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A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms (most notably high blood glucose) and dangerous consequences of the disease.

Recommendations of the fraction of total calories to be obtained from carbohydrate are generally in the range of 20% to 45%,[1] but recommendations can vary as widely as from 16% to 75%.[2].

For overweight and obese people with Type 2 diabetes, any weight-loss diet that the person will adhere to and achieve weight loss on is at least partly effective.[3][4]

The most agreed-upon recommendation is for the diet to be low in sugar and refined carbohydrates, while relatively high in dietary fiber, especially soluble fiber. People with diabetes are also encouraged to eat small frequent meals a day. Likewise, people with diabetes may be encouraged to reduce their intake of carbohydrates that have a high glycemic index (GI), although this is also controversial.[5] (In cases of hypoglycemia, they are advised to have food or drink that can raise blood glucose quickly, such as a sugary sports drink, followed by a long-acting carbohydrate (such as rye bread) to prevent risk of further hypoglycemia.) Others question the usefulness of the glycemic index and recommend high-GI foods like potatoes and rice.[citation needed] It has been claimed that oleic acid has a slight advantage over linoleic acid in reducing plasma glucose.[6]

Contents

Diet compositionEdit

GeneralEdit

People with type 1 diabetes who use insulin can eat whatever they want, preferably a healthy diet with some carbohydrate content; in the long term it is helpful to eat a consistent amount of carbohydrate to make blood sugar management easier.[7]

CarbohydratesEdit

An article summarizing the view of the American Diabetes Association[8] contains the statements:

  • "Sucrose-containing foods can be substituted for other carbohydrates in the meal plan or, if added to the meal plan, covered with insulin or other glucose-lowering medications. Care should be taken to avoid excess energy intake."
  • Sucrose does not increase glycemia more than the same number of calories taken as starch.[8][9][disputed ]
  • It is not recommended to use fructose as a sweetener because it may adversely affect plasma lipids.[9]
  • Benefits may be obtained by consumption of dietary fiber.

Low-carbohydrate dietEdit

There is a lack of evidence of the usefulness of low-carbohydrate dieting for people with type 1 diabetes.[10] Although for certain individuals it may be feasible to follow a low-carbohydrate regime combined with carefully-managed insulin dosing, this is hard to maintain and there are concerns about potential adverse health effects caused by the diet.[10] In general people with type 1 diabetes are advised to follow an individualized eating plan rather than a pre-decided one.[10]

A low-carbohydrate diet gives slightly better control of glucose metabolism than a low-fat diet in type 2 diabetes.[11][12] A 2018 report on type 2 diabetes by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) found that a low-carbohydrate diet may not be as good as a Mediterranean diet at improving glycemic control, and that although having a healthy body weight is important, "there is no single ratio of carbohydrate, proteins, and fat intake that is optimal for every person with type 2 diabetes".[13]

The ADA say low-carbohydrate diets can be useful to help people with type 2 diabetes lose weight, but that these diets were poorly defined, difficult to sustain, unsuitable for certain groups of people and that, for diet composition in general, "no single approach has been proven to be consistently superior".[14] Overall, the ADA recommend people with diabetes should be "developing healthy eating patterns rather than focusing on individual macronutrients, micronutrients, or single foods". They recommended that the carbohydrate in a diet should come from "vegetables, legumes, fruits, dairy (milk and yogurt), and whole grains"; highly-refined foods and sugary drinks should be avoided.[14]

Vegan/vegetarianEdit

 
An example of a high fiber vegan breakfast, suitable for someone suffering from Type 2 Diabetes.

