Gaganyaan ([ɡəɡənəjɑːnə];pronunciation from Sanskrit: gagana, "celestial" and yāna, "craft, vehicle") is an Indian crewed orbital spacecraft intended to be the formative spacecraft of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. The spacecraft is being designed to carry three people, and a planned upgraded version will be equipped with rendezvous and docking capabilities. In its maiden crewed mission, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)'s largely autonomous 5.3-metric ton capsule will orbit the Earth at 400 km altitude for up to seven days with a two- or three-person crew on board. The first crewed mission was originally planned to be launched on ISRO's HLVM3 rocket in December 2021.[6][7] As of October 2023, it is expected to be launched by 2025.[8]

Rendering of Gaganyan crew module
Country of originIndia India
ApplicationsCrewed orbital vehicle
Spacecraft typeCrewed
Launch mass8,200 kg (18,100 lb) (includes service module)[1]
Dry mass3,735 kg (8,234 lb)[2]
Crew capacity3[3]
DimensionsDiameter: 3.5 m (11 ft)[4]
Height: 3.58 m (11.7 ft)[4]
Volume8 m3 (280 cu ft)[5]
PowerPhotovoltaic array
RegimeLow Earth orbit
Design life7 days
StatusIn development

The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)-manufactured crew module underwent its first uncrewed experimental flight on December 18, 2014.[9] As of May 2019, design of the crew module has been completed.[10] Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) will provide support for critical human-centric systems and technologies such as space-grade food, crew healthcare, radiation measurement and protection, parachutes for the safe recovery of the crew module, and the fire suppression system.[11]

On June 11, 2020, it was announced that the first uncrewed Gaganyaan launch would be delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic in India.[12] The overall timeline for crewed launches was expected to remain unaffected.[13] ISRO chairman S. Somanath announced in 2022 that the first crewed mission would not take place until 2024 at the earliest because of safety concerns.[14]

The Gaganyaan Mission will be led by V. R. Lalithambika, the former Director of the Directorate of the Human Spaceflight Programme with ISRO Chairman S Somnath and S. Unnikrishnan Nair, Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre.[15][16] Imtiaz Ali Khan superseded V. R. Lalithambika as the Director of the Directorate of Human Spaceflight Programme.[17][18]

Background edit

1984 USSR postal block on the Soyuz T-11 mission

In 1984, Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian born citizen to enter space through a joint Interkosmos mission between ISRO and Soviet space program, when he flew aboard the Soviet rocket Soyuz T-11 launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome in the Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic on 3 April 1984. The Soyuz T-11 spacecraft carrying cosmonauts including Sharma docked and transferred the three member Soviet-Indian international crew, consisting of the ship's commander, Yury Malyshev, and flight engineer, Gennadi Strekalov, to the Salyut 7 Orbital Station. Sharma spent 7 days, 21 hours, and 40 minutes aboard the Salyut 7. He conducted an Earth observation program concentrating on India. He also did life sciences and materials processing experiments, including silicium fusing tests.[19] To commemorate the occasion special stamps and first day covers were released by the Government of India and Soviet Union.[20]

Program history edit

Preliminary studies and technological development of Gaganyaan started in 2006 under the generic name "Orbital Vehicle". The plan was to design a simple capsule with an endurance of about a week in space, a capacity of two astronauts, and a splashdown landing after re-entry. The project was commissioned in 2007, with expected completion by 2024 and a budget of around ₹10,000 crore.[21] The design was finalized by March 2008 and submitted to the Government of India for funding. The government's funding for the Indian Human Spaceflight Program was sanctioned in February 2009,[22] But it fell short due to limited developmental funding.[22] Initially, the first uncrewed flight of the orbital vehicle was proposed to be in 2013,[23] then it was revised to 2016.[24] However, in April 2012, it was reported that funding problems placed the future of the project in serious doubt.[25] And in August 2013, it was announced that all crewed spaceflight efforts by India had been designated as being "off ISRO's priority list".[26] By early 2014, the project had been reconsidered and was one of the main beneficiaries of a substantial budget increase announced in February 2014.[27] ISRO is developing the Gaganyaan orbital vehicle based on the tests performed with their scaled 550 kg Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE), which was launched and recovered in January 2007.[28][29]

The latest push for the Indian Human Spaceflight Program took place in 2017,[30] And it was accepted and formally announced by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his 2018 Independence Day address to the nation.[31] The current design calls for a crew of three.[3] ISRO will perform four biological and two physical science experiments related to microgravity during the Gaganyaan mission.[32] ISRO is planning to replace hydrazine with green propellant on Gaganyaan missions, for which Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC) is already working on a monopropellant blended formulation consisting of hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN), ammonium nitrate, methanol and water.[33][34]

Many of the fundamental technologies were realized by ISRO by the time Gaganyaan was approved by the Union Cabinet in 2018. After receiving approval, many of them were human-rated to make sure their dependability satisfied the requirements needed for human spaceflight. The Crew-module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) in 2014 and the Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE) in 2007 were earlier carried out by ISRO. A satellite that had been in orbit before splashed into the Bay of Bengal in 2007 after descending from a height of 635 km. A module prototype was launched onboard LVM3 in 2014. At 126 kilometers above the ground, it broke apart, descending 80 kilometers using retrograde thrusters before landing in the Bay of Bengal by parachutes. The module's heat shield, braking system, parachutes, flotation devices, retrieval methods, and separation mechanism were all tested by SRE and CARE in tandem.[35] Space Capsule Recovery Experiment II (SRE-2), an extension of the 2007 SRE mission, was canceled in 2018 as a result of excessive delays.[36][37]

As of October 2021, ISRO selected five science experiments that will be conducted on Gaganyaan. The payloads will be developed by the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology (IIST), University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (UASD), Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), IIT Patna, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) and the Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR). Out of the five, two are biological experiments that will be conducted by IIST, UASD and TIFR and will include kidney stone formation and Sirtuin 1 gene marker effects in Drosophila melanogaster. IIT Patna will run experiments on a heat sink that can handle very high heat flux, IICT will study crystallization phenomena, and JNCASR will examine fluid mixing characteristics.[38]

Funding and infrastructure edit

A crewed spacecraft would require about 12,400 crore (US$1.77 billion) over a period of seven years, including the 5,000 crore (US$0.7 billion) for the initial work of the crewed spacecraft during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2007–2012) out of which the Government released 50 crore (US$7 million) in 2007–2008.[39][40] In December 2018, the government approved a further 10,000 crore (US$1.5 billion) for a 7-day crewed flight of 3 astronauts to take place by 2021.[6]

