Demographics of El Salvador

This is a demography of the population of El Salvador including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.

Demographics of El Salvador
El Salvador single age population pyramid 2020.png
Population pyramid of El Salvador in 2020
Population6,568,745 (2022 est.)
Growth rate0.57% (2022 est.)
Birth rate17.87 births/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Death rate5.91 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Life expectancy75.37 years
 • male71.88 years
 • female79.04 years
Fertility rate2.05 children born/woman (2022 est.)
Infant mortality rate12.14 deaths/1,000 live births
Net migration rate-6.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.)
Age structure
0–14 years25.83%
65 and over7.6%
Sex ratio
Total0.92 male(s)/female (2022 est.)
At birth1.05 male(s)/female
Under 151.05 male(s)/female
65 and over0.68 male(s)/female
Nationality
NationalitySalvadoran
Major ethnicMestizo (86.3%)
Language
OfficialSpanish
Salvadoran boy

El Salvador's population numbers 6.1 million. Ethnically, 86.3% of Salvadorans are mixed (mixed Native Salvadoran and European (mostly Spanish) origin). Another 12.7% is of pure European descent, 1% are of pure indigenous descent, 0.16% are black and others are 0.64%.[1]

PopulationEdit

El Salvador's population was 6,314,167 in 2021,[2][3] compared to 2,200,000 in 1950. In 2010 the percentage of the population below the age of 15 was 32.1%, 61% were between 15 and 65 years of age, while 6.9% were 65 years or older.[4]

Year Total population Proportion per age group
Ages 0–14 (%) Ages 15–64 (%) Ages 65+ (%)
1950 2 200 000 42.7 53.3 4.0
1955 2 433 000 43.6 52.6 3.8
1960 2 773 000 45.1 51.1 3.7
1965 3 244 000 46.3 50.1 3.7
1970 3 736 000 46.4 49.9 3.6
1975 4 232 000 45.8 50.5 3.7
1980 4 661 000 45.2 50.9 3.9
1985 5 004 000 44.1 51.8 4.2
1990 5 344 000 41.7 53.7 4.6
1995 5 748 000 39.6 55.5 4.9
2000 5 888 000 36.6 57.9 5.5
2005 6 052 000 34.8 58.9 6.3
2010 6 184 000 31.6 61.3 7.1
2015 6 325 000 28.4 63.9 7.8
2020 6 486 000 26.6 64.8 8.7

EmigrationEdit

The migration rate accelerated during the period of 1979 to 1981, this marked the beginning of the civil unrest and the spread of political killings.[5] The total impact of civil wars, dictatorships and socioeconomics drove over a million Salvadorans (both as immigrants and refugees) into the United States; Guatemala is the second country that hosts more Salvadorans behind the United States, approximately 110,000 Salvadorans according to the national census of 2010.[6] in addition small Salvadoran communities sprung up in Canada, Australia, Belize, Panama, Costa Rica, Italy, Taiwan and Sweden since the migration trend began in the early 1970s.[7] The 2010 U.S. Census counted 1,648,968 Salvadorans in the United States, up from 655,165 in 2000.[8]

Ethnic groupsEdit

Out of the 6,408,111 people in El Salvador, 86.3% are Mestizo, 15% are European, 1% Indigenous, 0.8% Afro-Salvadorans, and 0.64% other.

Mestizo SalvadoransEdit

86.3% of the population are Mestizo/Castizo, having mixed indigenous and European ancestry.[9] Historical evidence and census supports the explanation of "strong sexual asymmetry"[clarification needed], as a result of a strong bias favoring matings between European males and Native Salvadoran females, and to statistically significant indigenous male mortality during the Conquest. The genetics thus suggests the native men were sharply reduced in numbers due to the war and disease. Large numbers of Spaniard men settled in the region and had children with the local women. The Natives were forced to adopt Spanish names, language, and religion, and in this way, the Lencas and Pipil women and children were Hispanicized. A vast majority over 90% of Salvadorans are Mestizo/Native Salvadoran.[citation needed]

Indigenous SalvadoransEdit

 
Map of El Salvador's Native American civilizations and their former kingdoms:
  Kingdom of the Lenca people
  Kingdom of the Cacaopera people
  Kingdom of the Xinca people
  Kingdom Maya Poqomam people
  Kingdom of Maya Ch'orti' people
  Kingdom of the Alaguilac people
  Kingdom of the Mixe people
  Kingdom of the Mangue language
  Kingdom of the Pipil people

According to the Salvadoran Government, about 1% of the population are of full or partial indigenous origin. The largest most dominant Native Salvadoran groups in El Salvador are the Lenca people and Pipil people followed by small enclaves of Maya peoples: (Poqomam people/Chorti people), Cacaopera people, Xinca people, Alaguilac people, Mixe people, Mangue language people, as well as an Olmec past. (Pipil, located in the west and central part of the country, and Lenca, found east of the Lempa River). There are small populations of Cacaopera people in the Morazán Department and a few Ch'orti' people live in the department of Ahuachapán, near the border of Guatemala.

