommy Gibbons, Georges Carpentier and many other fine boxers.

Already the U.S. Expeditionary Forces champion, Tunney spent the winter of 1921 as a lumberjack in northern Ontario for the J. R. Booth Company of Ottawa, without revealing he was a champion boxer. He explained this as "wanting the solitude and the strenuous labors of the woods to help condition himself for the career that appeared before him."[2]

Tunney also had a brief acting career, starring in the movie The Fighting Marine in 1926. Unfortunately, no prints of this film are known to exist.

He was elected as Ring Magazine's first-ever Fighter of the Year in 1928 and later elected to the World Boxing Hall of Fame in 1980, the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990 and the United States Marine Corps Sports Hall of Fame in 2001.

Military careerEdit

Tunney enlisted the Marine Corps during World War I and served as Private with 11th Marine Regiment in France and later in Germany during the occupation of the Rhineland in 1919. He saw no combat and spent most of the war in the Marine boxing team, becoming U.S. Expeditionary Forces champion. Tunney was demobilized following the war, but remained in the Marine Corps Reserve, ultimately reaching the rank of Major in the Connecticut Naval Militia.

Following the United States entry into World War II, at the request of Navy Undersecretary James Forrestal, Tunney accepted a commission in the United States Naval Reserve as a lieutenant commander to set up a physical fitness program for student pilots. He headed the Navy's physical fitness programme for the duration of the war and also made inspection trip to Hawaii and surrounding area.[3]

Tunney was consecutively promoted to the ranks of Commander and Captain and retired shortly following the War. For his wartime service, he was decorated with the Navy Commendation Medal and also held World War I Victory Medal with France Clasp, Army of Occupation of Germany Medal, American Defense Service Medal, American Campaign Medal, Asiatic Pacific Campaign Medal, World War II Victory Medal and Marine Corps Good Conduct Medal for his World War I enlisted service.

Personal lifeEdit

In 1928, Tunney married a wealthy socialite, the former Mary "Polly" Lauder (April 24, 1907 – April 19, 2008). Mrs. Tunney was born into the Lauder Greenway Family; her grandfather was billionaire George Lauder, a first cousin and business partner of industrialist and philanthropist Andrew Carnegie. According to a 2007 biography, Tunney promised Polly that he would quit boxing and defended his title only one more time after the second Dempsey fight, against Tom Heeney of New Zealand.

After Mr. Tunney's retirement, the couple lived in Stamford, Connecticut and raised four children.[4] They had three boys including John Varick Tunney (1934–2018), who was a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from California from 1965 until 1977; Jonathan "Jay" Rowland Tunney of Stamford, Connecticut; and Gene Lauder Tunney (1931-2009)[5][6][7] who became a lawyer and served as district attorney for Sonoma County, California, for 20 years. Their one daughter was Joan Tunney Wilkinson (1939 – 2008)[8] of San Francisco.[9] who was committed to McLean Hospital on June 6, 1970, after she murdered her husband, Lynn Carter Wilkinson Jr.[10][11][12][13]

Previous to his marriage to Mrs. Tunney, Tunney was sued in 1927 for breach of promise by Mrs. Katherine King Fogarty.[14]

DeathEdit

Tunney died on November 7, 1978 at the Greenwich Hospital in Connecticut at the age of eighty-one, after suffering from a circulation ailment.[15] He was interred at Long Ridge Union Cemetery in Stamford, Connecticut.

Fighting styleEdit

 
Tunney at Trinity College Dublin, 1928

Tunney was a thinking fighter who preferred to make a boxing match into a game of chess, which was not popular during the times when such sluggers as Jack Dempsey, Harry Greb and Mickey Walker were commanding center stage. Tunney's style was influenced by other noted boxing thinkers such as James J. Corbett and Benny Leonard. Nevertheless, it is incorrect to think of Tunney as a stick-and-move fighter in the Ali style. While Tunney's heavyweight fights against Gibbons, Carpentier, and Dempsey featured his fleet-footed movement and rapid-fire jabbing, his earlier bouts, especially the five against Harry Greb, demonstrated his vicious body punching and willingness to fight toe-to-toe. It was Benny Leonard who advised Tunney that the only way to beat Harry "The Human Windmill" Greb was to aim his punches at Greb's body rather than his head.[citation needed]

Always moving and boxing behind an excellent left jab, Tunney would study his opponents from the first bell. He generally preferred to stay outside and nullify any attacks, while using quick counters to keep the opponent off balance. In his fights against Jack Dempsey, today's viewer can see Tunney's style: hands held low for greater power, fast footwork that adjusts to every move his opponent makes and quick and accurate one-two style counter-punches with the left and right.