Madhavan Chandradathan, director of Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC), stated that ISRO would need to set up an astronaut training facility in Bangalore. The newly established Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC) will coordinate the IHSF efforts.[41] Existing launch facilities will be upgraded for launches under the Indian Human Spaceflight project.[42][43] With extra facilities needed for launch escape systems.[40] Russia is likely to provide astronaut training.[44] In Spring 2009, the full-scale mock-up of the crew capsule of Gaganyaan was built and delivered to Satish Dhawan Space Center for the training of astronauts.[45]

India has already successfully developed and tested several building blocks, including re-entry space capsule, pad abort test, safe crew ejection mechanism in case of rocket failure, a flight suit developed by Defence Bioengineering and Electromedical Laboratory (DEBEL) and the powerful GSLV-MkIII launch vehicle.[46] Having met all required technological keystones, the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme was accepted and formally announced by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi on August 15, 2018.[47] Gaganyaan will be the first crewed spacecraft under this programme.[48]

ISRO's Human Space Flight Centre and Glavcosmos, which is a subsidiary of the Russian state corporation Roscosmos, signed an agreement on July 1, 2019, for cooperation in the selection, support, medical examination and space training of Indian astronauts.[49] An ISRO Technical Liaison Unit (ITLU) has been approved to be set up in Moscow for coordination.[50][51] Glavkosmos has also contracted NPP Zvezda for manufacturing customized IVA flight-suits for Indian astronauts.[52][53][54] ISRO is planning to develop a ground station for Gaganyaan mission at Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and after a brief discussion with Australian Space Agency, a temporary ground station for the mission has been set up by ISRO in Cocos (Keeling) Islands, as of 2021.[33]

Description edit

Gaganyaan Crew Module edit

Recovery trial operations with Crew Module Mockup (CMRM)
Simulated Crew Module (SCM) Structure Assembly

Gaganyaan crew module is a fully autonomous 5.3 t (12,000 lb) spacecraft designed to carry a 3-member crew to orbit and safely return to the Earth after a mission duration of up to seven days.[1] The crew module is equipped with two parachutes for redundancy, with one parachute enough for a safe splashdown. The parachutes would reduce the speed of the crew module from over 216 m/s (480 mph) to under 11 m/s (25 mph) at splashdown.[55]

The space capsule will have life support and environmental control systems. It will be equipped with emergency mission abort capabilities and a Crew Escape System (CES) that can be activated during the first stage or second rocket stage burn.[56] The nose of the original version of the orbital vehicle was free for a docking mechanism, but primary entry was evidently through a side hatch secured by explosive bolts.[57] On December 7, 2022, The Hindu reported that the crew module had entered the production stage.[58]

Following fruitless attempts to obtain the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) from other countries, ISRO has declared that it will be developing it on its own for Gaganyaan mission. According to ISRO Chairman S Somanath, ISRO has no experience in producing ECLSS, but it was forced to urge national laboratories and domestic industry to begin developing the technology because there were no foreign partners available to share the technology.[59] The first orbiter module adaptor assembly (OMA) for Gaganyaan was provided by Kineco Kaman Composites on December 23, 2023. The OMA is a conical structure with a diameter of 4 meters, composed of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymers. It is combined with the equipment bay shroud and crew escape module.[60] Hindustan Times reported on January 12, 2024, that in order to double-check crew safety for the first mission, Indian astronauts are expected to don Russian-made spacesuits rather than the domestically manufactured Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) suits created by Vikram Sarabhai Space Center.[61]

The Emergency Sea Water Purification Kit was developed by Defence Research and Development Organisation. The package provides astronauts with clean water during operations and emergencies by eliminating excessive levels of Total Dissolved Matter, turbidity, color, and microbiological contamination from sea water in 30 minutes. The user testing for the Gaganyaan mission at Bombay Dockyard was successfully completed in 2022.[62]

ISRO has plans to add International Docking System Standard (IDSS) compatible in the future to visit International space Station(ISS) and Bharatiya Antariksha Station in the future.[63]

Service module edit

Its 2.9 t (6,400 lb)[1] service module is powered by liquid propellant engines. The crew module is mated to the service module, and together they constitute 8.2 t (18,000 lb) orbital module.[1]

The Service Module Propulsion System (SMPS) will perform an orbit raising manoeuvre allowing Gaganyaan to reach 400 km in low Earth orbit (LEO), then remain docked during a deorbit burn until atmospheric reentry. It will use an unified bipropellant system consisting of MON-3 and Monomethylhydrazine as oxidizer and fuel, having five main engines derived from ISRO's liquid apogee motor with 440 N (99 lbf) thrust and sixteen 100 N reaction control system (RCS) thrusters.

Development and Testing edit

Static test for Low Altitude Escape Motor edit

On August 11, 2022, ISRO successfully completed the test firing of Low Altitude Escape Motor (LEM) for Crew Escape System. LEM consists of a solid rocket motor with four reverse flow nozzles that generates maximum sea level thrust of 842 kN (nominal) with burn time of 5.98 second (nominal). The nozzle end of LEM is mounted at the fore end of the launch vehicle to avoid exhaust plume impingement on crew module. This is why there are reverse flow multiple nozzle in the solid rocket motor. The reverse flow nozzle makes exhaust gas flow in opposite direction in the nozzle region.[64][65]

The objective of this test was to check ballistic parameters, validate motor subsystem performance (and confirm the design margins), evaluate the thermal performance of nozzle liners especially to confirm the ablative characteristics, validate integrity of all interfaces, evaluate the head-end mounted safe arm (HMSA) based ignition system performance, and evaluate side thrust due to misalignment and variation in flow and other functional parameters including flow reversal.[66]

Service Module Propulsion System demonstration edit

A system demonstration model (SDM) of the Service Module Propulsion System (SMPS), which will be incorporated into the Gaganyaan spacecraft, was successfully tested by ISRO on August 28, 2021.[67] The service module is designed and developed by Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC).[68]

Service module - system demo model hot test conducted on 19 July 2023 at ISRO Propulsion Complex successfully established the faultless operation of all components and systems.

At the ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC), the system demonstration model was fired for 450 seconds. The performance met the pre-test prediction model. The propulsion system for the service module is a single bi-propellant system consists of sixteen 100 Newton thrusters for reaction control system (RCS) and five primary 440 Newton thrust engines, using monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and mixed oxides of nitrogen (MON-3) as the fuel and oxidizer, respectively. Additionally, IPRC is constructing a new facility to test the Service Module Propulsion System. To validate the propulsion system on the ground, the test model for the system demonstration employed only eight 100 Newton thrusters and five 440 Newton engines.[69][70]

On July 19, 2023, ISRO successfully completed the test of Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System.[71] Five hot tests totaling 2,750 seconds were conducted by ISRO as part of the Phase-1 test series. Eight 100 Newton RCS thrusters and five 440 Newton liquid apogee motor (LAM) engines were used in Phase 1. The system's hot testing replicated the operation of the flight-qualified thruster, helium pressurization system, propellant tank feed system, and control components. During the test, which lasted 250 seconds, RCS thrusters and LAM engines were used continuously. During the Gaganyaan mission's ascending phase, the RCS thrusters will ensure precise attitude correction, while the LAM engines will supply the primary propulsive force.[72]

The SMPS carries out orbit injection, circularization burn, on-orbit control, de-boost maneuvering, and service module based abort if necessary during the ascent phase for the Orbital Module.[73]

Service module - circularization burn for orbital module to reach final orbit. RCS thrusters are in pulse mode and LAM engines ran continuously.