The number of indigenous people in El Salvador have been criticized by indigenous organizations and academics as too small and accuse the government of denying the existence of indigenous Salvadorans in the country.[10] According to the National Salvadoran Indigenous Coordination Council (CCNIS) and CONCULTURA (National Council for Art and Culture at the Ministry of Education ), approximately 70,000 or 1 per cent of Salvadorian peoples are indigenous.[11] Nonetheless, very few Amerindians have retained their customs and traditions, having over time assimilated into the dominant Mestizo/Spanish culture. The low numbers of indigenous people may be partly explained by historically high rates of old-world diseases, absorption into the Mestizo population, as well as mass murder during the 1932 Salvadoran peasant uprising (or La Matanza) which saw (estimates of) up to 30,000 peasants killed in a short period of time. Many authors note that since La Matanza the indigenous in El Salvador have been very reluctant to describe themselves as such (in census declarations for example) or to wear indigenous dress or be seen to be taking part in any cultural activities or customs that might be understood as indigenous.[12] Departments and cities in the country with notable indigenous populations include Sonsonate (especially Izalco, Nahuizalco, and Santo Domingo), Cacaopera, and Panchimalco, in the department of San Salvador.[11]

Afro-SalvadoransEdit

Afro-Salvadorans, called Pardo and sometimes Afro-Mestizos in the colonial period, are the descendants of the African population that were enslaved and shipped to El Salvador to work in mines in specific regions of El Salvador. They have mixed into and were naturally bred out by the general Mestizo population, which is a combination of a Mestizo majority and the minority of African descendants, both of whom are racially mixed populations. Thus, there remains no significant extremes of African physiognomy among Salvadorans like there is in the other countries of Central America. A total of only 10,000 African slaves were brought to El Salvador over the span of 75 years, starting around 1548, about 25 years after El Salvador's colonization. El Salvador is the only country in Central America that does not have English Antillean (West Indian) or Garifuna populations of the Caribbean, but instead had older colonial African slaves that came straight from Africa. This is the reason why El Salvador is the only country in Central America not to have a caribbeanized culture, and instead preserved its classical Central America culture.[13][14][15][16][17][18]

European SalvadoransEdit

Spanish SalvadoransEdit

Spaniards began to settle in El Salvador in the mid-1520s. Some 12.7% of Salvadorans are white.[19] This population is made up of those of Spanish origin, while there are also Salvadorans of French, German, Swiss, English, Irish, and Italian descent. A majority of Central European settlers in El Salvador arrived during World War II as refugees from the Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Switzerland with many settling in the region that is now Chalatenango in the late 18th century.[20] In 1789, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet was named governor of El Salvador. Because the local indigenous population working in the indigo industry had declined greatly, Carondolet recruited Spanish laborers from northern Spain to settle in El Salvador. In 1790, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet, ordered families from the north of Spain (Galicia, Asturias, the Basque Country, Cantabria and Navarra) to settle in the area to compensate for the lack of indigenous people to work the land; Important settlements of these Spaniards were the Northern and Center parts of El Salvador. Their descendants are among the blonde and fair-skinned people of today's Chalatenango Department.[21]

During 1880 to 1920, El Salvador had its Migratory Peak of Immigrants from Europe, as well as immigrants from nearby countries, Asians and other North Americans, when more than 120,000 arrived in El Salvador, the demographic weight was unprecedented, in 1880 the Population was of 480,000 inhabitants and by 1920 it was already 1,170,000. the main groups were the Spanish, Italians, Germans and some French, Polish and British[22][23][24][25]

French SalvadoransEdit

The French Immigration to the Republic of El Salvador was an important movement that the country received between the 19th century and the middle of the 20th century, between 1850 and 1870. The French formed the largest foreign group in El Salvador, later in 1940 to 1950, they formed one of the largest groups in the country, only surpassed by the Spanish and Italians. Between 1850 and 1870, El Salvador was the main recipient of French In Central America, most were merchants and businessmen together with their families.

It is estimated that between 1850 and 1950, more than 7,000 French emigrated to El Salvador, the majority came from Aquitaine, Occitania and the Alps, between 1850 and 1870, 2,000 French arrived in El Salvador, between 1911 and 1937 2,000 French entered the country, finally in 1938 to 1945 2,500 French entered the country, French immigration at that time greatly influenced the economy and education.

Since the Colonial Period there is a record of French in Salvadoran territory, in which several French corsairs and French pirates stand out In 1850, several French businessmen and merchants left for El Salvador to work in different types of jobs such as commerce, planting of sugar cane, industry and cultivation of coffee, during that time 2,000 French arrived in the territory, most were wealthy families and merchants. Most of the French who would arrive between 1880 and 1910 were merchants and professionals, but from 1911 to 1937, immigration would begin to shine again for various reasons. Many businessmen and merchants arrived in Salvadoran territory, at that time French investment in El Salvador was equal to that of the United States, during that period of time or, 2,000 French entered El Salvador. According to historical records, the French were the third largest group of foreigners in the country, only surpassed by the Spanish and Italians.

The majority of the French who arrived in the national territory first came from Corsica later in 1850 to 1950, the majority of the French who arrived in the territory were from Aquitaine, Occitanie and Rhône-Alpes but also Paris and other parts of the Alps, most of the French settled in San Salvador, however the City of Santa Tecla, El Salvador in the La Libertad Department (El Salvador) historically received large numbers of French Immigrants, other places with significant numbers are Santa Ana, El Salvador and Antiguo Cuscatlán.

