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Embalming is the art and science of preserving human or animal remains by treating them (in its modern form with chemicals) to forestall decomposition. The intention is usually to make the deceased suitable for public or private viewing as part of the funeral ceremony, or keep them preserved for medical purposes in an anatomical laboratory. The three goals of embalming are sanitization, presentation, and preservation, with restoration being an important additional factor in some instances. Performed successfully, embalming can help preserve the body for a duration of many years. Embalming has a very long and cross-cultural history, with many cultures giving the embalming processes a greater religious meaning.
Embalming is distinct from taxidermy. Embalming preserves the human body intact, whereas taxidermy is the recreation of an animal's form often using only the creature's skin mounted on an anatomical form.
Perhaps the ancient culture that had developed embalming to the greatest extent was Egypt. As early as the First Dynasty (3200 BC), specialized priests were in charge of embalming and mummification. They did so by removing organs, ridding the body of moisture, and covering the body with natron. The Ancient Egyptians believed that preservation of the mummy empowered the soul after death, the latter of which would return to the preserved corpse.
The earliest known evidence of artificial preservation in Europe was found in Osorno (Spain) and are about 5000 years old human bones covered in cinnabar for preservation, but embalming remained unusual in Europe up to the time of the Roman Empire.
In China, artificially preserved remains have been recovered from the period of the Han dynasty (206 BC – 220 AD), the main examples being that of Xin Zhui and the Mawangdui Han tombs site. While these remains have been extraordinarily well preserved, the embalming fluids and methods used are unknown.
In Europe the knowledge and practice of artificial preservation had spread from these ancient cultures becoming widely spread by about 500 AD. The period of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance is known as the anatomists' period of embalming and is characterized by an increased inﬂuence of scientific developments in medicine and the need for bodies for dissection purposes. Early methods used are documented by contemporary physicians such as Peter Forestus (1522–1597) and Ambroise Pare (1510-1590). The first attempts to inject the vascular system were made by Alessandra Giliani of it, who died in 1326. Various attempts and procedures have been reported by Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519), Jacobus Berengar (1470–1550), Bartholomeo Eustachius (1520–1574), Reinier de Graaf (1641–1673), Jan Swammerdam (1637–1680), and Frederik Ruysch (1638–1731).
In the United States, the Civil War era sparked an interest in embalming and it became very common across the nation.
The modern method of embalming involves the injection of various chemical solutions into the arterial network of the body to primarily disinfect and slow the decomposition process. William Harvey, the 17th century English physician who was the first to detail the system of blood circulation, made his discoveries by injecting coloured solutions into corpses.
The Scottish surgeon William Hunter was the first to apply these methods to the art of embalming as part of mortuary practice. He wrote a widely read report on the appropriate methods for arterial and cavity embalming in order to preserve bodies for burial. His brother, John Hunter, applied these methods and advertised his embalming services to the general public from the mid-18th century.
One of his more notorious customers was the dentist Martin Van Butchell. When his wife Mary died on January 14, 1775, he decided to have her embalmed and turn her into an attraction in order to draw more customers. Hunter injected the body with preservatives and color additives that gave a glow to the corpse's cheeks, replaced her eyes with glass eyes, and dressed her in a fine lace dress. The body was then embedded in a layer of plaster of Paris in a glass-topped coffin.
Butchell put the body on display in the window of his home. Many Londoners came to see the body, but Butchell also drew criticism for his gruesome display. A rumor, possibly started by Butchell himself, claimed that his wife's marriage certificate had specified that her husband would only have control over her estate after her death for as long as her body was kept unburied.
Interest in, and demand for, embalming grew steadily in the 19th century largely for sentimental reasons. People wished to be buried at far-off locations, and mourners wanted the chance to display the body for visitors to pay their last respects. Another motive behind embalming at this time was to prevent the spread of disease while being able to prepare for burial without unseemly haste. After Lord Nelson was killed during the Battle of Trafalgar, his body was preserved in brandy and spirits of wine mixed with camphor and myrrh for over two months. At the time of his state funeral in 1805, his body was found to still be in excellent condition and completely plastic.
