Linden Forbes Sampson Burnham (20 February 1923 – 6 August 1985) was a Guyanese politician and the leader of the Co-operative Republic of Guyana from 1964 until his death in 1985. He served as Prime Minister from 1964 to 1980 and then as its first Executive President from 1980 to 1985. He is often regarded as a strongman who embraced his own version of communism. Throughout his presidency, he encouraged Guyanese to produce and export more local goods, especially through the use of state-run corporations and agricultural cooperatives. Despite being widely regarded as one of the principal architects of the postcolonial Guyanese state, his presidency was nonetheless marred by repeated accusations of Afro-supremacy, state-sanctioned violence, economic collapse, electoral fraud and corruption.
|2nd President of Guyana|
6 October 1980 – 6 August 1985
|Prime Minister||Ptolemy Reid|
|Vice President||Ptolemy Reid|
Shiw Sahai Naraine
Hugh Desmond Hoyte
|Preceded by||Arthur Chung|
|Succeeded by||Hugh Desmond Hoyte|
|1st Prime Minister of Guyana|
(British Guiana until 1966)
14 December 1964 – 6 October 1980
|Preceded by||Cheddi Jagan|
|Succeeded by||Ptolemy Reid|
Linden Forbes Sampson Bunham
20 February 1923
Kitty, Georgetown, East Coast Demerara, British Guiana
|Died||6 August 1985 (aged 62)|
Georgetown, East Coast Demerara, Guyana
|Resting place||the Botanical Gardens|
|Political party||PPP (1950–1958)|
|Spouse(s)||Bernice Lataste (1951-1966)|
Viola Burnham (1967-his death)
|Alma mater||London School of Economics|
Personal life and educationEdit
Burnham, an Afro-Guyanese man, was born in Kitty, a suburb of Georgetown, East Demerara in Guyana, as one of three children. He attended the prestigious secondary school, Queen's College. In 1942, he won the Guiana Scholarship as the colony's top student. Burnham received a law degree from the London School of Economics in 1948. Burnham met many African and Caribbean students – including Abubakar Tafawa Balewa of Nigeria, Seretse Khama of Botswana and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana as well as Michael Manley of Jamaica and Errol Barrow of Barbados – during his studies in London. He was married to Viola Burnham, who was also involved in politics. He had three children, Roxane, Annabelle, and Francesca from his first marriage to Bernice Lataste. His second marriage to Viola produced two daughters, Melanie and Ulele and later they adopted a son, Kamana.
Early years: The People's Progressive Party (PPP)Edit
Burnham was one of the founders of the People's Progressive Party (PPP), which was launched on 1 January 1950. The Indo-Guyanese labour leader Cheddi Jagan became Leader of the PPP and Burnham became its chairman. In 1952, Burnham became the president of the party's affiliated trade union, the British Guiana Labour Union. In 1953, the PPP won 18 of 24 seats in the first election with universal suffrage in Guyana, with both Burnham and his sister Jessie elected to the House of Assembly. In the short-lived PPP government that followed, Burnham served as Minister of Education.
In 1955, there was a split in the PPP between Burnham and Jagan. Jagan supported a socialist domestic policy, but Burnham believed that, given the geopolitical conditions of the era, communism would be a better alternative. The UK and United States were falsely informed that Burnham was somewhat more moderate than Jagan. This red scare tactic resulted in foreign support for Burnham, who went on to form the People's National Congress (PNC) in 1958 entering its first election under that name in 1961. Guyana obtained massive debts during Burnham's tenure, experienced stagflation, and suffered a massive rise in crime. Burnham's tenure was also marked by elections rigged by the PNC. The UK and USA would later formally apologize for this destabilization, albeit years later in the 2000s.
Leader of Guyana: The People's National Congress (PNC)Edit
In the 1964 election Jagan's PPP won the highest percentage of the vote (46% to the PNC's 41%), but it did not win a majority. Burnham succeeded in forming a coalition with the United Force (TUF) (which had won the remaining 12% of the votes) and became premier of British Guiana on 14 December. On 26 May 1966, British Guiana became an independent country and was renamed "Guyana".
Due to the radical views of Cheddi Jagan (who leaned towards communism) and Jagan's alliances with the Soviet Union and Cuba, Burnham was supported by Western nations. At first, Burhnam pursued moderate policies, but in one of his first acts upon independence, he had passed a sweeping "National Security Act" giving the police the power to search, seize and arrest anyone virtually at will.