Tunney was never knocked out, while only ever being knocked down once, that in his second fight with Dempsey in the infamous Long Count. This makes him one of only five Heavyweight champions, alongside Rocky Marciano, Riddick Bowe, Sultan Ibragimov and Nicolai Valuev to retire without ever suffering a stoppage defeat. Tunney, along with Marciano, Lewis and Vitali Klitschko is one of four heavyweight champions to have retired as champion and to have ended their career with a win in a world title fight. Having avenged his only defeat to Harry Greb, with whom he also drew), Tunney joins Ingemar Johansson, Rocky Marciano, Lennox Lewis and Riddick Bowe as the only five heavyweight champions to have retired while holding a victory over every opponent he faced as a professional (barring no-contests).[citation needed]

PublicationsEdit

In 1932, Tunney published a book called A Man Must Fight, in which he gave comments on his career and boxing techniques.

The Tunney CupEdit

In 1928, the U.S. Marine Corps presented – as a sign of friendship – a challenge cup to the Corps of Royal Marines, in the hope it might be competed for by Royal Marines association football teams.[16][17] The Royal Marines named the trophy the "Tunney Cup," in honor of then–USMC Captain Tunney, who, with Sergeant Major Charles R. Francis, presented the trophy on behalf of the U.S. Marine Corps.[16][17]

Cultural referencesEdit

 
Stamp honoring Tunney

Dean Martin and Jerry Lewis had a comedy routine in which Lewis (in boxing shorts and gear) states he's fight'n Gene Tierney (the actress). Martin corrects Lewis and suggests that he must mean "Gene Tunney." Lewis then quips "You fight who you wanna fight, I'm fight'n who I wanna fight, I'm fight'n Gene Tierney."[18]

In the song She Twists the Knife Again from Richard Thompson's 1985 album Across a Crowded Room, describing the mismatched intensity in a strife-ladened relationship, Thompson writes: "I'm in a fist fight/She thinks she's Gene Tunney!"

He's also mentioned in Act 1 of Arthur Miller's Death of a Salesman: Willy tells his sons he has a punching bag with Tunney's signature on it.

Mentioned in "A Whistle in the Dark" (Act 1, pg. 31) by Tom Murphy : 'in the words of the great Gene Tunney, a man must fight back. His father was a Mayoman too'.

Mentioned in the short story "Fallon" by JD Luther, when imprisoned character Tyson Wayne Vance recalls his abusive father, "Was more than one night momma'd look like she went fifteen rounds with Gene Tunney...",

In the 1932 boxing film Winner Take All, James Cagney's character Jimmy Kane—a has-been former champion trying to get educated—laments that William Shakespeare was "the one who ruined Gene Tunney."

The novelette "A KO for Christmas" by Shawn Pollock features a character, Stitch Stanford, who hopes to fight Gene Tunney for the heavyweight title.