Alternative methods of preservation, such as ice packing or laying the body on so called 'cooling boards', gradually lost ground to the increasingly popular and effective methods of embalming. By the mid 19th century, the newly emerging profession of businessmen-undertakers - who provided funeral and burial services - began adopting embalming methods as standard.
Embalming caught on in the United States during the American Civil War, as a result of sentimental issues involving foreign officials and servicemen dying far from home, and the need for their remains to be returned home for local burial. This period starting in about 1861 is known as the funeral period of embalming and is marked by a separation of the fields of embalming by undertakers and embalming (anatomical wetting) for medical and scientific purposes. Dr. Thomas Holmes received a commission from the Army Medical Corps to embalm the corpses of dead Union officers to return to their families. Military authorities also permitted private embalmers to work in military-controlled areas. The passage of Abraham Lincoln's body home for burial was made possible by embalming, and it brought the possibilities and potential of embalming to wider public notice.
Until the early 20th century, arsenic was frequently used as an embalming fluid, until it was supplanted by other more effective and less toxic chemicals. There was concern about the possibility of arsenic from embalmed bodies contaminating ground water supplies. There were also legal concerns because people suspected of murder by arsenic poisoning could claim that the levels of poison in the deceased's body were a result of post-mortem embalming rather than evidence of homicide.
In 1867, the German chemist August Wilhelm von Hofmann discovered formaldehyde, whose preservative properties were soon discovered, and which became the foundation for modern methods of embalming, replacing previous methods.
Dr. Frederic Ryusch was the first one to have used the arterial injection method for embalming. His work of embalming was so nearly perfect that people thought the dead body was actually alive; however, he only used it to prepare specimens for his anatomical work.
Modern embalming is most often performed to ensure a better presentation of the deceased for viewing by friends and relatives.
A successful viewing of the body is considered to be helpful in the grieving process. Embalming has the potential to prevent mourners from having to deal with the rotting and eventual putrescence of the corpse.
This view has been challenged, however, by authors such as Jessica Mitford, who point out that there is no general consensus that viewing an embalmed corpse is somehow "therapeutic" to the bereaved, and that terms such as "memory picture" were invented by the undertakers themselves, who have a financial interest in selling the costly process of embalming to the public. Mitford also points out that, in many countries, embalming is rare, and the populace of such countries are still able to grieve normally.
Embalming is also a general legal requirement for international repatriation of human remains (although exceptions do occur) and is required by a variety of laws depending on locality, such as for extended time between death and final disposition or above-ground entombment.
In the United Kingdom, viewing the deceased prior to the funeral is a common practice and embalming is recommended to prevent any natural deterioration of the remains, which would cause further distress to family and friends. It is not uncommon for the remains to be returned home or to be received into a place of religious worship prior to burial or cremation. In such cases, the embalming process is always carried out.
Terms for embalmersEdit
The roles of a funeral director and an embalmer are different, depending on the licensing body for a region in which the Funeral Director and/or Embalmer operate. A funeral director arranges for the final disposition of the deceased, and may or may not prepare (including embalming) the deceased for viewing (or other legal requirements). An embalmer is someone who has been trained in the art and science of, and may or may not have any contact with the family, although many people fill both roles. The term mortician is becoming outdated, but may refer to a someone who is a funeral director, an embalmer, or in some cases, both. Embalming training commonly involves formal study in anatomy, thanatology, chemistry, and specific embalming theory (to widely varied levels depending on the region of the world one lives in) combined with practical instruction in a mortuary with a resultant formal qualification granted after the passing of a final practical examination and acceptance into a recognized society of professional embalmers.
Legal requirements over who can practice vary geographically; some regions or countries do not have specific requirements. Additionally, in many places, embalming is not done by trained embalmers, but rather by doctors who, while they have the required anatomical knowledge, are not trained specialists in this field. Today, embalming is common practice in North America, Australia and New Zealand while it is somewhat less frequent in Europe. In some countries, permits or licenses are required; in others it is performed only by medical practitioners, and the costs can be relatively high.