German SalvadoransEdit

German immigration to El Salvador was a migratory movement, that began between 1880 and 1840 when the largest influx of Germans is recorded. The first Germans in El Salvador joined their mostly wealthy families in 1870 establishing coffee shops. At that time El Salvador had implemented the liberal reforms that attracted thousands of immigrants from Europe, Middle East and Asia, as well as the German immigration in the country, more families migrated to El Salvador and the agricultural land was also distributed. The main settlements of these families were the coffee-growing areas and also large cities like Nueva San Salvador now known as Santa Tecla, El Salvador, San Salvador, Chalatenango department, Cuscatlan department, Usulután department and other areas where German immigrants saw economic opportunities in the country, they excelled in industry, commerce and farming. [26][25]

One of the most famous Germans who immigrated to El Salvador, was Walter Thilo Deininger, who moved to the Cuscatlan department in 1885. He soon built his coffee estate and other industries. Soon after, arrived more German families to Cuscatlán Department, El Salvador, as well as important people like Jürgen Hübner a German historian and author of "Die Deutschen und El Salvador (The Germans and El Salvador).[27][28]

By 1890, Germans were one of the country's largest immigrant groups and were able to settle and stand out from the crowd of other European immigrants. Germans numbers in El Salvador later increased, their descendants were much more than the number of German immigrants living in El Salvador. There were cities founded by German families, like Berlín, Usulután which is a very clear example of a settlement founded by a German. Later other Germans families came to the area. North of El Salvador, specifically what is now north of Metapan and Chalatenango, Chalatenango, existed German settlements.

The Usulutan department was the area with the greatest presence of Germans in El Salvador. The Germans started arriving in the early 1900s and settled down to produce coffee.

The book, “The Population of El Salvador”, by Rodolfo Barón Castro, published in 1942, shows one of the first Statistical Census published by the Central Office of Migration in 1937; there it indicated that the four largest groups of immigrants in El Salvador, at that time, were made up of Spaniards, Palestinians, Italians and Germans. Germans arrived in the country in the early 1900s and, along with Italians, French and other Europeans, helped develop roads, build the Port of Puerto El Triunfo.

In addition, from the municipality of Berlín, Usulután there was a direct route to reach Puerto El Triunfo; an ideal route to transport the merchandise they produced and to obtain work materials.

It was the meeting point where German descendants and those close to Germany met to do their business because the farms were somewhat distant. They found in this part of El Salvador a center of excellence to live or develop, but they also needed to have a place to meet on weekends, to go and talk, which is typical of the cultures of these peoples: to have a meeting point” ,

The settlement was also agricultural, in 1958 the German Embassy in El Salvador founded the "Círculo Cultural Salvadoreño-Alemán", (German-Salvadoran cultural circle) to promote cultural exchange between Germany and El Salvador. The German School was dedicated on March 3, 1965, the Salvadoran German Cultural Forum has been celebrating every second Friday in November since 2006 Gardens of the Hilton Princess Hotel Oktoberfest. More than 700 people/families take part participate in a typically German dinner, German music and a typically German parade enjoy costumes. The traditional "Beer Festival" will continue thanks to the sponsorship of La Constancia and organized by German companies. In the city of San Salvador since 2011 in the third October week the Oktoberfest Pilsener celebrated in the exhibition and congress center. More than 27,000 people attended the 2013 edition, which became the largest Octoberfest in Central America. Over four days of festivities, participants enjoy traditional German cuisine and music, as well as a large selection of beers, some of which are made exclusively for the event.

Germany is one of the main European trading partners of El Salvador and is the largest importer of Salvadoran coffee. The Chamber of Commerce German-Salvadoran consists of around 85 companies. In addition to a German school in San Salvador.[29]

Italian SalvadoransEdit

Italian Immigration in El Salvador refers to the movement of Italians to the Republic of El Salvador and one of the most historically important movements in El Salvador. The Italo-Salvadorans are one of the largest European communities in the country, and one of the largest in Central America and the Caribbean, as well as one of those with the greatest social and cultural weight in America.

During the mid-nineteenth century to the mid-twentieth century, waves of Italian immigrants from all regions of Italy were registered and arrived, mainly from northern Italy and southern Italy, the first Italians who arrived in the country were mainly from the Kingdom of Sardinia and Piedmont, and also from the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, which include several Italians from different cities and provinces, since 1880, there has been a flow from all Italian regions but mainly from the south of the peninsula. highlighting regions such as Campania, Basilicata, Apulia and Sicily.

There is a record of Italians residing and arriving in the country since 1850, who came from the Kingdom of Sardinia-Piedmont and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, several intellectuals, merchants and other lower-middle class Italians stand out, during those years several boats arrived to the country mainly from important port cities of Italy, which include Naples, Genoa and Palermo, most of these Italians entered through the port of La Libertad Department (El Salvador) and in the East of the country, during that time the Italians in the country did not exceed 2,000 , however in the following years the number of arrivals would grow more.

By 1870, more boats arrived from Naples and Genoa, ranging from 30 to 60 Italian immigrants, but many merchants also entered the country every day. During that period of time, the country created very free immigration reforms, which attracted more immigrants from the world, many Italians arrived between 1876 and 1879, several boats to the country stand out, mainly from Campania and Liguria, between 1870 and 1879, it is estimated that more than 2,500 Italians entered the country, at that time El Salvador was the main receiver of Italians in Central America, mainly attracted by various agricultural opportunities. In 1880 to 1889, more than 2,000 Italians arrived in the country mainly from Campania and Piedmont, many boats of more than 100 Italian immigrants arrived at the Salvadoran coasts, these boats sailed from Naples and Liguria, this time was highlighted by arrivals of lower-class Italians and some professionals, however, also there were nuns and priests who came to the country to found several churches, schools and important organizations. In 1890, Italian immigration grew exponentially, it is estimated that between 1890 and 1899, more than 6,500 Italians arrived in the country, the vast majority arrived at the port of La Libertad Department (El Salvador), several architects and other Italian professionals arrived, such as those who built the Santa Ana Theater.