Professional boxing recordEdit

Professional record summary
85 fights 65 wins 1 loss
By knockout 48 0
By decision 17 1
By disqualification 0 0
Draws 1
No contests 1
Newspaper decisions/draws 17
All Newspaper decisions are regarded as “no decision” bouts as they have “resulted in neither boxer winning or losing, and would therefore not count as part of their official fight record."
No. Result Record Opponent Type Round, time Date Location Notes
85 Win 65–1–1 (18)   Tom Heeney TKO 11 (15), 2:52 26 Jul 1928   Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S. Retained NBA, NYSAC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles
84 Win 64–1–1 (18)   Jack Dempsey UD 10 22 Sep 1927   Soldier Field, Chicago, Illinois, U.S. Retained NBA, NYSAC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles
83 Win 63–1–1 (18)   Jack Dempsey UD 10 23 Sep 1926   Sesquicentennial Stadium, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. Won NBA, NYSAC, The Ring, and lineal heavyweight titles
82 Win 62–1–1 (18)   Dan O'Dowd KO 2 (10), 0:31 29 Dec 1925   Waterfront Park, Saint Petersburg, Florida, U.S.
81 Win 61–1–1 (18)   Johnny Risko NWS 12 18 Nov 1925   Public Hall, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.
80 Win 61–1–1 (17)   Bartley Madden KO 3 (10) 25 Sep 1925   Minneapolis Arena, Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.
79 Win 60–1–1 (17)   Italian Jack Herman KO 2 (10) 3 Jul 1925   Memorial Hall, Kansas City, Kansas, U.S.
78 Win 59–1–1 (17)   Tommy Gibbons KO 12 (15) 5 Jun 1925   Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S.
77 Win 58–1–1 (17)   Harry Greb NWS 10 27 Mar 1925   Auditorium, Saint Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
76 Win 58–1–1 (16)   Jeff Smith NWS 15 8 Dec 1924   Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
75 Win 58–1–1 (15)   Buddy McHale TKO 2 (8) 10 Nov 1924   Southern Athletic Club, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
74 Win 57–1–1 (15)   Harry Foley TKO 1 (8), 2:05 27 Oct 1924   Auditorium, Memphis, Tennessee, U.S.
73 Win 56–1–1 (15)   Ray Neuman PTS 10 27 Sep 1924   Cambria County Fairgrounds, Ebensburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.
72 Draw 55–1–1 (15)   Harry Greb NWS 10 17 Sep 1924   Olympic Arena, Brooklyn, Ohio, U.S.
71 Win 55–1–1 (14)   Joe Lohman TKO 8 (12) 18 Aug 1924   Fairmont Arena, Columbus, Ohio, U.S.
70 Win 54–1–1 (14)   Georges Carpentier TKO 15 (15), 0:14 24 Jul 1924   Polo Grounds, New York City, New York, U.S.
69 Win 53–1–1 (14)   Erminio Spalla TKO 7 (12) 26 Jun 1924   Yankee Stadium, Bronx, New York, U.S.
68 Win 52–1–1 (14)   Jimmy Delaney NWS 10 17 Mar 1924   Auditorium, Saint Paul, Minnesota, U.S.
67 Win 52–1–1 (13)   Martin Burke PTS 15 15 Feb 1924   Coliseum Arena, New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.
66 Win 51–1–1 (13)   Ray Thompson KO 2 (10) 24 Jan 1924   Legion Arena, West Palm Beach, Florida, U.S.
65 Win 50–1–1 (13)   Harry Foley NWS 10 15 Jan 1924   Coliseum, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
64 Win 50–1–1 (12)   Harry Greb UD 15 10 Dec 1923   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Retained American light-heavyweight title
63 Win 49–1–1 (12)   Dan O'Dowd PTS 12 31 Jul 1923   Queensboro Stadium, New York City, New York, U.S.
62 Win 48–1–1 (12)   Jimmy Delaney NWS 10 16 May 1923   Chicago Coliseum, Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
61 Win 48–1–1 (11)   Jack Clifford TKO 8 (10) 7 May 1923   Fair Grounds Coliseum, Detroit, Michigan, U.S.
60 Win 47–1–1 (11)   Harry Greb SD 15 23 Feb 1923   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Won American light-heavyweight title
59 Win 46–1–1 (11)   Chuck Wiggins PTS 12 3 Feb 1923   Commonwealth Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
58 NC 45–1–1 (11)   Jack Renault NC 4 (8) 29 Jan 1923   Philadelphia Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
57 Win 45–1–1 (10)   Charley Weinert KO 4 (15) 29 Nov 1922   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
56 Win 44–1–1 (10)   Jack Hanlon KO 1 (12), 1:22 3 Nov 1922   Clermont Avenue Skating Rink, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
55 Win 43–1–1 (10)   Chuck Wiggins PTS 10 27 Oct 1922   Mechanics Hall, Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