In the United States, the title of an embalmer is largely based on the state in which they are licensed. In Virginia and Maryland, a funeral director is someone who is licensed only to make arrangements and handle the business side of the funeral home, while a mortician is licensed to do these things as well as to embalm. As recently as 2015, Virginia has required that funeral directors also perform 25-50 embalmings as well as 25-50 arrangements during their apprenticeships as a requirement for their licensing, culminating in 3000 hours per apprenticeship.
As practiced in the funeral homes of the Western World (notably North America), embalming involves several distinct steps. Modern embalming techniques are not the result of a single practitioner, but rather the accumulation of many decades, even centuries, of research, trial and error, and invention. A standardized version follows below, but variation on techniques is very common.
The first step in embalming is to verify the permissions and requests of the family followed by a careful plan for the deceased's preparation, including reviewing the medical certificate of death. The deceased is placed on the mortuary table in the supine anatomical position with the head elevated by a head rest. Before commencing any preparation the embalmer will verify the identity of the body (normally via wrist or leg tags). At this point, embalmers commonly perform an initial evaluation of the deceased's condition, noting things such as lividity, rigor mortis, skin condition, edema, swelling, intravenous injection sites, presence of fecal matter, tissue gas and numerous other factors which may affect the procedure and final outcome. The embalming procedure is a surgical one, albeit rather minimally invasive. The process requires significant effort over the course of multiple hours, including intensive planning, evaluation, and chemical selection.
Any clothing on the body is removed and set aside, and any personal effects such as jewelry are inventoried. A modesty cloth is sometimes placed over the genitalia. The body is washed in a germicidal soap. During this process the embalmer bends, flexes, and massages the arms and legs to relieve rigor mortis. The eyes are posed using an eye cap that keeps them shut and in the proper expression. The mouth may be closed via suturing with a needle and ligature, using an adhesive, or by setting a wire into the maxilla and mandible with a needle injector, a specialized device most commonly used in North America and unique to mortuary practice. Care is taken to make the expression look as relaxed and natural as possible, and ideally a recent photograph of the deceased in good health is used as a reference. The process of closing the mouth and eyes, shaving, etc. is collectively known as setting the features. Features may also be set after the completion of the arterial embalming process, which allows the embalmer to clean and remove any purge that occurs during the embalming process.
The actual embalming process usually involves four parts:
- Arterial embalming, which involves the injection of embalming chemicals into the blood vessels, usually via the right common carotid artery. Blood and interstitial fluids are displaced by this injection and, along with excess arterial solution, are expelled from the right jugular vein and collectively referred to as drainage. The embalming solution is injected with a centrifugal pump, and the embalmer massages the body to break up circulatory clots so as to ensure the proper distribution of the embalming fluid. This process of raising vessels with injection and drainage from a solitary location is known as a single-point injection. In cases of poor circulation of the arterial solution, additional injection points (commonly the axillary, brachial, or femoral arteries, with the ulnar, radial, and tibial vessels if necessary) are used. The corresponding veins are commonly also raised and utilized for drainage. Cases where more than one vessel is raised are referred to as multiple-point injection, with a reference to the number of vessels raised (i.e. a six-point injection or six-pointer). As a general rule, the more points needing to be raised, the greater the difficulty of the case. In some cases draining from a different site from injection (i.e. injecting arterial fluid into the right common carotid artery and draining from the right femoral vein) is referred to as a split (or sometimes cut) injection. In certain cases the embalmer may deem it necessary to perform a restricted cervical injection, which involves injecting the head of the deceased separately from the rest of body. This is done in cases where distention (swelling) has a greater chance of occurring. In many cases, an embalmer may select to perform what is known as a pre-injection. A pre-injection is a solution of chemicals that do not contain any preservative chemicals, but rather chemicals that encourage vasodilation, help disperse blood clots, and act as chelating agents. The focus of this "pre-injection" is to allow for a more complete drainage and better distribution of the arterial embalming solution.