On July 20, 2023, hot test was conducted in final configuration of SMPS in which sixteen RCS thrusters with 100 Newton thrust and five LAM engines with 440 Newton thrust were used. The propellant tank feed system, helium pressurization system, flight-qualified thrusters, and control components were all included in the hot test which simulated the fluid circuit of the SMPS. The combined performance of SMPS was showcased in the first hot test of the Phase-2 test series.[74] Each 440 Newton thrust engine will also be tested individually for longer duration involving various parameters to gain human-rating certification. ISRO has scheduled five additional tests to demonstrate both nominal and off-nominal mission scenarios.[75][76]

On July 26, 2023, ISRO conducted two more hot tests on the SMPS with success. The thrusters were run in tandem with the mission profile, both in continuous and pulsed mode. The first hot test, which lasted 723.60 seconds, was intended to show how to pump fuel into the orbital module and burn 100 Newton thrusters and LAM engines for calibration. The calibration burn was essential to identify and isolate any non-operational engines. The RCS thrusters and LAM engines operated as anticipated. The goal of the second hot test, which lasted 350 seconds, was to show how the Orbital Module circularizes to reach the final orbit. The RCS thrusters functioned in pulse mode throughout this test, while the LAM engines ran continuously.[77][78]

Integrated Main Parachute Airdrop Test edit

Integrated Main Parachute Airdrop Test for Parachute Deceleration System.

On November 18, 2022, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) conducted an Integrated Main Parachute Airdrop Test (IMAT) of the Parachute Deceleration System (PDS), in which 5-ton dummy mass equivalent of the actual crew module mass was taken to an altitude of 2.5 km and dropped from Ilyushin Il-76 by Indian Air Force. Two small pyro-based mortar-deployed pilot parachutes then pulled the main parachutes free. The size of the main parachutes was initially restricted to a smaller area to reduce opening shock. After 7 seconds, the pyro-based reefing line cutters cut the area restricting line, allowing the parachutes to inflate fully. The fully inflated main parachutes reduced the payload speed to a safe landing speed. The entire sequence lasted about 2-3 minutes.[79][80]

The Parachute Deceleration System is jointly developed by ISRO and DRDO. System design, analytical simulations for parachute deployment, development of ordnance devices for parachute ejection, mechanical assembly, instrumentation and avionics were done by VSSC. In total, five air dropped tests (of 10 parachutes) are planned as part of qualification process.[81][82]

Drogue Parachute Deployment Test edit

Drogue Parachute Deployment Test at Rail Track Rocket Sled Facility.

ISRO on August 8, 2023, informed the media that Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in collaboration with Aerial Delivery Research and Development Establishment (ADRDE), a lab under Defence Research & Development Organisation successfully conducted a series of Drogue Parachute Deployment Tests at Rail Track Rocket Sled Facility of Terminal Ballistics Research Laboratory (TBRL), Chandigarh from August 8 to August 10 in 2023. Drogue parachutes, which are essential for stabilizing the crew module and lowering its velocity to a safe level during re-entry, were deployed as part of this test. Pyrotechnic devices called mortars are developed to launch parachutes into the air upon command. With a diameter of 5.8 meters, these conical ribbon-type parachutes use a single-stage reefing system that reduces canopy area and lessens opening stress to provide a controlled and smooth descent.[83]

A variety of real-world conditions were recreated during the three comprehensive tests in order to thoroughly assess the functionality and dependability of the drogue parachutes. The first test, which replicated the maximum reefed weight, introduced reefing in a mortar-deployed parachute for the first time in India. The second test replicated the maximum disreefed load, while the third test demonstrated the drogue parachute's deployment in a scenario that mirrored the Crew Module's maximum angle of attack it might experience during its mission. All these tests served as a critical qualification milestone for the drogue parachutes, confirming their readiness for integration into Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1.[84]

Rail Track Rocket Sled Facility already completed the test of pilot and apex cover separation parachutes. Ten parachutes will be used in the complex parachute sequence for the deceleration system of the Gaganyaan crew module. The two apex cover separation parachutes are deployed first in the process, and two drogue parachutes are deployed when stability is accomplished. The mission enters the extraction phase once the drogue parachutes are released. Three pilot parachutes separately remove the three main parachutes, which is a crucial step in lowering the Crew Module's speed to acceptable levels for a safe landing.[85]

Launch Vehicle edit

Maquette of human-rated LVM3 (HLVM3)

Following three uncrewed orbital flight demonstrations of the spacecraft, a crewed Gaganyaan is slated to be launched on the HLVM3 (Human-rated version of LVM3) launcher.[86]

While the LVM3 is being human rated for Gaganyaan project, the rocket was designed with potential human spaceflight applications in consideration. The maximum acceleration during ascent phase of flight was limited to 4 Gs for crew comfort and a 5-metre (16 ft) diameter payload fairing was used to be able to accommodate large modules like space station segments.[87]

Furthermore, a number of changes to make safety-critical subsystems reliable are planned for lower operating margins, redundancy, stringent qualification requirements, revaluation and strengthening of components.[88] Avionics improvements includes an Integrated Health Monitoring System (LVHM), Dual chain Telemetry & Telecommand Processor (TTCP) and Quad-redundant Navigation and Guidance Computer (NGC). The High Thrust Vikas engines (HTVE) of L110 core stage will operate at a chamber pressure of 58.5 bar instead of 62 bar and the Human rated S200 boosters (HS200) will operate at chamber pressure of 55.5 bar instead of 58.8 bar. Segment joints will have three O-rings each. Electro mechanical actuators and digital stage controllers will be employed in all stages of launch vehicle.[89][90]

S200 booster qualification edit

Static fire test of HS200 booster

On 17 November 2020, Larsen & Toubro (L&T) delivered the first piece of hardware—a booster segment—for the Gaganyaan launch vehicle LVM3. The Powai Aerospace Manufacturing Facility in Mumbai, owned by L&T, is where the booster segment was manufactured. The crucial booster segment is 3.2 meters in diameter, 8.5 meters long, and 5.5 tons in weight.[91]

The human-rated variant of the S200 solid strap-on booster, or 'HS200', was developed for the Gaganyaan programme in collaboration with Larsen & Toubro.[92] The first static fire test of HS200 was conducted on 13 May 2022 at Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) for a duration of 135 seconds, carrying 203 tons of solid propellant. During the test, about 700 parameters were monitored and the performance of all the systems were normal. The second-largest functioning solid propellant booster in the world is 20 meters in length and 3.2 meters in diameter [93][94]

Like all systems for Gaganyaan mission, the HS200 booster was designed with a number of enhancements intended to increase the safety and dependability of different systems. The enhancements include stronger ignition and insulation systems, improved digital control electronics as well as extra safety features for motor case joints. This booster's control system makes use of one of the strongest electro-mechanical actuators available, complete with many redundancies and safety measures.The enhancement of S200 solid strap-on booster resulted in a decrease in chamber pressure, increased robustness, proof-leakability, and higher margins.[95]

Vikas engine qualification edit

Long duration hot test of Vikas engine at ISRO Propulsion Complex.