54 Draw 42–1–1 (10)   Tommy Loughran NWS 8 24 Aug 1922   Shibe Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
53 Win 42–1–1 (9)   Charley Weinert NWS 12 17 Aug 1922   Broad Athletic Club, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
52 Win 42–1–1 (8)   Ray Thompson KO 3 (10) 4 Aug 1922   Ocean Park Casino, Long Branch, New Jersey, U.S.
51 Win 41–1–1 (8)   Fay Keiser PTS 12 7 Jul 1922   Rockaway Beach Arena, Queens, New York, U.S.
50 Loss 40–1–1 (8)   Harry Greb UD 15 23 May 1922   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Lost American light-heavyweight title
49 Win 40–0–1 (8)   Jack Burke TKO 9 (10) 10 Apr 1922   Motor Square Garden, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, U.S.
48 Win 39–0–1 (8)   Fay Keiser NWS 10 3 Mar 1922   Armory, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.
47 Win 39–0–1 (7)   Whitey Wenzel TKO 4 (8) 14 Feb 1922   Philadelphia_Arena, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
46 Win 38–0–1 (7)   Jack Clifford TKO 6 (12), 2:50 11 Feb 1922   Clermont Avenue Skating Rink, Brooklyn, New York, U.S.
45 Win 37–0–1 (7)   Battling Levinsky PTS 12 13 Jan 1922   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S. Won American light-heavyweight title
44 Win 36–0–1 (7)   Eddie O'Hare KO 6 (8) 22 Dec 1921   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
43 Win 35–0–1 (7)   Wolf Larsen TKO 7 (12), 1:35 25 Oct 1921   Pioneer Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
42 Win 34–0–1 (7)   Jack Burke TKO 3 (8) 14 Oct 1921   Madison Square Garden, New York City, New York, U.S.
41 Win 33–0–1 (7)   Herbert Crossley PTS 7 26 Sep 1921   Dyckman Oval, New York City, New York, U.S.
40 Win 32–0–1 (7)   Eddie Josephs PTS 12 18 Aug 1921   Sisco Park, New York City, New York, U.S.
39 Win 31–0–1 (7)   Martin Burke PTS 10 4 Aug 1921   Dyckman Oval, New York City, New York, U.S.
38 Win 30–0–1 (7)   Soldier Jones TKO 7 (8) 2 Jul 1921   Boyle's Thirty Acres, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
37 Win 29–0–1 (7)   Johnny Ambrose KO 1 (12), 2:45 28 Jun 1921   Pioneer Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
36 Win 28–0–1 (7)   Leo Hauck NWS 10 7 Dec 1920   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
35 Win 28–0–1 (6)   Leo Hauck NWS 6 25 Nov 1920   Olympia Athletic Club, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S.
34 Win 28–0–1 (5)   Paul Samson Koerner NWS 10 25 Oct 1920   6th Regiment Armory, Paterson, New Jersey, U.S.
33 Win 28–0–1 (4)   Sergeant Ray Smith TKO 2 (8) 22 Oct 1920   Sportsman's Club, Camden, New Jersey, U.S.
32 Win 27–0–1 (4)   Ole Anderson TKO 3 (10), 0:40 28 Jun 1920   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
31 Win 26–0–1 (4)   Jeff Madden TKO 2 (12) 7 Jun 1920   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
30 Win 25–0–1 (4)   Jack Clifford KO 3 (10) 9 Apr 1920   Community Hall, Johnson City, New York, U.S.
29 Win 24–0–1 (4)   K.O. Sullivan KO 1 (8), 2:15 5 Apr 1920   1st Regiment Armory, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
28 Win 23–0–1 (4)   Ed Kinley KO 5 (8) 4 Mar 1920   Grand View Auditorium, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
27 Win 22–0–1 (4)   Al Roberts KO 8 (8), 1:06 2 Feb 1920   1st Regiment Armory, Newark, New Jersey, U.S.
26 Win 21–0–1 (4)   Jim Monahan KO 1 (8), 2:50 26 Jan 1920   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
25 Win 20–0–1 (4)   Bud Nelson KO 1 (8) 20 Jan 1920   Schuetzen Park, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.
24 Win 19–0–1 (4)   Whitey Allen KO 2 (8) 1 Jan 1920   Schuetzen Park, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.
23 Win 18–0–1 (4)   Bob Pearce KO 2 (8) 29 Dec 1919   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
22 Win 17–0–1 (4)   Dan O'Dowd NWS 8 16 Dec 1919   Schuetzen Park, Bayonne, New Jersey, U.S.
21 Win 17–0–1 (3)   Ted Jamieson PTS 10 26 Apr 1919   Cirque de Paris, Paris, France Won American Expeditionary Forces light-heavyweight title
20 Win 16–0–1 (3)   K.O. Sullivan PTS 10 14 Apr 1919   Paris, France
19 Win 15–0–1 (3)   Dare Lewis KO 3 31 Mar 1919   Tours, Paris, France
18 Win 14–0–1 (3)   Bob Martin PTS 4 27 Jan 1919   Salle Wagram, Paris, France
17 Win 13–0–1 (3)   Victor Marchand KO 2 9 Jan 1919   Paris, France