- Cavity treatment/embalming refers to the removal of internal fluids inside body cavities via the use of an aspirator and trocar. The embalmer makes a small incision just above the navel (two inches superior and two inches to the right) and pushes the trocar into the abdominal and chest cavities. This first punctures the hollow organs and aspirates their contents. The embalmer then fills the cavities with concentrated chemicals (known as Cavity Chemicals) that contain formaldehyde, which are delivered to the chest cavity via the trocar inserted through the diaphragm. The incision is either sutured closed (commonly using the purse-string or 'N' suture methods) or a "trocar button" is secured into place.
- Hypodermic embalming is a supplemental method which refers to the injection of embalming chemicals into tissue with a hypodermic needle and syringe, which is generally used as needed on a case by case basis to treat areas where arterial fluid has not been successfully distributed during the main arterial injection.
- Surface embalming, another supplemental method, utilizes embalming chemicals to preserve and restore areas directly on the skin's surface and other superficial areas as well as areas of damage such as from accident, decomposition, cancerous growths, or skin donation.
The duration of an embalming can vary greatly, but a common approximate time of between two and four hours to complete an embalming is typical. However an embalming case that presents excessive complications could require substantially longer. The treatment of someone who has undergone an autopsy, cases of extreme trauma, or the restoration of a long-bone donor are a few such examples, and embalmings which require multiple days to complete are known.
Embalming is meant to temporarily preserve the body of a deceased person. Regardless of whether embalming is performed, the type of burial or entombment, and the materials used – such as wood or metal coffins and vaults – the body of the deceased will, under most circumstances, eventually decompose. Modern embalming is done to delay decomposition so that funeral services may take place or for the purpose of shipping the remains to a distant place for disposition.
After the body is rewashed and dried, a moisturizing cream is applied to the face, hands and arms. Ideally the deceased will usually sit for as long as possible for observation by the embalmer. After being dressed for visitation or funeral services. Cosmetics are commonly, but not universally, applied to make the body appear more lifelike and to create a "memory picture" for the deceased's friends and relatives. For babies who have died, the embalmer may apply a light cosmetic massage cream after embalming to provide a natural appearance; massage cream is also used on the face to prevent it from dehydrating, and the infant's mouth is often kept slightly open for a more natural expression. If possible, the funeral director uses a light, translucent cosmetic; sometimes, heavier, opaque cosmetics are used to hide bruises, cuts, or discolored areas. Makeup is applied to the lips to mimic their natural color. Sometimes a very pale or light pink lipstick is applied on males, while brighter colored lipstick is applied to females. Hair gel or baby oil is applied to style short hair; while hairspray is applied to style long hair. Powders (especially baby powder) are applied to the body to eliminate odors, and it is also applied to the face to achieve a matte and fresh effect to prevent oiliness of the corpse. Mortuary cosmetizing is not done for the same reason as make-up for living people; rather, it is designed to add depth and dimension to a person's features that lack of blood circulation has removed. Warm areas – where blood vessels in living people are superficial, such as the cheeks, chin, and knuckles – have subtle reds added to recreate this effect, while browns are added to the palpabrae (eyelids) to add depth, especially important as viewing in a coffin creates an unusual perspective rarely seen in everyday life. During the viewing, pink-colored lighting is sometimes used near the body to lend a warmer tone to the deceased's complexion.
A photograph of the deceased in good health is often sought to guide the embalmer's hand in restoring the body to a more lifelike appearance. Blemishes and discolorations (such as bruises, in which the discoloration is not in the circulatory system, and cannot be removed by arterial injection) occasioned by the last illness, the settling of blood, or the embalming process itself are also dealt with at this time (although some embalmers utilize hypodermic bleaching agents, such as phenol-based cauterants, during injection to lighten discoloration and allow easier cosmetizing). It is also common for the embalmer to perform minor restoration of the deceased's appearance with tissue building chemicals and a hypodermic syringe. Tissue building chemicals (Tissue Builders) become solid with the introduction of liquids such as water or interstitial fluids. Commonly the area where the Spheoid and Temporal bones meet; this can also be referred to the temples. In the event of trauma or natural depressions on the face or hands, tissue builder can also be utilised to return those regions of the face to the expectations of the family.