In 1890, many Salesians arrived in the country from Turin, they set sail on ships full of Italian immigrants and arrived at the port of La Libertad Department (El Salvador), many stayed in the city of Santa Tecla, El Salvador, where they founded various organizations and schools such as the Colegio Santa Cecilia, which It was founded in 1899 by Italians.

In 1898, the first Italian organization was founded in El Salvador and the first in Central America, the Sociedad de Asistencia y Beneficencia entre Italianos en El Salvador, better known as the Italian Assistenza, the objective of this organization is to help newly arrived Italians to get a job and help them financially while they got it.

Twentieth centuryEdit

The time was characterized by the massive entry of Italians into the country, between 1900 and 1909 more than 10,000 Italians arrived in the country from all Italian regions, at that time, El Salvador was the second largest recipient of Italian immigrants in Central America, many seeking better opportunities for their businesses and improve their quality of life, where several merchants and Italians entering the country stand out, many standing out in areas such as Education, Music, Agriculture, Industry, Commerce and infrastructure.

Between 1910 and 1919, other thousands of Italians enter as they register more than 6,000 arrivals in the country, the Italians easily adapted to the country and more Italians arrived in the country every day, El Salvador at that time managed to reach the main recipient of Italians in Central America, between 1920 and 1929, several Italian merchants and professionals arrived, but also lower-class Italians, many set up their businesses, in 1930, Italian immigration was paralyzed for various reasons, between 1930 and 1939, it is estimated that more than 1,000 Italians They arrived in the country and many set up their businesses.

In 1940, due to the Second World War, a large migratory wave of thousands of Italians emigrating to the country begins, where several merchants and Italians who wanted to improve their quality of life stand out, this time was characterized by the entry of several refugees, and Italians, most of whom came from northern Italy.

Between 1960 and 1980, several Franciscans arrived in the country, many founded schools and organizations to help the Salvadoran people, and also to reactivate the Italian culture in the country.

In 1989 a son of Italians, Alfredo Cristiani, was elected President of El Salvador. After five difficult years, his term ended in 1994, leaving his nation stabilized from the civil war that had plagued it for 20 years.

Italian immigration to El Salvador was a very large movement that the country received, from 1850 to 1929, it is estimated that more than 32,000 Italians arrived in the small country, looking for job opportunities and improvements in their quality of life, but the migratory peak It was between 1880 and 1930, when thousands of Italians from all regions arrived in El Salvador, the main recipients of Italians in America were the United States, Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and other countries in the region, although El Salvador received large amounts of Italian immigrants and at the American level is one that has had more weight socially and culturally.

Italian immigrants occupations and ageEdit

The Italians who arrived in the mid-nineteenth century were mostly middle class or poor, many were farmers and workers who came to the country to look for work, several merchants also arrived, according to some records, the Italians who arrived in the country between 1850 and 1870, were many families, who on average were between 22 and 26 years old, more 60% of immigrants who arrived in the country were men and 40% were women.

From 1870 to 1879, 2,5000 Italians arrived in the country, 63.5% were men, the average age was around 20 to 30 years and the majority were merchants, workers and farmers, between 1880 and 1889, they emigrated to the country around 2,000 Italians, 64% men and 44% women, age ranged widely, from 2 years to 50 years old, most were merchants, laborers and farmers, with increasing arrivals of priests, nuns and preachers. Between 1890 and 1891, the second highest peak was recorded, when 6,500 Italians entered El Salvador, the average age was around 20 to 30 years, and the most numerous occupations were merchants, workers, farmers, priests, nuns, teachers. and architects. The highest peak of Italian immigration in the country occurred between 1900 and 1909, when 10,000 Italians emigrated to the country looking for a better future, 60% were men and 40% women, and the average age was around 20 years. 30 years of age, the most numerous occupations were workers, merchants and some teachers, for 1910 to 1919, more than 6,000 Italians entered El Salvador, this year is distinguished by a growth of immigrants who are women with around 43% and 57% are men, the age varies between 3 years to 50 years, later, between 1920 to 1930, the majority who arrived in the country were engaged in commerce, agriculture and other businesses and activities.

Italian settlements in El SalvadorEdit

The first Italians who entered the country settled in Santa Ana and San Miguel Department (El Salvador). Others settled mainly in the east of the country, in San Miguel Department (El Salvador), Usulután and La Unión Department. In the north of the country, in Chalatenango Department, several groups of Italians also settled.

The southern Italians settled mainly in San Miguel Department (El Salvador), Santa Ana, El Salvador, San Salvador and other departments of the country, where several cities stand out, Santa Tecla, El Salvador was the one that received the greatest demographic weight due to Italian immigration, since it became the capital, they arrived various Italian communities.

The Lucanians, Campanians, Sicilians and Pulleses, had their main destinations in San Salvador, Santa Ana, El Salvador and San Miguel Department (El Salvador), while the northern Italians: the Piedmontese, Veneti, Ligurians and Lombards settled mainly in La Libertad Department (El Salvador), San Salvador, Chalatenango , Santa Ana, El Salvador and San Miguel Department (El Salvador). Several Italians settled in the department of Sonsonate, particularly from Castelnuovo di Conza in the Campania region, and Usulután received several Italian farmers from northern Italy, also in La Unión where several southerners and northerners settled, mainly Piedmontese and Calabrian. In the other departments of the country, minority but visible groups of Italians settled. succeeding in trade and agriculture.