The PNC attained a majority government in the general elections of 1968 through electoral fraud, using an inflated "overseas vote" to skew the results in their favor. In 1970, he veered sharply to the left and established strong relations with Cuba, the Soviet Union, North Korea and other socialist countries. On 23 February of that year, he declared Guyana a "co-operative republic". Adopting a policy of autarky, he banned all forms of imports into the country, including flour and varieties of rice that had been integral to the diet of Guyanese. Burnham also nationalised the major industries that were foreign-owned and -controlled, reducing the private sector's share of the economy to 10 percent by 1979. Burnham, after attending the 1970 summit of the Non-Aligned Movement in Lusaka, Zambia, paid official visits to several African countries—Zambia, Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania and Ethiopia—over the period 12–30 September 1970. The Guyanese government remained fully involved in the African liberation movement throughout the 1970s. Interestingly, although Guyana provided much-needed aid to African nations in their time of need – when Guyana was in its most dire times of need (the early 1990s and late 2010s), none of these African nations offered aid to Guyana.
Burnham sent more than a hundred Guyanese public servants to various departments of the Zambian Government. Many Guyanese doctors, engineers, lawyers and secretaries worked in Southern African states throughout the 1970s. Current census data indicates that the majority of doctors, engineers, lawyers and secretaries currently working in Guyana originate from India, Sri Lanka, Cuba and China.
In 1974, Burnham issued the Declaration of Sophia where he stated that "the Party should assume unapologetically its paramountcy over the Government which is merely one of its executive arms." The Declaration also called for a transition to a socialist state, and a nationalisation of its economy. He won a 1978 referendum which made it much easier for the government to change the constitution. Anecdotal evidence from hundreds of Indo-Guyanese (and Afro-Guyanese who were PPP supporters) claims that PNC enforcers aggressively (and often violently) denied PPP supporters of the opportunity to vote. Most notably, official figures showed the referendum passing with an implausible 97 percent of the vote. In 1980 the constitution was changed to make the presidency an executive post (before this time, the post was held by Arthur Chung in a ceremonial head-of-state role). Burnham won election as president that year.
According to Dr. Walter Rodney, Burnham's "style of rule has many similarities with that of the late Nicaraguan dictator, Anastasio Somoza" – who not only oppressed the working class, but those in the upper echelons of the society who refused to go along with his domination. In 2014, Donald Ramotar launched an inquiry into the murder of Rodney despite resistance from the PNC. In 2016, the Commission of Inquiry released findings that state that President Forbes Burnham, aided by the Guyana Defence Force and Guyana Police Force, was part of the conspiracy to assassinate Dr. Walter Rodney. Rodney was the leader of the Working People's Alliance which posed a threat to Burnham, for the WPA was bridging the gap between East Indian and African populations of Guyana. Rodney was killed in his car on June 13, 1980 by Gregory Smith, an operative of the GDF, with an explosive communication device. Smith escaped to French Guiana with assistance from the Burnham government, changed his name and is thought to have died in 2002.
Burnham remained President of Guyana until his death. He died on 6 August 1985 after undergoing throat surgery in Cuba.
- George K. Danns (1 January 1982). Domination and Power in Guyana: A Study of the Police in a Third World Context. Transaction Publishers. pp. 141–. ISBN 978-1-4128-2190-2.
- David A. Granger. "Forbes Burnham and the Liberation of Southern Africa" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
- History of the PPP, PPP website.
- Biographies of former presidents Archived 28 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine, GINA.
- The Guyana story, from prehistory to independence
- Cheddi Jagan's 'the West on trial
- http://www.guyana.org/features/guyanastory/chapter133.html (see also: Forbidden Freedom by Cheddi Jagan)
- Jagan, C. 1994. Forgotten Freedom. Hansib Publications Limited. Guyana. 3rd edition.
- Ishmael, Odeen (29 September 2005). "The December 1968 Electoral Fraud in Guyana". www.guyanajournal.com. Guyana Journal. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- Dieter Nohlen (2005) Elections in the Americas: A data handbook, Volume I, p355-359 ISBN 978-0-19-928357-6
- Westmaas, Nigel. "1968 AND THE SOCIAL AND POLITICAL FOUNDATIONS AND IMPACT OF THE "NEW POLITICS" IN GUYANA". Caribbean Studies. Institute of Caribbean Studies, UPR, Rio Piedras Campus. 37 (2): 110–111. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
- "The State under Burnham". Guyana Times International. 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 December 2021.
- Chandisingh, Rajendra (1983). "The State, the Economy, and Type of Rule in Guyana: An Assessment of Guyana's "Socialist Revolution"". Latin American Perspectives. 10 (4): 59–74. ISSN 0094-582X.
- "'Only a disciplined people can build a nation': North Korean Mass Games and Third Worldism in Guyana, 1980-1992". The Asia-Pacific Journal: Japan Focus. Retrieved 13 April 2021.
- Azikiwe, Abayomi (28 February 2016). "Guyana commission confirms Burnham gov't murdered Walter Rodney". Workers World. Retrieved 16 March 2021.