In the Western world, men are usually buried in business attire, such as a suit or coat and tie, and women in semi-formal dresses or pant suits. In recent years, a change has occurred, and many individuals are now buried in less formal clothing, such as what they would have worn on a daily basis, or other favorite attire. The clothing used can also reflect the deceased person's profession or vocation: priests and ministers are often dressed in their liturgical vestments, and military and law enforcement personnel often wear their uniform. Underwear, singlets, bras, briefs, and hosiery are all used if the family so desires, and the deceased is dressed in them as they would be in life.
In certain instances a funeral director will request a specific style of clothing, such as a collared shirt or blouse, to cover traumatic marks or autopsy incisions. In other cases clothing may be cut down the back and placed on the deceased from the front to ensure a proper fit. In many areas of Asia and Europe, the custom of dressing the body in a specially designed shroud or burial cloth, rather than in clothing used by the living, is preferred.
After the deceased has been dressed, they are placed in the coffin or casket. In American English, the word coffin is used to refer to an anthropoid (stretched hexagonal) form, whereas casket refers to a rectangular box. No such distinction is made in Commonwealth English, where coffin is the preferred term and casket can be used interchangeably. It is common for photographs, notes, cards, and favourite personal items to be placed in the coffin with the deceased. Bulky and expensive items, such as electric guitars, are occasionally interred with a body. In some ways this mirrors the ancient practice of placing grave goods with a person for their use or enjoyment in the afterlife. In traditional Chinese culture, paper substitutes of the goods are buried or cremated with the deceased instead, as well as paper money specifically purchased for the occasion.
Embalming chemicals are a variety of preservatives, sanitizers, disinfectant agents, and additives used in modern embalming to temporarily delay decomposition and restore a natural appearance for viewing a body after death. A mixture of these chemicals is known as embalming fluid, and is used to preserve deceased individuals, sometimes only until the funeral, other times indefinitely.
Typical embalming fluid contains a mixture of formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, methanol, humectants and wetting agents, and other solvents that can be used. The formaldehyde content generally ranges from 5 to 35 percent, and the ethanol content may range from 9 to 56 percent.
Environmentalists generally disapprove of embalming because of the harmful chemicals involved and their interactions with the environment. Recently, more eco-friendly embalming methods have become available. Both the Champion Company and the Dodge Company offer true formaldehyde-free chemicals.
Badly decomposing bodies, trauma cases, frozen, or drowned bodies, and those to be transported over long distances also require special treatment beyond that for the "normal" case. The restoration of bodies and features damaged by accident or disease is commonly called restorative art or demisurgery, and all qualified embalmers have some degree of training and practice in it. For such cases, the benefit of embalming is startlingly apparent. In contrast, many people have unrealistic expectations of what a dead body should look like, due to the near-universal portrayal of dead bodies by live actors in movies and television shows. Ironically, the work of a skilled embalmer often results in the deceased appearing natural enough that the embalmer appears to have done nothing at all. Normally, a better result can be achieved when a photograph and the decedent's regular make-up (if worn) are available to help make the deceased appear more as they did when alive.
Embalming autopsy cases differs from standard embalming because the nature of the post mortem examination irrevocably disrupts the circulatory system, due to the removal of the organs and viscera. In these cases, a six-point injection is made through the two iliac or femoral arteries, subclavian or axillary vessels, and common carotids, with the viscera treated separately with cavity fluid or a special embalming powder in a viscera bag.
Long-term preservation requires different techniques, such as using stronger preservatives and multiple injection sites to ensure thorough saturation of body tissues.
For anatomy educationEdit
A rather different process is used for cadavers embalmed for dissection by medical professionals, students, and researchers. Here, the first priority is for long-term preservation, not presentation. As such, medical embalmers use anatomical wetting fluids that contain concentrated formaldehyde (37–40%, known as formalin) or glutaraldehyde and phenol, and are made without dyes or perfumes. Many embalming chemical companies make specialized anatomical embalming fluids.
Anatomical embalming is performed into a closed circulatory system. The fluid is usually injected with an embalming machine into an artery under high pressure and flow, and allowed to swell and saturate the tissues. After the deceased is left to sit for a number of hours, the venous system is generally opened and the fluid allowed to drain out, although many anatomical embalmers do not use any drainage technique.