Jewish SalvadoransEdit

There is a small community of Jews who came to El Salvador from France, Germany, Morocco, Tunisia, and Turkey. Some Jews also arrived as World War II refugees.[30]

Since colonial times, there is a record of Jews in Latin America, in El Salvador there is a record of several Jewish immigrations from Portugal, after the independence of El Salvador, it is believed that the first Jewish immigrant was Bernardo Haas, born in Alsace. Subsequently, the first documented German Jew arrived in the country in 1888, according to scholar Jessica Alpert. France and Central Europe were the main countries of origin of this contemporary Jewish migration, the majority were Ashkenazi and Sephardic, they stayed permanently in El Salvador.[31][32]

The immigration laws of El Salvador were very free between 1821 to 1930, however they changed after 1930, but these strict laws culminated in 1940, during the Second World War several Ashkenazi Jewish refugees arrived mainly from Hungary, Germany, Poland, Switzerland, Slovakia and France, giving them several documents of Salvadoran nationality.[33][34][35][36]

At present the Jewish community in El Salvador is quite small, however there are a considerable number of descendants and they have stood out in society, as are several businessmen and politicians of Jewish origin, such as Ernesto Muyshondt,Gabriela Rodríguez de Bukele and Bernard Lewinsky.

Gypsies in El SalvadorEdit

The Gypsy caravans in El Salvador in the 20th century. The city of Santa Tecla, El Salvador was one of the places where there were Gypsy camps in El Salvador in the first decades of the 20th century. On May 7, 1926, newspapers from the city of San Miguel, El Salvador reported that within its urban area there was a nomadic community of Gypsies, who were also called Hungarians or Magyars (for Magyar or Hungary, an area from which they then belonged) believed that they were originally from), Gypsies or "peroleros", a designation due to the huge pots or pans that they always carried in their wagons and with which they prepared community meals between huge wood-fired stoves.

In 1929, the writer Francisco Miranda Ruano would remember "The tired Gypsies of that day" from his distant childhood and whose adventures opened his vocation as a writer. The propagation of theosophical, fascist and national socialist ideas among soldiers and civilians in El Salvador in the 1920s and 1930s created an adverse environment for the periodic arrival of the Gypsy people in El Salvador. The maximum expression of this mental and cultural closure occurred during the dictatorial government of Brigadier Maximiliano Hernández Martínez, issued the Law of Migration that prohibited the entry of Blacks, Arabs, Turks, Chinese and Gypsies into the country. This cause Gypsies in El Salvador to hide their identity.

The Romani Holocaust in Nazi Europe from 1935–1945, killed thousands of Gypsy people. Some of them were able to save themselves from that sad fate, thanks to the thousands of Salvadoran nationality certificates issued, in a clandestine operation, by the Salvadoran consul in Geneva, Colonel José Castellanos Contreras, José Gustavo Guerrero and his Transylvanian-Jewish secretary George Mandel-Mantello.

In the 1980s, the writer Claribel Alegría included the character "The Gypsy" in her novel Alice in the Land of Reality, which functioned as a rebellious and feminist conscience within the literary structure of the work. At the same time, it turned out be a tribute to the Gypsy caravans that once passed through Santa Ana, El Salvador, Sonsonate, El Salvador, Nahulingo, Usulután, Santiago de María, Chalatenango, Chalatenango, San Miguel, El Salvador, La Unión, El Salvador and many towns, streets, cities and other local territories of El Salvador.

More than eight decades after such terrible racist legislation, the Romani language is no longer heard in Salvadoran territory. In the Romani language, the father of the family is called "Shero Rom", and it is theorized that it could be the origin of the Salvadoran word “Chero” to designate a friend.[37][38]

Arab SalvadoransEdit

There is a significant Arab population (of about 100,000);[39] mostly from Palestine (especially from the area of Bethlehem), but also from Lebanon. Salvadorans of Palestinian descent numbered around 70,000 individuals, while Salvadorans of Lebanese descent is around 25,000.[40]

The history of the Arabs in El Salvador dates back to the end of the 19th century, when religious clashes in the Ottoman Empire induced many Palestinians, Lebanese, Egyptians, Tunisians, Algerians, Iraqis, Omani, Saudis and Syrians to leave the land where they were born and travel to El Salvador in search of a place where they could live in relative peace. For similar reasons Turkish people and Persians christians from Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan also arrived to El Salvador around the same time. There were also economic factors that contributed to immigration from the Middle East; many immigrants felt they could achieve success abroad on a level they couldn't in their native lands.

The first wave of Arab migration to El Salvador began between 1880 and 1920, amidst a large scale influx of immigrants to the country. These Arabs settled in the cities of San Salvador, San Miguel, Santa Ana, Santa Tecla, Usulutan and La Union.[41] The population of El Salvador increased from 482,400 in 1879 to 1,168,000 in 1920, with immigration, including immigration from the late Ottoman Empire, substantially driving growth.