Vikas engine variants are used to power the second stage of the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV), boosters and second stage of the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) Mark I and II, and also the core stage of LVM 3.

On July 14, 2021, ISRO conducted third long duration hot test of Vikas engine for core L110 liquid stage of GSLV Mark III at ISRO Propulsion Complex as part of the engine qualification requirements of the Gaganyaan mission. The engine was successfully test fired for a duration of 240 seconds validating all the required performance parameters.[96][97]

On January 20, 2022, High Thrust Vikas Engine successfully underwent a hot qualification test for duration of 25 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex to validate engine robustness under non-nominal operating conditions for fuel-oxidiser mixture ratio and chamber pressure.[98]

CE-20 engine qualification edit

CE-20 E9 cryogenic engine underwent a 720-second hot test at IPRC.

On January 12, 2022, ISRO conducted a hot qualification test on CE-20 cryogenic engine for a duration of 720 seconds at ISRO Propulsion Complex (IPRC).[99][100] On October 28, 2022, CE-20 E11 successfully completed a Pressure Chamber Test for 30 seconds at IPRC. It was done to check the efficacy of the engine for Gaganyaan missions. On November 9, 2022, the duration was increased to 70 seconds. The test results were on expected lines as per ISRO sources.[101]

On 21 February 2024, ISRO announced that the performance of the primary cryogenic engine that will be installed on the LVM3 launch vehicles for Gaganyaan has been verified and approved for use in human spaceflight missions. Vacuum testing of the CE-20 cryogenic engine, the seventh in the series, took place at the High Altitude Test Facility in Mahendragiri on 14 February 2024. In contrast to the minimal standard period for human rating of 6,350 seconds (1 hour 45 minutes), the CE-20 was previously put through 39 hot fire tests under various operating conditions, lasting 8,810 seconds (2 hours 26 minutes). Even the flight engine, which was designated for the inaugural Gaganyaan mission, has finished the acceptance testing, according to ISRO. The flight engine, which powers the upper stages of the LVM3, has an impulse of 442.5 seconds and a thrust capacity of 19–22 tons.[102]

According to ISRO, life demonstration tests, endurance tests, and performance evaluations under nominal operating settings as well as off-nominal conditions with regard to thrust, mixture ratio, and propellant tank pressure were all part of the ground qualification testing for the human rating of the CE-20 engine. The CE-20 engine's ground certification tests for the Gaganyaan program have all been successfully finished.[103]

Crew edit

Indian Astronauts Corps (2019 Batch) (L-R) Nair, Krishnan, Prathap and Shukla

On 27 February 2024, Prime Minister Narendra Modi revealed the identities of the first four Indian astronauts: Gp Capt Prashanth Balakrishnan Nair, Gp Capt Ajit Krishnan, Gp Capt Angad Prathap and Wg Cdr Shubanshu Shukla. These people may be part of India's upcoming ISS mission (probably Axiom Mission 4) and crewed space mission from India. They have all served as test pilots for a long time and are wing commanders or group captains in the Indian Air Force (IAF).[104][105]

Ground uniform edit

The ground uniforms were developed by the staff and students of the National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), Bengaluru. Under the direction of the former NIFT director Susan Thomas, the NIFT team—which consisted of three students, Lamia Anees, Samarpan Pradhan, and Tuliya D—as well as two professors, Jonalee Bajpai and Mohan Kumar V—worked on designing the ground uniform for the Gaganyaan mission. The team highlighted the importance for the astronaut-designates' pockets to fit perfectly and the uniform must operate well in order to support their motions. Seventy possibilities were considered before the final design was chosen. The NIFT team examined various space agency uniforms, such as those from SpaceX and NASA. The theme that the NIFT team has explored is asymmetry. The group worked on a two-colored, asymmetrical style line. The design was commissioned in 2021 by the NIFT team, and in 2022, they handed the design to ISRO.[106][107]

SAKHI edit

An all-purpose software called SAKHI (Space-borne Assistant and Knowledge Hub for Crew Interaction) created by Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre will assist astronauts on the Gaganyaan space travel mission with a variety of duties, including interacting with one another and locating critical technical information. Among its many duties, SAKHI will closely monitor their health, sending data on vital signs including blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation. This information will be extremely helpful in determining the crew's physical state during the Gaganyaan mission. Ensuring a smooth communication link, SAKHI will maintain the crew's connection to the ground-based stations and the onboard computer. The app will also serve as a reminder for them regarding their sleep patterns, food regimen, and hydration levels. An engineering model of the specially designed, portable smart device with SAKHI has been successfully tested by the space facility. The process is ongoing for creating a flight approved, production ready model. Fastened to their space suits, the digital platform is always readily available. Additionally, the astronauts can report their journey using the app in a variety of formats, such as voice notes, texts, and photos.[108]

Vyommitra edit

Vyommitra, a spacefaring humanoid robot

On January 22, 2020, ISRO announced Vyommitra, a female-looking robot who will accompany the other astronauts in the mission. ISRO aims not to fly animals onboard experimental missions unlike other nations that have carried out human space flight. Instead, it will fly humanoid robots for a better understanding of what weightlessness and radiation do to the human body during long durations in space.[109]

Vyommitra is expected to be onboard uncrewed Gaganyaan missions to perform microgravity experiments, monitor module parameters, and support astronauts in crewed missions by simulating functions like a human from the waist up. It does not have legs.[110] It is programmed to speak Hindi and English and perform multiple tasks.[111][112][113][114]

It can detect and give out warnings if environmental changes within the cabin get uncomfortable to astronauts and change the air condition. It can autonomously complete tasks and follow new commands.[115]

Launches edit

Gaganyaan Launch Log
Flight Date Pad Payload Launch Image Function Outcome
CARE 18 December 2014 LP 2 CARE   Sub-orbital test of scaled down boilerplate Gaganyaan capsule launched aboard the sub-orbital first test flight of ISRO's LVM3. Success
Sub-orbital LVM3-X
ISRO PAT 05 July