Anatomical embalmers may choose to use gravity-feed embalming, where the container dispensing the embalming fluid is elevated above the body's level, and fluid is slowly introduced over an extended time, sometimes as long as several days. Unlike standard arterial embalming, no drainage occurs, and the body distends extensively with fluid. The distension eventually reduces, often under extended (up to six months) refrigeration, leaving a fairly normal appearance. No separate cavity treatment of the internal organs is given. Anatomically embalmed cadavers have a typically uniform grey colouration, due both to the high formaldehyde concentration mixed with the blood and the lack of red colouration agents commonly added to standard, nonmedical, embalming fluids. Formaldehyde mixed with blood causes the grey discoloration also known as "formaldehyde grey" or "embalmer's grey".
Opinions differ among different faiths as to the permissibility of embalming. A brief overview of some of the larger faiths positions are:
- Most branches of the Christian faith generally allow embalming. Some bodies within Eastern Orthodoxy profess an absolute ban against embalming except when required by law or other necessity, while others may discourage but do not prohibit it. In general the decision on embalming is one that is dictated by the personal preference of the family rather than a specific church policy.
- The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints does not discourage or prohibit embalming. Often, due to the custom of church members dressing the deceased, embalming is given preference.
- Members of Iglesia ni Cristo allows embalming for the view of their loved ones. It forbids autopsy and cremation because they believe the body of the deceased is sacred and should be cared for with respect. They dress and groom the deceased as they looked in life. The preferred method is arterial embalming, in which formaldehyde is injected into the body.
- Some Neopagans generally discourage embalming, believing it unnatural to disrupt the physical recycling of the body to the Earth. They encourage the use of green graveyards, where the body is placed in a biodegradable coffin and buried under a tree instead of a tombstone. This belief is based on the fact that embalmed corpses leach harmful chemicals in the soil.
- Members of the Bahá'í Faith are not embalmed. Instead, the body is washed and then placed in a cotton, linen, or silk shroud. The body is to be buried within one hour's journey from the place of death, if this is feasible. Cremation is also forbidden.
- Zoroastrians traditionally hold a type of sky burial within a structure known as a Tower of Silence in which the body is exposed to weathering and predation to dispose of the remains, thus embalming the body is contrary to their funeral designs. This is due to the Zoroastrian belief that the dead body is unclean and the pure elements of earth and fire should not be allowed to come into contact with it. This practice was declared illegal in Iran by the government of the last shah, and Iranian Zoroastrians have turned to burials in concrete chambers which allow no contact between corpse and soil. Zoroastrians in India who are known locally as Parsis continue to use the Tower of Silence.
- Traditional Jewish law forbids embalming or cremation, and burial is to be done as soon as possible – preferably within 24 hours. However, under certain circumstances, burial may be delayed if burying a person immediately is impossible, or to permit the deceased to be buried in Israel. Guidance of a rabbi or the local chevra kadisha (Jewish burial society) should be sought regarding any questions, as particular circumstances may justify leniencies. Notably, the Biblical Joseph was, according to the (Genesis 50:26), embalmed in the Egyptian fashion as was his father Israel (Jacob) (Genesis 50:2). The chevra kadisha ensures the body is guarded (except during the Sabbath); typically these shomrim (guards) recite psalms within earshot of the deceased. The deceased is dressed in a kittel—a white robe-like garment, and then in a white linen shroud. Burial in Israel is done without a coffin. Outside Israel, coffins may be used if required by local custom or law, but it must be a simple coffin, made without nails or glue, so as to permit natural processes to process the corpse.
- Embalming is not practiced by Muslims before they bury their deceased. They are urged to bury their deceased as soon as possible, as a form of honoring them in their view. The body is washed, usually by the spouse or a close relative of the same gender. He or she is then dressed in a clean, perfumed, plain white burial shroud, called kafan. People gather to hold a joint prayer for the dead called Salat Al-Janaza. They do not use coffins. Instead, the 2-m-deep grave has edging about 1 m down, and a slab is used to cover the grave, which is covered afterwards with loose soil.