Arab immigration in El Salvador began at the end of the 19th century in the wake of the repressive policies applied by the Ottoman Empire against Maronite Catholics. Several of the destinations that the Lebanese chose at that time were in countries of the Americas, including El Salvador. This resulted in the Arab diaspora residents being characterized by forging in devoutly Christian families and very attached to their beliefs, because in these countries they can exercise their faith without fear of persecution, which resulted in the rise of Lebanese-Salvadoran, Syrian-Salvadoran and Palestinian-Salvadoran communities in El Salvador.[42]

Currently, the Palestinian community forms the largest Arab diaspora population in El Salvador, with 70,000 direct descendants, followed by the Lebanese community with more than 27,000 direct descendants. Both are almost entirely composed of Catholic and Orthodox Christians. The slaughter of Lebanese and Palestinian Arab Christians at the hands of Muslims initiated the first Arab migrations to El Salvador.[43]

Inter-ethnic marriage in the Lebanese community with Salvadorans, regardless of religious affiliation, is very high; most have only one father with Lebanese nationality and mother of Salvadoran nationality. As a result, some of them speak Arabic fluently. But most, especially among younger generations, speak Spanish as a first language and Arabic as a second.[44]

During the war between Israel and Lebanon in 1948 and during the Six-Day War, thousands of Lebanese left their country and went to El Salvador. Many arrived at La Libertad, where they comprised half of the economic activity of immigrants.

Lebanon had been an iqta of the Ottoman Empire. Although the imperial administration, whose official religion was Islam, guaranteed freedom of worship for non-Muslim communities, and Lebanon in particular had a semi-autonomous status, the situation for practitioners of the Maronite Catholic Church was complicated, since they had to cancel exaggerated taxes and suffered limitations for their culture. These tensions were expressed in a rebellion in 1821 and a war against the Druze in 1860. The hostile climate caused many Lebanese to sell their property and take ships in the ports of Sidon, Beirut and Tripoli heading for the Americas.

Arab-Salvadoreans and their descendants have traditionally played an outsized role in El Salvador's economic and political life, with many becoming business leaders and noteworthyt political figures.

In 1939, the Arab community based in San Salvador organized and founded the "Arab Youth Union Society"[45]

Vital statisticsEdit

UN estimatesEdit

The Population Department of the United Nations prepared the following estimates.[4]

Period Live births
per year
Deaths
per year
Natural change
per year
CBR* CDR* NC* TFR* IMR* Life expectancy
total
Life expectancy
males
Life expectancy
females
1950-1955 108 000 48 000 61 000 46.7 20.6 26.1 6.30 147 45.1 43.4 46.8
1955-1960 125 000 46 000 78 000 47.8 17.8 30.0 6.60 132 49.3 47.2 51.5
1960-1965 144 000 47 000 97 000 47.7 15.5 32.3 6.76 119 53.0 50.5 55.7
1965-1970 156 000 47 000 109 000 44.8 13.5 31.3 6.43 109 55.6 52.6 58.9
1970-1975 168 000 49 000 119 000 42.1 12.3 29.8 5.95 100 57.0 53.2 61.2
1975-1980 177 000 52 000 124 000 39.7 11.8 27.9 5.46 91 57.0 51.9 62.7
1980-1985 174 000 55 000 119 000 36.1 11.4 24.7 4.80 77 56.9 50.6 64.2
1985-1990 171 000 44 000 126 000 33.0 8.6 24.4 4.20 56 63.1 57.4 69.1
1990-1995 169 000 37 000 132 000 30.5 6.8 23.8 3.73 38 68.0 63.3 72.9
1995-2000 161 000 38 000 123 000 27.5 6.6 20.9 3.30 27 69.2 64.4 73.9
2000-2005 133 000 75 000 94 000 22.7 6.7 16.0 2.72 23 70.2 65.4 74.9
2005-2010 127 000 90 000 87 000 20.4 6.8 13.6 2.40 21 71.3 66.5 75.9
2010-2015 19.1 6.9 12.2 2.17
2015-2020 18.4 7.0 11.4 2.05
2020-2025 17.2 7.2 10.0 1.96
2025-2030 15.6 7.4 8.2 1.87
* CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births; TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman)