SCM   4-minute test of Gaganyaan's Launch abort system from launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre. Success
Aerial LES
Test Vehicle Launches
TV-D1[116] 21 October 2023 LP 1 SCM   High altitude abort test.[89] Success
Aerial L40
TV-D2[117] Q2 2024 LP 1 TBA Uncrewed mission to test flight parameters.[89] TBA
Aerial L40
TV-A1[117] TBA LP 1 TBA Uncrewed mission to test flight parameters. TBA
Aerial L40
TV-A2[117] TBA LP 1 TBA Uncrewed mission to test flight parameters. TBA
Aerial L40
Orbital Test Flight Launches
G1[118] July 2024[119] LP 2 G1 First orbital test flight of Gaganyaan capsule carrying Vyommitra.[117][119] TBA
G2[118] December 2024[119] LP 2 G2 Second orbital test flight of Gaganyaan capsule.[117] TBA
G3[118] mid-2025[119] LP 2 G3 Third orbital test flight of Gaganyaan capsule.[120] TBA
First Crewed Flight Launch
H1[118] TBA LP 2 H1 First crewed flight of Gaganyaan, carrying 1-3 Indian astronauts on a short orbital test flight.[121][117] TBA

Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment edit

On February 13, 2014, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited handed over the first boilerplate prototype of Crew Module structural assembly to ISRO for Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE).[9][122] ISRO's Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre would equip the Crew Module with systems necessary for life support, navigation, guidance and control systems.[123]

ISRO undertook an uncrewed test launch of the vehicle aboard the LVM3-X, for an experimental sub-orbital flight on December 18, 2014. The crew module separated from the rocket at an altitude of 126 km. On-board motors controlled and reduced the speed of the module until an altitude of 80 km (50 mi). Thrusters were shut off at that altitude and atmospheric drag further reduced speed of the capsule.

The module's heat shield was expected to experience temperature in excess of 1,600 °C (2,910 °F). Parachutes were deployed at an altitude of 15 km (9.3 mi) to slow down the module, which performed a splashdown in the Bay of Bengal near Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[124][125]

This flight was used to test orbital injection, separation and re-entry procedures and systems of the Crew Capsule. Also tested were the capsule separation, heat shields and aerobraking systems, parachute deployment, retro-firing, splashdown, flotation systems, and procedures to recover the Crew Capsule from the Bay of Bengal.[126][127] Inflight launch abort and parachute tests were expected to be conducted by the end of 2019.[128]

Pad Abort Test edit

The Indian Space Research Organisation's Pad Abort Test was conducted successfully on July 5, 2018.[129] A Pad Abort Test is a trial run for the spacecraft's launch abort system (sometimes called a launch escape system). This system is designed to quickly get the crew and spacecraft away from the rocket in the event of a potential failure. The technology developed is expected to be applied to the first Indian crewed spacecraft Gaganyaan, scheduled to be launched no earlier than 2024.[130]

The countdown for the test started at 2:00 am (IST) on 5 July 2018. At 7:00 am (IST) The Crew Escape System with crew module successfully lifted-off from Satish Dhawan Space Centre. The crew module was accelerated to 10 g[131] and reached a highest altitude of 2.75 km (1.71 mi), it later safely parachuted down and floated in the Bay of Bengal 2.9 km (1.80 mi) away from its launch site. It was carried skyward using seven solid-fueled rocket motors keeping within the safe g-force limits. Later recovery boats were sent to recover the crew module. The total duration of the test mission was 259 seconds. The test launch process was recorded by around 300 sensors.[132][133] Main objectives of test were nominal 20 second ascent and 200 seconds of descent, not including the splashdown.[134] Chute detachment was a scheduled event occurring around 259.4 seconds after launch as intended.[135][136]

Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1 edit

Test Vehicle Abort Mission-1[137] (TV-D1[137][138]) was a high altitude abort test held on October 21, 2023 at around 10:00 a.m IST.[139] The rocket launch was the second attempt of the day, with the initial try halted just five seconds before the scheduled time. The primary purpose of the test was to ensure the crew's ability to safely exit the rocket in the event of a malfunction. Originally slated for 8:00 local time, the launch was postponed for 45 minutes due to weather-related concerns. The mission aimed to test the CES's separation from the rocket, ability to maintain a trajectory leading to a safe distance, and eventual parachute deployment.[140]

During TV-D1 mission, the crew module experience an unexpected upended orientation while being recovered by Indian Navy from Bay of Bengal. In order to mitigate the problem and improve safety, ISRO is going to test an "uprighting system" that resembles gaseous balloons and works similarly to airbags in cars to keep the crew module from toppling over in the event of lateral wind and sea wave disturbances following splashdown. Redundancy is built into the system to guard against failure. TV-D2 is scheduled to launch in Q1 2024. The crew escape mechanism will use low and high altitude escape motors, while the crew module control systems will mimic the crew seat, suspension, and uprighting systems.[141]