According to The American Diabetes Association (ADA) a vegan diet is a healthful option for all ages.[15] In the ADA's 2018 Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, a vegan diet was included as a treatment option.[16] Diabetes UK say that diabetes should not prevent people from going vegetarian and that it may be beneficial for people with diabetes to go vegetarian, as this will cut down on saturated fats.[17]

A meta analysis done in 2013 that compared a variety of different diets' effects on health concluded that a plant based diet high in whole foods, and with limited processed foods can be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of Type 2 Diabetes.[18]

Timing of mealsEdit

For people with diabetes, healthy eating is not simply a matter of "what one eats", but also when one eats. The question of how long before a meal one should inject insulin is asked in Sons Ken, Fox and Judd (1998). It depends upon the type one takes and whether it is long-, medium- or quick-acting insulin. If patients check their blood glucose at bedtime and find that it is low, for example below 6 millimoles per liter (108 mg/dL), it is advisable that they take some long-acting carbohydrate before retiring to bed to prevent night-time hypoglycemia. Night sweats, headaches, restless sleep, and nightmares can be a sign of nocturnal hypoglycemia, and patients should consult their doctor for adjustments to their insulin routine if they find that this is the case.[19] Counterintuitively, another possible sign of nocturnal hypoglycemia is morning hyperglycemia, which actually occurs in response to blood sugar getting too low at night. This is called the Somogyi effect.

In relation to type 2 diabetes, eating most food earlier in the day may be associated with lower levels of overweight and obesity and other factors that reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.[20]

Special diabetes dietary productsEdit

Diabetes UK have warned against purchase of products that are specially made for people with diabetes, on grounds that:[21]

  • They may be expensive
  • They may contain high levels of fat
  • They may confer no special benefits to people who have diabetes

NICE (the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in the United Kingdom) advises doctors and other health professionals to "Discourage the use of foods marketed specifically for people with diabetes".[22]

Alcohol and drugsEdit

Moderation is advised with regard to consuming alcohol and using some drugs. Alcohol inhibits glycogenesis in the liver and some drugs inhibit hunger symptoms. This, with impaired judgment, memory and concentration caused by some drugs can lead to hypoglycemia. People with diabetes who take insulin or tablets such as sulphonylureas should not, therefore, consume alcohol on an empty stomach but take some starchy food (such as bread or potato crisps) at the same time as consumption of alcohol.[citation needed]

Specific dietsEdit

G.I. Diet: lowering the glycemic index of one's diet can improve the control of diabetes.[23][24] This includes avoidance of such foods as potatoes cooked in certain ways and white bread. It instead favors multi-grain and sourdough breads, legumes and whole grains that are converted more slowly to glucose in the bloodstream.

High fiber diet: It has been shown that a high fiber diet works better than the diet recommended by the American Diabetes Association in controlling diabetes and may control blood sugar levels with the same efficacy as oral diabetes drugs.[25][26][27] A low-fat vegan diet improves glycemic control similar to the ADA diet.[28]

The American Diabetes Association has endorsed a natural foods approach to managing diabetes, advocating “fresh is best” and avoiding artificial sweeteners, instead substituting measured amounts of fresh fruit or raw sugar.[29]

HistoryEdit

There has been long history of dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus. Dietary treatment of diabetes mellitus was used in Egypt since 3,500 BC[30][31] and was used in India by Sushruta and Charaka more than 2000 years ago.[30] In the 18th century, John Rollo argued that calorie restriction could reduce glycosuria in diabetes.[30]

More modern history of the diabetic diet may begin with Frederick Madison Allen and Elliott Joslin, who, in the early 20th century, before insulin was discovered, recommended that people with diabetes eat only a low-calorie and nearly zero-carbohydrate diet to prevent ketoacidosis from killing them. While this approach could extend life by a limited period, patients developed a variety of other medical problems.[32]

The introduction of insulin by Frederick Banting in 1922 allowed patients more flexibility in their eating.[32]

Exchange schemeEdit

In the 1950s, the American Diabetes Association, in conjunction with the U.S. Public Health Service, introduced the "exchange scheme". This allowed people to swap foods of similar nutrition value (e.g., carbohydrate) for another. For example, if wishing to have more than normal carbohydrates for dessert, one could cut back on potatoes in one's first course. The exchange scheme was revised in 1976, 1986, and 1995.[33]

Later developmentsEdit

Not all diabetes dietitians today recommend the exchange scheme. Instead, they are likely to recommend a typical healthy diet: one high in fiber, with a variety of fruit and vegetables, and low in both sugar and fat, especially saturated fat.