Registered dataEdit

Average population [46] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1940 1,633,000 74,637 45.7
1941 1,654,000 72,376 43.8
1942 1,675,000 71,414 42.6
1943 1,697,000 71,554 42.2
1944 1,719,000 72,590 42.2
1945 1,742,000 74,660 42.9
1946 1,764,000 72,042 30,996 41,046 40.8 17.6 23.2
1947 1,788,000 84,330 30,719 53,611 47.2 17.2 30.0
1948 1,811,000 80,770 30,527 50,243 44.6 16.9 27.7
1949 1,835,000 84,839 28,339 56,500 46.2 15.4 30.8
1950 2,200,000 90,557 27,454 63,103 41.2 12.5 28.7
1951 2,237,000 93,634 29,030 64,604 41.8 13.0 28.9
1952 2,280,000 96,802 32,423 64,379 42.5 14.2 28.2
1953 2,327,000 98,474 30,280 68,194 42.3 13.0 29.3
1954 2,378,000 102,009 31,810 70,199 42.9 13.4 29.5
1955 2,433,000 105,040 31,151 73,889 43.2 12.8 30.4
1956 2,491,000 106,539 28,127 78,412 42.8 11.3 31.5
1957 2,553,000 114,929 32,893 82,036 45.0 12.9 32.1
1958 2,621,000 115,154 32,831 82,323 43.9 12.5 31.4
1959 2,694,000 115,622 30,038 85,584 42.9 11.1 31.8
1960 2,773,000 121,403 28,768 92,635 43.8 10.4 33.4
1961 2,859,000 124,871 28,471 96,400 43.7 10.0 33.7
1962 2,951,000 127,154 30,342 96,812 43.1 10.3 32.8
1963 3,047,000 133,395 29,614 103,781 43.8 9.7 34.1
1964 3,145,000 133,072 29,496 103,576 42.3 9.4 32.9
1965 3,244,000 137,430 30,906 106,524 42.4 9.5 32.8
1966 3,342,000 137,950 30,368 107,582 41.3 9.1 32.2
1967 3,440,000 139,955 28,957 110,998 40.7 8.4 32.2
1968 3,537,000 140,986 29,863 111,123 39.8 8.4 31.4
1969 3,636,000 142,699 33,655 109,044 39.2 9.2 29.9
1970 3,736,000 141,471 35,094 106,377 37.8 9.4 28.4
1971 3,836,000 154,309 28,752 125,557 40.2 7.5 32.7
1972 3,938,000 153,464 32,383 121,081 38.9 8.2 30.7
1973 4,038,000 155,632 31,865 123,767 38.5 7.9 30.6
1974 4,137,000 158,524 30,494 128,030 38.3 7.4 30.9
1975 4,232,000 159,731 31,601 128,130 37.7 7.5 30.3
1976 4,325,000 165,822 30,826 134,996 38.3 7.1 31.2
1977 4,414,000 177,531 33,009 144,522 40.2 7.5 32.7
1978 4,500,000 172,897 30,086 142,811 38.4 6.7 31.7
1979 4,582,000 174,183 32,936 141,247 38.0 7.2 30.8
1980 4,661,000 169,930 38,967 130,963 36.4 8.4 28.1
1981 4,734,000 163,305 37,468 125,837 34.5 7.9 26.6
1982 4,805,000 156,796 33,284 123,512 32.6 6.9 25.7
1983 4,872,000 144,193 32,697 111,496 29.6 6.7 22.9
1984 4,938,000 142,202 28,854 113,348 28.8 5.8 23.0
1985 5,004,000 139,514 27,225 112,289 27.9 5.4 22.5
1986 5,069,000 145,126 25,731 119,395 28.7 5.1 23.6
1987 5,134,000 148,355 27,581 120,774 28.9 5.4 23.6
1988 5,200,000 149,299 27,774 121,525 28.8 5.4 23.4
1989 5,269,000 151,859 27,768 124,091 28.9 5.3 23.6
1990 5,344,000 148,360 28,195 120,165 27.8 5.3 22.5
1991 5,425,000 151,210 27,066 124,144 27.9 5.0 22.9
1992 5,511,000 154,014 27,869 126,145 27.9 5.1 22.9
1993 5,597,000 168,000 38,000 130,000 30.0 6.8 23.2
1994 5,678,000 160,772 29,407 131,365 28.3 5.2 23.1
1995 5,748,000 159,336 29,130 130,206 27.7 5.1 22.7
1996 5,807,000 163,007 28,904 134,103 28.1 5.0 23.1
1997 5,855,000 164,143 29,118 135,025 28.0 5.0 23.1
1998 5,895,000 158,350 29,919 128,431 26.9 5.1 21.8
1999 5,929,000 153,636 28,056 125,580 25.9 4.7 21.2
2000 5,959,000 150,176 28,154 122,022 25.2 4.7 20.5
2001 5,985,000 138,354 29,959 108,395 23.1 5.0 18.1
2002 6,008,000 129,363 27,458 101,905 21.5 4.6 17.0
2003 6,029,000 124,476 29,377 95,099 20.6 4.9 15.8
2004 6,050,000 119,710 30,058 89,652 19.8 5.0 14.8
2005 6,073,000 112,769 30,933 81,836 18.6 5.1 13.5
2006 6,097,000 107,111 31,453 75,658 17.6 5.2 12.4
2007 6,123,000 106,471 31,349 75,122 17.4 5.1 12.3 2.4
2008 6,152,000 111,278 31,594 79,684 18.1 5.1 13.0
2009 6,183,000 107,880 32,872 75,008 17.5 5.3 12.2
2010 6,218,000 104,939 32,586 72,353 17.0 5.3 11.7
2011 6,256,000 109,384 33,211 76,173 17.6 5.3 12.3
2012 6,221,000 110,843 32,148 78,695 17.7 5.1 12.6 2.3
2013 6,251,000 109,617 34,212 75,405 17.4 5.4 12.0 2.2
2014 6,281,000 108,712 37,461 71,442 17.2 5.9 11.3
2015 6,312,000 107,885 40,869 67,016 17.1 6.5 10.6
2016 6,345,000 96,287 41,459 55,368 15.2 6.5 8.7
2017 93,728 39,835 53,893
2018 92,170 38,595 53,575 13.9 6.1 7.8
2019 40,666 6.3

Structure of the populationEdit

Structure of the population (May 2007 census):

Age group Male Female Total %
Total[46] 2 719 371 3 024 742 5 744 113 100
0-4 283 272 272 621 555 893 9.68
5-9 349 150 335 577 684 727 11.92
10-14 359 523 346 824 706 347 12.30
15-19 298 384 302 181 600 565 10.46
20-24 228 001 258 541 486 542 8.47
25-29 206 963 250 927 457 890 7.97
30-34 178 400 223 849 402 249 7.00
35-39 156 514 196 633 353 147 6.15
40-44 132 218 171 413 303 631 5.29
45-49 109 957 142 165 252 122 4.39
50-54 95 275 120 459 215 734 3.76
55-59 81 718 101 357 183 075 3.19
60-64 68 207 83 657 151 864 2.64
65-69 55 781 69 376 125 157 2.18
70-74 43 449 54 008 97 457 1.70
75-79 33 658 42 326 75 984 1.32
80-84 20 401 26 469 46 870 0.82
85+ 18 500 26 359 44 859 0.78
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 991 945 955 022 1 946 967 33.89
15-64 1 555 637 1 851 182 3 406 819 59.31
65+ 171 789 218 538 390 327 6.80