Recovery and rescue edit

The Gaganyaan module is intended to land in the Arabian Sea, where Indian agencies are expected to be stationed in order to rescue both the crew and the module. Nonetheless, the space agency has selected 48 backup locations in international waters in case the primary plan is altered. Two landing sites in Indian waters, one in the Arabian Sea and the other in the Bay of Bengal, were initially chosen by ISRO. But the landing spot in the Arabian Sea was decided upon taking into account the choppy seas and unpredictability of the Bay of Bengal.[142][143]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d Expert Talk by Dr R.Venkatraman, Dy.Director on Challenges in launch pad systems for Gaganyaan (Video). SDSC SHAR. 6 October 2020. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
  2. ^ "Indian Manned Spacecraft". Astronautix. 2014. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016.
  3. ^ a b "Gaganyaan: Astronauts on mission likely to be pilots, crew module design to be finalised soon". India Today. 20 January 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  4. ^ a b Kunhikrishnan, P. "India's Human Spaceflight Programme: GAGANYAAN" (PDF). UNOOSA. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  5. ^ "Integrated Cabin Pressure Control System" (PDF). ISRO. p. 11. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 August 2019. Retrieved 23 August 2019.
  6. ^ a b Singh, Surendra (29 December 2018). "Rs 10,000 crore plan to send 3 Indians to space by 2022". The Times of India. Retrieved 29 December 2018.
  7. ^ PTI (15 August 2018). "Gaganyaan mission to take Indian astronaut to space by 2022: PM Modi". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  8. ^ PTI (22 October 2023). "ISRO chief Somnath says space agency prefers woman fighter test pilots for its crewed mission, possible in future". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 6 November 2023.
  9. ^ a b "Hindustan Aeronautics Limited". Archived from the original on 22 February 2014. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  10. ^ "India's first solar mission in 2020: ISRO chairman". The Times of India. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  11. ^ "Gaganyaan: DRDO to provide special space food and emergency survival kit for ISRO's manned mission". The Financial Express. 4 March 2020. Retrieved 6 March 2020.
  12. ^ "No Gaganyaan Unmanned Flight This Year". The Times of India. 11 June 2020. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  13. ^ "India's First Human Space Mission "Gaganyaan" Will not Be Affected by COVID Pandemic: Dr.Jitendra Singh". 3 July 2020. Archived from the original on 3 July 2020. Retrieved 3 July 2020.
  14. ^ "Gaganyaan mission can't happen this year or next year, focus fully on safety aspects: Isro chief". The Times of India. 30 June 2022. Archived from the original on 30 June 2022. Retrieved 2 July 2022.
  15. ^ Singh, Surendra (23 September 2018). "Meet the woman scientist heading India's Gaganyaan project". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  16. ^ "Meet people behind ISRO's Gaganyaan mission". DNA India. 21 October 2023. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  17. ^ "Gaganyaan not one-off mission, government approved sustained human spaceflight programme: ISRO official". The Economic Times. 15 April 2023. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  18. ^ Benjamin, Haritha Sharly (19 December 2023). "From PSLV to Chandrayaan: How Indian space programme carved a niche for itself in 60 years | Ft. Dr VR Lalithambika | News Brake Ep 92". Onmanorama. Retrieved 3 March 2024.
  19. ^ Srinivasan, Pankaja (4 April 2010). "The down to earth Rakesh Sharma". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 24 July 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  20. ^ Chengappa, Raj (30 April 1984). "Rakesh Sharma becomes the first Indian to travel to space". India Today. Retrieved 6 March 2024.
  21. ^ Bordoloi, Pritam (18 November 2022). "Gaganyaan is the First Step in India's Grand Space Ambitions". Analytics India Magazine. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  22. ^ a b Priyadarshi, Siddhanta (23 February 2009). "Planning Commission Okays ISRO Manned Space Flight Program". Indian Express. p. 2.
  23. ^ "Gaganyan: How to send an Indian into space". 16 August 2018.
  24. ^ Beary, Habib (27 January 2010). "India announces first manned space mission". BBC News. Bangalore. Retrieved 5 May 2010.
  25. ^ "Spaceflight stuck due to budget: CAG". The Times of India. New Delhi. 25 April 2012. Retrieved 11 June 2013.
  26. ^ "Human space flight mission off ISRO priority list". Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  27. ^ "Rs 171 crore boost to manned space project". The Times of India. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  28. ^ China View: India's first space capsule returns to earth, 22 January 2007
  29. ^ ISRO Press Release Archived 14 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine 22 January 2007
  30. ^ Rao, Mukund Kadursrinivas Rao; Sridhara Murthi, K. R; Prasad, M. Y. S (25 September 2017). "The Decision for Indian Human Spaceflight Programme. Political Perspective, National Relevance and Technological Challenges" (PDF). National Institute of Advanced Studies. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  31. ^ Indian will take national flag to space on board Gaganyaan by 2022, says PM Narendra Modi in Independence Day speech Hindustan Times, 15 August 2018
  32. ^ "Lok Sabha, Unstarred Question number 2259" (PDF). 4 March 2020. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
  33. ^ a b "Gaganyaan, India's human space mission, will use 'green propulsion': ISRO". Hindustan Times. 26 March 2021. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  34. ^ Nandakumar, T. (13 May 2018). "ISRO making green propellant". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  35. ^ Mukunth, Vasudevan (2 March 2024). "What will Gaganyaan change for India? | Explained". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  36. ^ "Report No. 27 of 2014 Chapter IV" (PDF).
  37. ^ "THREE HUNDRED SIXTH REPORT, ACTION TAKEN BY THE GOVERNMENT ON THE RECOMMENDATIONS/OBSERVATIONS CONTAINED IN THE TWO HUNDRED AND NINETY EIGHTH REPORT OF THE DEPARTMENT RELATED PARLIAMENTARY STANDING COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS ON THE DEMANDS FOR GRANTS (2017-2018) OF THE DEPARTMENT OF SPACE" (PDF). Government of India. Retrieved 5 March 2018. The objectives of Space Capsule Recovery Experiment has been achieved with the successful launch and recovery of Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE) during December 2014 with this, the project has been formally closed. Hence, no projections were made.
  38. ^ Kumar, Chethan (21 October 2021). "Kidney stone formation to gene marking: 5 experiments shortlisted for Isro mission; MoUs in place". The Times of India. Retrieved 26 October 2021.
  39. ^ "Eleventh Five year Plan (2007-2012) proposals for Indian space program" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 2 March 2022.
  40. ^ a b Mishra, Bibhu Ranjan (8 October 2008). "ISRO plans manned mission to moon in 2014". Business Standard India. Sriharikota Range (SHAR): Business Standard. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  41. ^ D.S., Madhumathi (11 January 2019). "ISRO starts Human Space Flight centre". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  42. ^ "India's human space programme gets a fillip". Retrieved 11 January 2019. Initially, the plan was the construct a new launch pad for the human space flight, but Sivan told the Express that due to paucity of time one of the two existing launch pads is being modified to meet the requirement.
  43. ^ "Question number 1733 in Rajya Sabha" (PDF). Retrieved 11 January 2019. It is proposed to utilise the existing launch pad with augmentation for carrying out the initial flights under the Gaganyaan manned space flight programme.[permanent dead link]
  44. ^ "Russia To Help India In 2022 Space Mission: Russian Envoy". NDTV. 3 December 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  45. ^ T.S. Subramanian (2 May 2009), "Model of space crew module ready", The Hindu, Chennai, archived from the original on 4 May 2009, retrieved 14 June 2013