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- Lord Nelson (1758–1805) was preserved for two months in brandy and spirits of wine mixed with camphor and myrrh after which time the body was found to be in excellent condition and completely plastic.
- Various communist leaders have been embalmed and put on public display. Perhaps the most famous embalmed body of the 20th century is that of Vladimir Lenin, which continues to draw crowds decades after his death in 1924, and is seen in his Moscow mausoleum. Joseph Stalin was also embalmed and placed next to Lenin, but his body was buried in 1961 during de-Stalinization. Klement Gottwald of Czechoslovakia, who died just five days after attending Stalin's funeral, was embalmed and displayed in a mausoleum at National Monument in Vitkov in Prague. However, in 1962 due to a botched embalming, the body was decomposing, and was removed and cremated. Bulgarian Georgi Dimitrov was embalmed and placed on display in the Sofia Georgi Dimitrov Mausoleum. After the fall of Communism in Bulgaria, his body was buried in 1990 in the Central cemetery of Sofia. Mongolia's Khorloogiin Choibalsan, Angola's Agostinho Neto and Guyana's Forbes Burnham were also embalmed by the same Russian team. Currently, embalmed communist leaders can also be found in the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, the Ho Chi Minh Mausoleum, and the Kumsusan Palace of the Sun for Kim Il-sung and Kim Jong-il.
- The botched embalming of Pope Pius XII (1876–1958; pope 1939–1958) by a charlatan doctor—which only sped up the rate of decomposition—led to his body turning black and his nose falling off while lying in state, and the body disintegrated in the coffin. The Swiss Guards stationed around Pius XII's body were forced to change shifts every 10 to 15 minutes, since the body's odor caused some guards to pass out. The doctor who performed the embalming had also taken photos of the pontiff in his death throes, intending to sell them to tabloids. The Italian tabloids refused to buy the photos, and the doctor was banned from entering the Vatican City-State by John XXIII, who furthermore prohibited any photography of a deceased pope until the body is properly vested and laid out.
- Charles XII (1682–1718) is one of several Swedish kings to have been embalmed. When Charles XII's sarcophagus was opened in 1917, his features were still recognizable, almost 200 years after his death. Photographs of his remains clearly show the gunshot wound to his head leading to his death.
- The body of Pope John XXIII (1881–1963; pope 1958–1963) is on display on an altar on the main floor of the Basilica of Saint Peter after having been exhumed from the grottoes beneath the main altar and has retained an extremely well preserved state. If a body's remains do not decompose, contrary to expectations, it is often treated as a miracle. However, the case of John XXIII's body did not enjoy the same acclamation, as it was held to have been due to embalming and adipocere formation.
- The body of Pope Pius X (1835–1914; pope 1903–1914) lies in a crystal coffin, in the Chapel of the Presentation of the Virgin Mary. On 17 February 1952, Pius X's body was transferred from the crypt of the Vatican grotto. The body is dressed in pontifical robes, while the face and hands are covered with silver. He lies within a glass and bronze-work sarcophagus for the faithful to see. Papal physicians had been in the habit of removing organs to aid the embalming process. Pius X expressly prohibited this, however, and none of his successors has allowed the practice to be reinstituted.
- Murdered civil rights activist Medgar Evers was so well embalmed that a valid autopsy was able to be performed on his corpse decades after his death, and this helped secure the conviction of his killer.
- Famous Russian surgeon and scientist N. I. Pirogov was embalmed after his death in 1881. He was embalmed using the technique he himself developed. His body rests in a church in Vinnitsa, Ukraine. In contrast to the corpse of Lenin, which undergoes thorough maintenance in a special underground clinic twice a week, the body of Pirogov rests untouched and unchanging – reportedly only dust has to be brushed off of it. It rests at room temperature in a glass-lid coffin (while Lenin's body is preserved at a constant low temperature).
- Abraham Lincoln was embalmed after his assassination in 1865. To prevent anyone stealing Lincoln's body, Lincoln's eldest son Robert called for Lincoln's exhumation in 1901 to be buried in a concrete vault in the burial room of his tomb in Springfield, Illinois. Fearing that his body would have been stolen in the interim, Lincoln's coffin was opened, and his features were still recognizable, 36 years after his death.