Structure of the population (July 2011; estimates based on the 2007 census trends):

Age group Male Female Total %
Total 2 925 284 3 290 858 6 216 143 100
0-4 309 786 296 430 606 216 9.75
5-9 308 052 294 483 602 535 9.69
10-14 362 232 348 111 710 343 11.43
15-19 352 598 350 791 703 389 11.32
20-24 276 109 305 559 581 668 9.36
25-29 209 615 261 340 470 955 7.58
30-34 180 198 235 412 415 609 6.69
35-39 168 638 219 197 387 835 6.24
40-44 149 955 194 952 344 907 5.55
45-49 127 846 167 719 295 565 4.75
50-54 108 714 140 978 249 692 4.02
55-59 93 682 119 911 213 593 3.44
60-64 78 899 100 625 179 525 2.89
65-69 65 846 82 450 148 295 2.39
70-74 52 993 66 934 119 928 1.93
75-79 38 678 49 603 88 281 1.42
80+ 41 443 56 363 97 806 1.57
Age group Male Female Total Percent
0-14 980 070 939 024 1 919 094 30.87
15-64 1 746 254 2 096 484 3 842 738 61.82
65+ 198 960 255 350 454 310 7.31

Other demographic statisticsEdit

Demographic statistics according to the World Population Review in 2022.[47]

  • One birth every 5 minutes
  • One death every 11 minutes
  • One net migrant every 15 minutes
  • Net gain of one person every 17 minutes

Demographic statistics according to the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.[48]

PopulationEdit

6,568,745 (2022 est.)
6,187,271 (July 2018 est.)

Ethnic groupsEdit

Mestizo 86.3%, White 12.7%, Amerindian 0.2% (includes Lenca, Kakawira, Nahua-Pipil), Black 0.1%, other 0.6% (2007 est.)

Age structureEdit

 
Population pyramid of El Salvador in 2020
0-14 years: 25.83% (male 857,003/female 817,336)
15-24 years: 18.82% (male 619,368/female 600,501)
25-54 years: 40.51% (male 1,221,545/female 1,404,163)
55-64 years: 7.23% (male 198,029/female 270,461)
65 years and over: 7.6% (2020 est.) (male 214,717/female 277,979)
0-14 years: 25.3% (male 802,813 /female 762,852)
15-24 years: 19.88% (male 619,550 /female 610,725)
25-54 years: 39.8% (male 1,143,226 /female 1,319,138)
55-64 years: 7.32% (male 198,513 /female 254,640)
65 years and over: 7.69% (male 208,817 /female 266,997) (2018 est.)

Demographic profileEdit

El Salvador is the smallest and most densely populated country in Central America. It is well into its demographic transition, experiencing slower population growth, a decline in its number of youths, and the gradual aging of its population. The increased use of family planning has substantially lowered El Salvador's fertility rate, from approximately 6 children per woman in the 1970s to replacement level today. A 2008 national family planning survey showed that female sterilization remained the most common contraception method in El Salvador - its sterilization rate is among the highest in Latin America and the Caribbean - but that the use of injectable contraceptives is growing. Fertility differences between rich and poor and urban and rural women are narrowing.[1]

Birth rateEdit

17.87 births/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 84th
16.1 births/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 111st

Death rateEdit

5.91 deaths/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163th
5.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 173rd

Total fertility rateEdit

2.05 children born/woman (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 99th
1.84 children born/woman (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 146th

Population growth rateEdit

0.57% (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 149th
0.25% (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 177th

Median ageEdit

total: 27.7 years. Country comparison to the world: 145th
male: 26.2 years
female: 29.3 years (2020 est.)
total: 27.6 years. Country comparison to the world: 143rd
male: 26.1 years
female: 29.1 years (2018 est.)

Net migration rateEdit

-6.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2022 est.) Country comparison to the world: 211th
-7.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.) Country comparison to the world: 210th

Mother's mean age at first birthEdit

20.8 years (2008 est.)
note: median age at first birth among women 25-29

Contraceptive prevalence rateEdit

71.9% (2014)

Dependency ratiosEdit

total dependency ratio: 56.8 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 44.4 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 12.4 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 8 (2015 est.)

Life expectancy at birthEdit

total population: 75.37 years. Country comparison to the world: 123rd
male: 71.88 years
female: 79.04 years (2022 est.)
total population: 75.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 114th
male: 71.8 years
female: 78.6 years (2018 est.)

UrbanizationEdit

urban population: 72% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 1.57% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)

LanguagesEdit

ReligionsEdit

Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 36%, other 2%, none 12% (2014 est.)

Education expendituresEdit

3.4% of GDP (2019) Country comparison to the world: 129th

LiteracyEdit

definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2016 est.)

total population: 89.1%
male: 91.3%
female: 87.3% (2019)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education)Edit

total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2016)

Unemployment, youth ages 15-24Edit

total: 10%
male: 8.3%
female: 12.8% (2019)

Major infectious diseasesEdit

degree of risk: high (2020)
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever

NationalityEdit

  • Noun: Salvadoran(s)
  • Adjective: Salvadoran

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b   This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain: "The World Factbook — Central Intelligence Agency". Cia.gov. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects 2022". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved July 17, 2022.
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  4. ^ a b "Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision". Esa.un.org. Retrieved 4 October 2017.
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  8. ^ "U.S. Census website". Retrieved 2011-04-25.
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