  46. ^ "ISRO: India's manned space mission is on, Cabinet okays Rs 10,000 crore plan". The Economic Times. 28 December 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  47. ^ "PM Modi promises India's first manned space mission by 2022 in Independence Day speech". India Today. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  48. ^ "Gaganyaan". ISRO. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  49. ^ "Gaganyaan: India chooses Russia to pick and train astronauts". The Times of India. 1 July 2019. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  50. ^ "Cabinet approves setting up of ISRO's technical liaison unit in Moscow". India Today. 31 July 2019. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  51. ^ "ISRO Technical Liaison Unit at Moscow". Examrace. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  52. ^ "Russia to make spacesuits for Indian cosmonauts". Glavkosmos. 7 September 2020. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  53. ^ Pramanik, Ayan; Krishnan, Raghu. "After Gaganyaan, ISRO chairman K Sivan to set sights on space station". The Economic Times. Retrieved 23 July 2021.
  54. ^ Peri, Dinakar (28 August 2021). "Indian pilots to return to Russia soon for customised space suits". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 3 September 2021.
  55. ^ "Agra lab parachutes to bring back India astronauts". Deccan Herald. 4 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  56. ^ Ray, Kalyan (4 January 2009). "ISRO gears up for manned space mission". Deccan Herald. Shillong. Archived from the original on 3 February 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2013.
  57. ^ "Orbital Vehicle". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
  58. ^ "Spacecraft for 'Gaganyaan' mission developed: ISRO scientist". The Hindu. 7 December 2022. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  59. ^ "ISRO To Develop ECLSS For Gaganyaan Mission After Failing To Get It From Other Countries: S Somanath". Retrieved 13 December 2023.
  60. ^ "Pilerne-based Kineco Kaman delivers key component for Isro's human space mission". The Times of India. 23 December 2023. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 13 February 2024.
  61. ^ Pillai, Soumya (12 January 2024). "For Gaganyaan astronauts, Isro may opt for Russian-made spacesuits". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 13 January 2024.
  62. ^ "Annual Report 2022-23" (PDF). Ministry of Defence. Government of India. Retrieved 30 March 2024.
  63. ^ "ISRO Starts Work On India's Maiden Space Station, Here's How It May Look". Retrieved 19 April 2024.
  64. ^ "Gaganyaan Low Altitude Escape Motor (LEM) Static Test". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  65. ^ "ISRO successfully completes Gaganyaan low altitude escape motor static test". mint. 10 August 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  66. ^ Kumar, Chethan (11 August 2022). "Gaganyaan: Low Altitude Escape motor of crew escape system tested". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 30 November 2022.
  67. ^ Kumar, Chethan (28 August 2021). "Isro tests Gaganyaan service module propulsion system". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  68. ^ Kumar, Chethan (20 July 2023). "Gaganyaan: Key service module propulsion system test completed". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  69. ^ Dutt, Anonna (29 August 2021). "ISRO successfully tests propulsion system of Gaganyaan service module". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  70. ^ Pinto, Nolan (28 August 2021). "Isro successfully conducts 1st hot test of Gaganyaan propulsion system in Tamil Nadu". India Today. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  71. ^ Pillai, Soumya (21 July 2023). "Isro successfully completes key Gaganyaan test". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  72. ^ "ISRO 'hot tests' Gaganyaan mission's Service Module Propulsion System again". The Indian Express. 20 July 2023. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  73. ^ "Isro successfully tests engines that will guide Gaganyaan Service Module". India Today. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  74. ^ "ISRO successfully tests Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System". The Hindu. 20 July 2023. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  75. ^ "Successful hot Test of Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System – System Demonstration Model (SDM) - ISRO". ISRO. 28 August 2021. Archived from the original on 19 March 2022. Retrieved 31 August 2021.
  76. ^ Chaitanya, S V Krishna (20 July 2023). "ISRO successfully conducts hot test of Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  77. ^ "Gaganyaan Service Module Propulsion System aces 2 more hot tests". The Hindu. 27 July 2023. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  78. ^ Pillai, Soumya (28 July 2023). "Isro completes two more hot tests for Gaganyaan". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  79. ^ "ISRO Completes Major Development Test of its Gaganyaan Parachute System". Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  80. ^ "Gaganyaan: Isro tests parachutes that will bring Indian astronauts to Earth from space". India Today. 19 November 2022. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  81. ^ Kumar, Chethan (19 November 2022). "Gaganyaan: Key parachute test simulating astronaut landing complete". The Times of India. TNN. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  82. ^ "ISRO Completes Major Development Test of its Gaganyaan Parachute System". ISRO. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  83. ^ Sunilkumar, Singh Rahul (12 August 2023). "How will India's Gaganyaan crew return to Earth? ISRO shows key parachute test | Watch". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  84. ^ "ISRO successfully conducts parachute deployment tests for Gaganyaan mission". The Economic Times. 12 August 2023. ISSN 0013-0389. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  85. ^ Kumar, Chethan (11 August 2023). "ISRO conducts drogue parachute deployment tests for Gaganyaan mission". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 7 January 2024.
  86. ^ Dutt, Anonna (9 April 2023). "Gaganyaan: From astronauts' training to tech upgrade, ISRO making leaps to meet 2024 target for manned mission". The Indian Express. Retrieved 10 April 2023.
  87. ^ "2.8 2.8 The Next-Generation Launcher: GSLV-Mk III by S. Ramakrishnan". From Fishing Hamlet to Red Planet: India's Space Journey. HarperCollins Publishers India. 15 December 2015. ISBN 9789351776895. Taking into account the LEO payload capability of up to 10 tonnes feasible with this vehicle, the payload fairing diameter was fixed as 5 metres to accommodate large modules like a space station segment or manned capsule. Incidentally, considering the possibility of future human space flight missions by India, the boost phase acceleration was capped at 4g, the standard human tolerance level accepted by spacefaring agencies.
  88. ^ S. Somanath (11 August 2021). PRL Ka Amrut Vyakhyaan-02, 'Reaching the sky: Indian Launch Vehicles' (video). Event occurs at 53:10–53:40. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 6 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  89. ^ a b c Karthik, K K (8 December 2022). "Centre Wants Gaganyaan Launch before 2024 Lok Sabha Polls". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 10 December 2022.
  90. ^ "CSIR NAL Annual Report 2020-21" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 August 2021. In addition, ATF also successfully completed the acoustic qualification of the Strap on Electro Mechanical Actuator Structure for the GSLV MKIII launcher. This would help in improving reliability and also provide advantages in payload capability in comparison with the Electro Hydraulic actuators used earlier.
  91. ^ Bose, Mrityunjay (17 November 2020). "L&T delivers first launch hardware for Gaganyaan despite Covid-19 restrictions". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 4 March 2024.