- Rosalia Lombardo, who died at age one on 6 December 1920, was one of the last corpses to be interred in the Capuchin catacombs of Palermo, Sicily, before the local authorities banned the practice. Nicknamed the 'Sleeping Beauty', Rosalia's body is still perfectly intact. Embalmed by Alfredo Salafia, she is in a glass case, looking very much like a surreal doll.
- Eva Perón was embalmed by Dr. Pedro Ara ordered by her husband Juan Perón. The body was preserved to look like it was in a sleep-like state. The procedure worked and the body showed no signs of decomposition when Eva was interred at her final resting place many years after the initial procedure.
- Kemal Ataturk was embalmed. His remains were originally laid to rest in the Ethnography Museum of Ankara from 10 November 1938 to 10 November 1953. He was subsequently moved to Anıtkabir in Ankara, Turkey, buried in a 42-ton sarcophagus.
- Chiang Kai-shek and Chiang Ching-kuo were embalmed and rest at Cihu Mausoleum and Touliao Mausoleum in Daxi District, Taoyuan City, Taiwan.
- Ferdinand Marcos was embalmed in Hawaii upon his death. His body was flown home and is on display at Marcos Museum and Mausoleum in Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines from 1993 to 18 November 2016 .
- Diana, Princess of Wales was embalmed shortly after her death in France in August 1997. The decision to embalm her provoked conspiracy theories that she was pregnant; conspiracists claimed, incorrectly, that the embalming fluid would have destroyed any evidence of fetal presence in her womb. The official explanation for the embalming was that the warm conditions in the chapel of rest where her body was laid out would have sped up the decomposition of the remains.
- Brenner, Erich (January 2014). "Human body preservation - old and new techniques". Journal of Anatomy. 224: 316–344. doi:10.1111/joa.12160. PMC 3931544. PMID 24438435.
- "Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Egyptian Mummies". www.si.edu. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
- Chiappelli, Jermiah (December 2008). "The Problem of Embalming". Journal of Environmental Health. 71 (5): 24.
- Tim Marshall (1995). Murdering to Dissect: Grave-robbing, Frankenstein, and the Anatomy Literature. Manchester University Press. p. 79.
- Christen, AG; Christen, JA (November 1999). "Martin Van Butchell (1735-1814): the eccentric, "kook" dentist of old London". History of Dentistry. 47: 99–104. PMID 10726564.
- Beatty, William (1807). Authentic narrative of the death of lord Nelson. pp. 72–73.
- Myers, Eliab (1897). The Champion Text Book on Embalming. Springfield, Ohio: Champion Chemical CO. p. 102.
- "Access". Medscape. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- 1991 Metcalf, Peter & Richard Huntington. Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. Cambridge Press, New York. Print.
- "The American Way of Death Revisited Summary – Jessica Mitford – Magill Book Reviews". Enotes.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- "embalming: Modern procedures. – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- Quigley, Christine (17 September 2015). The Corpse: A History. McFarland. ISBN 9781476613772.
- Administrator. "Embalming - Information About Embalming". www.funeralhelper.org. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
- "Let's Talk About Death". Orthodoxinfo.com. Retrieved 9 March 2012.
- scientificamerican.com 2015-04-22 Lenin's Body Improves with Age
- Mackey, Robert (12 January 2012). "North Korean television reports plan to embalm Kim's body". Thelede.blogs.nytimes.com. Retrieved 5 October 2013.
- Abrams, J.L. Embalming. 2008.
- Frederick, L.G.; Strub, Clarence G.  (1989). The Principles and Practice of Embalming, 5th ed., Dallas, TX: Professional Training Schools Inc & Robertine Frederick. OCLC 20723376.
- Mayer, Robert G. (2000-01-27). Embalming: History, Theory and Practice, 3rd ed., McGraw-Hill/Appleton & Lange. ISBN 978-0-8385-2187-8.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Embalming.|
Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press..
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- BBC article on Salisbury's School of Embalming
- Infection risks and embalming by KS Creely. Institute of Occupational Medicine Research Report TM/04/01