A diet high in plant fibre was recommended by James Anderson.[34] This may be understood as continuation of the work of Denis Burkitt and Hugh Trowell on dietary fibre,[35] which may be understood as a continuation of the work of Price.[36] It is still recommended that people with diabetes consume a diet that is high in dietary fiber.

In 1976, Nathan Pritikin opened a centre where patients were put on programme of diet and exercise (the Pritikin Program). This diet is high on carbohydrates and fibre, with fresh fruit, vegetables, and whole grains. A study at UCLA in 2005 showed that it brought dramatic improvement to a group of people with diabetes or pre-diabetes in three weeks, so that about half no longer met the criteria for the disease.[37][38][39][40]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ "Tips for Using the Diabetes Food Hub Meal Planner and Grocery List".
  2. ^ Katsilambros N, Liatis S, Makrilakis K (2006). Critical review of the international guidelines: what is agreed upon--what is not?. Nestle Nutrition Workshop Series. Clinical & Performance Programme. Nestlé Nutrition Workshop Series: Clinical & Performance Program. 11. pp. 207–18, discussion 218. doi:10.1159/000094453. ISBN 978-3-8055-8095-3. PMID 16820742.
  3. ^ Emadian A, Andrews RC, England CY, Wallace V, Thompson JL (November 2015). "The effect of macronutrients on glycaemic control: a systematic review of dietary randomised controlled trials in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes in which there was no difference in weight loss between treatment groups". The British Journal of Nutrition. 114 (10): 1656–66. doi:10.1017/S0007114515003475. PMC 4657029. PMID 26411958.
  4. ^ Grams J, Garvey WT (June 2015). "Weight Loss and the Prevention and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Using Lifestyle Therapy, Pharmacotherapy, and Bariatric Surgery: Mechanisms of Action". Current Obesity Reports. 4 (2): 287–302. doi:10.1007/s13679-015-0155-x. PMID 26627223.
  5. ^ John McDougall Glycemic Index – Not Ready for Prime Time, The McDougall Newsletter, July 2006.
  6. ^ Segal-Isaacson CJ, Carello E, Wylie-Rosett J (October 2001). "Dietary fats and diabetes mellitus: is there a good fat?". Current Diabetes Reports. NLM.NIH.gov. 1 (2): 161–9. doi:10.1007/s11892-001-0029-3. PMID 12643112.
  7. ^ "I have Type 1 diabetes - what can I eat?". Diabetes UK. Retrieved 14 June 2019.
  8. ^ a b Bantle JP, Wylie-Rosett J, Albright AL, Apovian CM, Clark NG, Franz MJ, Hoogwerf BJ, Lichtenstein AH, Mayer-Davis E, Mooradian AD, Wheeler ML (September 2006). "Nutrition recommendations and interventions for diabetes--2006: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association". Diabetes Care. 29 (9): 2140–57. doi:10.2337/dc06-9914. PMID 16936169.
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  13. ^ Davies MJ, D'Alessio DA, Fradkin J, Kernan WN, Mathieu C, Mingrone G, et al. (2018). "Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes, 2018. A Consensus Report by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)". Diabetes Care. 41 (12): 2669–2701. doi:10.2337/dci18-0033. PMC 6245208. PMID 30291106. Low-carbohydrate, low glycemic index, and high-protein diets, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet all improve glycemic control, but the effect of the Mediterranean eating pattern appears to be the greatest
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  17. ^ "Vegan Diet for Diabetes". Retrieved 2018-03-18.
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  19. ^ "Nighttime Hypoglycemia".
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  29. ^ Newgent 2007, pp. 1–5.
  30. ^ a b c Scaramuzza, de Beaufort & Hanas 2016, p. 91.
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  35. ^ Trowell HC, Burkett DP (1981). Western diseases: their emergence and prevention. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. xiii–xvi. ISBN 978-0-674-95020-7.
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