  92. ^ Chakraborty, Kabir (13 May 2022). "Milestone Achieved: Human-Rated S200 Rocket Booster, 'Gaganyaan' Test Successful". Prag News. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  93. ^ Kumar, Chethan (13 May 2022). "Gaganyaan: Human-rated S200 rocket booster test successful, 700 parameters normal". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  94. ^ "ISRO successfully tests large human rated solid rocket booster for the Gaganyaan programme - ISRO". 13 May 2022. Archived from the original on 13 May 2022. Retrieved 13 May 2022.
  95. ^ MP, Sidharth (13 May 2022). "Watch: ISRO tests rocket booster that is among the largest-of-its-kind in the world". WION. Retrieved 8 January 2024.
  96. ^ "Third Successful Vikas Engine Long Duration Hot Test for Gaganyaan Program". ISRO. Archived from the original on 4 August 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  97. ^ "ISRO successfully conducts 3rd Vikas Engine hot test for Gaganyaan mission". Mint. 14 July 2021. Retrieved 1 September 2021.
  98. ^ "Qualification testing of VIKAS Engine for Gaganyaan Programme - ISRO". ISRO. Archived from the original on 22 July 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  99. ^ "Qualification testing of Cryogenic Engine for Gaganyaan Programme". ISRO. Archived from the original on 22 July 2022. Retrieved 21 January 2022.
  100. ^ Surendra Singh (12 January 2022). "Isro successfully conducts cryo engine test for Gaganyaan rocket". The Times of India. Retrieved 12 January 2022.
  101. ^ "Gaganyaan cryogenic engine test successful: IPRC". The Hindu. 9 November 2022. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 27 November 2022.
  102. ^ "Cryogenic engine for human spaceflight mission, Gaganyaan, tested successfully: ISRO". The Indian Express. 21 February 2024. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  103. ^ "CE20 cryogenic engine clears human rating test, ready for Gaganyaan missions". The Hindu. 21 February 2024. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 23 February 2024.
  104. ^ "PM Modi reveals names of 4 Gaganyaan mission astronauts". Indian Express. 27 February 2024. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  105. ^ Siddiqui, Huma (25 February 2019). "Who will be India's first 'Vyomnauts'? Know how India will select astronauts for first manned space mission". Financialexpress. Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  106. ^ Monalisa, Monika (5 March 2024). "High flying: Indian Gaganyaan Astronauts sport NIFT-designed space suits; blend of style and function unveiled". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  107. ^ Ullas, Sruthy Susan (29 February 2024). "Gaganauts' ground suit designed by NIFT Bengaluru team has asymmetry as theme". The Times of India. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  108. ^ Rajwi, Tiki (18 March 2024). "SAKHI to be a friend in need for Gaganyaan crew". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 19 March 2024.
  109. ^ "Why is India sending robots into space?". 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2020.
  110. ^ "ISRO to send humanoid Vyommitra in unmanned Gaganyaan spacecraft ahead of human spaceflight". The Economic Times. 24 January 2020. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  111. ^ Kumar, Chethan (22 January 2020). "Gaganyaan mission: First glimpse of 'Vyommitra', the humanoid for Gaganyaan; it's a 'She'". The Times of India. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  112. ^ "ISRO's manned mission to Moon will happen, but not right now: K Sivan". The Indian Express. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  113. ^ "'व्योममित्रा'ची पहिली झलक! भारताकडून 'ती' पहिल्यांदा जाणार अवकाशात". Loksatta (in Marathi). 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  114. ^ "ISRO's prototype humanoid for Gaganyaan mission is Vyom Mitra which will go to space before astronauts". Times Now News. 22 January 2020. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  115. ^ Dwarakanath, Nagarjun (22 January 2020). "Gaganyaan mission: Meet Vyommitra, the talking human robot that Isro will send to space". India Today. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
  116. ^ "Chandrayaan-3 on Moon: What's Next for Isro?". India Today. 24 August 2023. Retrieved 25 August 2023.
  117. ^ a b c d e f "Gaganyaan's First Test Abort Flight in May | All You Need to Know about India's Ambitious Space Mission". News18. 16 March 2023. Retrieved 8 May 2023.
  118. ^ a b c d "Record G1, G2, H1 []". Space Assigned Numbers Authority. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  119. ^ a b c d "India's first space station unit is just 4 years ahead: ISRO chief S Somanath". Onmanorama. 28 February 2024. Retrieved 28 February 2024.
  120. ^ "Prime Minister reviews readiness of Gaganyaan Mission".
  121. ^ "Gaganyaan: ISRO to Launch First Full-Scale Unmanned Mission in February Next Year". The New Indian Express. 23 April 2023. Retrieved 8 May 2023.
  122. ^ "Human space flight prog: HAL hands over crew module assembly to ISRO". @businessline. 13 February 2014.
  123. ^ "Crew module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE)". ISRO. 18 December 2014. Archived from the original on 16 August 2022. Retrieved 19 September 2022.
  124. ^ First Experimental Flight of India's Next Generation Launch Vehicle GSLV Mk-III Successful - ISRO Press Release - 18 December 2014
  125. ^ "India successfully launches its heaviest rocket GSLV-Mk III". International Business Times UK. 18 December 2014.
  126. ^ "GSLV Mark III takes to the skies in test flight". The Hindu. 18 December 2014. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  127. ^ "India launches largest rocket and unmanned capsule". BBC News. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 26 November 2022.
  128. ^ "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S. Somanath and R. Umamaheshwaran". Astro talk UK. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  129. ^ "ISRO conducts pad abort test for Indian human space program". 4 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  130. ^ "Gaganyaan mission can't happen this year or next year, focus fully on safety aspects: Isro chief". The Times of India. 30 June 2022. ISSN 0971-8257. Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  131. ^ Baluragi, Hanamantray; Suresh, Byrana Nagappa (2020), "Indian Space Program: Evolution, Dimensions, and Initiatives", Handbook of Space Security, Cham: Springer International Publishing, pp. 1–19, doi:10.1007/978-3-030-22786-9_38-2, ISBN 978-3-030-22786-9, S2CID 216447640, retrieved 4 July 2020
  132. ^ "ISRO's first 'pad abort' test, critical for future human space mission, successful".
  133. ^ "SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT TESTING OF CREW ESCAPE SYSTEM - TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATOR - ISRO". Archived from the original on 5 July 2018. Retrieved 5 July 2018.
  134. ^ "ISRO's Human Space Programme: Pad Abort Test (PAT) on 5th July, 2018 Early Morning" (PDF). 4 July 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 July 2018.
  135. ^ "Episode 80 - S Somnath Director of Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre". AstrotalkUK. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  136. ^ "Flight test of crew escape system - Technology Demonstrator Lift of video - ISRO". Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  137. ^ a b "First Crew Module for Gaganyaan test flight takes shape". Retrieved 8 October 2023.
  138. ^ Kumar, Chethan (28 April 2022). "First Gaganyaan uncrewed module to be injected in 170x408km orbit; indicates human spaceflight profile". Times of India.
  139. ^ TV-D1 Flight Test: ISRO on X:
  140. ^ "Gaganyaan: India launches test flight ahead of sending crew into space". BBC News. 20 October 2023. Retrieved 22 October 2023.
  141. ^ Johnson, T A (13 November 2023). "To keep Gaganyaan crew module upright after splashdown, ISRO plans tests in 2024". The Indian Express. Retrieved 14 November 2023.
  142. ^ Pillai, Soumya (5 March 2024). "Isro identifies 48 backup points for safe return of Gaganyaan astronauts". Hindustan Times. Retrieved 5 March 2024.
  143. ^ Jain, Alka (5 March 2024). "How Gaganyaan astronauts can return safely during return mission? Explained". mint. Retrieved 5 March 2024.

External links edit