16 Draw 12–0–1 (3)   Tommy Gavigan PTS 10 20 Dec 1918   Romorantin-Lanthenay, Loir-et-Cher, France
15 Win 12–0 (3)   Howard Morrow KO 6 10 Dec 1918   Romorantin-Lanthenay, Loir-et-Cher, France
14 Win 11–0 (3)   Johnny Newton KO 6 20 Nov 1918   Romorantin-Lanthenay, Loir-et-Cher, France
13 Win 10–0 (3)   Hank Werhl KO 6 1 Nov 1918   Romorantin-Lanthenay, Loir-et-Cher, France
12 Win 9–0 (3)   Young Guerini KO 1 (8) 8 Jul 1918   4th Regiment Armory, Jersey City, New Jersey, U.S.
11 Win 8–0 (3)   Hugh Weir KO 2 (10) 15 Jan 1918   Pioneer Sporting Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
10 Win 7–0 (3)   Joe Borrell KO 2 (10) 28 Dec 1917   New Polo Athletic Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
9 Win 6–0 (3)   Sailor Wolfe KO 2 (10) 29 Dec 1916   Miners 8th St Theater, New York City, New York, U.S.
8 Win 5–0 (3)   George Leahy NWS 6 22 Dec 1916   Miners 8th St Theater, New York City, New York, U.S.
7 Win 5–0 (2)   Young Sharkey KO 6 (10) 15 Dec 1916   Miners 8th St Theater, New York City, New York, U.S.
6 Win 4–0 (2)   Young Guerini TKO 8 (10) 8 Dec 1916   Miners 8th St Theater, New York City, New York, U.S.
5 Draw 3–0 (2)   KO Jaffe NWS 10 21 Jul 1916   New Polo Athletic Club, New York City, New York, U.S.
4 Win 3–0 (1)   Billy Rowe NWS 6 1 Dec 1915   Fairmont Athletic Club, Bronx, New York, U.S.
3 Win 3–0   George Leahy KO 2 (6) 28 Aug 1915   Fairmont Athletic Club, Bronx, New York, U.S.
2 Win 2–0   Battling Genrimo KO 3 (10) 6 Aug 1915   Miner's Bowery Theatre, New York City, New York, U.S.
1 Win 1–0   Bobby Dawson TKO 8 (10) 3 Jul 1915   Sharkey Athletic Club, New York City, New York, U.S.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Morris, Edmund (2001). The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt. New York: Random House. p. xvii. ISBN 9781400069651.
  2. ^ "Tunney was Lumberjack for Ottawa Company". The Globe. September 28, 1926. p. 9.
  3. ^ "D-Day vet relives battle with GW sailors - All Hands, The Bureau of Naval Personnel Information Bulletin; August 1994; page 47" (PDF). navy.mil. United States Navy Websites. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  4. ^ https://www.leagle.com/decision/1981154242mhtcm150011197
  5. ^ https://articles.latimes.com/1990-02-14/sports/sp-850_1_gene-tunney
  6. ^ (State), California. "California. Court of Appeal (1st Appellate District). Records and Briefs: A041019, Respondent Brief".
  7. ^ http://www.pressdemocrat.com/news/2263034-181/served-as-sonoma-county-district
  8. ^ Deceased Members - Mount Holyoke College
  9. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/1970/03/30/archives/tunneys-daughter-accused-of-slaying-husband-is-held-by-police-in.html
  10. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2002/02/24/books/the-thoroughbred-crazies.html
  11. ^ https://www.ebay.com/itm/372314848170
  12. ^ http://vi.vipr.ebaydesc.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItemDescV4&item=371939325709
  13. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1908&dat=19700330&id=FFwfAAAAIBAJ&sjid=d9QEAAAAIBAJ&pg=878,4282904
  14. ^ "Mr. Tunney's Letters". The Daily Herald. 27 May 2019. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  15. ^ "Tunney, Boxing Champion Who Beat Dempsey, Dies. Lectured on Shakespeare". New York Times. November 8, 1978. Retrieved 2008-10-16. Gene Tunney, the former heavyweight boxing champion who twice defeated Jack Dempsey, died yesterday at the Greenwich Hospital in Connecticut. He was 80 years old and had been suffering from a circulation ailment.
  16. ^ a b Foster, Shaun. "A Brief History of the Royal Marines Football Association". Royal Marines Football Association. Archived from the original on 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  17. ^ a b "The USMC Challenge Trophy (The Tunney Cup)". Royal Marines Football Association. Archived from the original on 2016-02-23. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
  18. ^ Gene Tierney: A Shattered Portrait, The Biography Channel. March 26, 1999

External linksEdit

Sporting positions
World boxing titles
Preceded by
Jack Dempsey
The Ring heavyweight champion
September 23, 1926 – July 31, 1928
Vacant
Title next held by
Max Schmeling
World heavyweight champion
September 23, 1926 – July 31, 1928