Gwangju Uprising

  (Redirected from Democratization Movement)

The Gwangju Uprising was a popular uprising in the city of Gwangju, South Korea, from May 18 to May 27, 1980 in which it is estimated that around 2,000 people were killed.[2] During this period, Gwangju citizens took up arms (by robbing local armories and police stations) after local Chonnam University students who were demonstrating against the martial law government were fired upon, killed, raped and beaten by government troops.[3][4][5] The event is sometimes called 5·18 (May 18; Korean오일팔; Hanja五一八; RROilpal), in reference to the date the movement began. The uprising is also known as the Gwangju Democratization Struggle (Korean광주 민주화 항쟁; Hanja光州民主化抗爭), the May 18 Democratic Uprising,[6] or the May 18 Gwangju Democratization Movement[7] (Korean5·18 광주 민주화 운동; Hanja五一八光州民主化運動)

Gwangju Democratization Movement
Part of the Minjung movement and the Cold War
May 18th Memorial Monument.jpg
May 18th Minjung Struggle Memorial Tower
DateMay 18, 1980 (1980-05-18) – May 27, 1980; 40 years ago (1980-05-27)
Caused by
MethodsProtest marches and civil disobedience, later armed uprising
Resulted inUprising of pro-democracy movement; several civilian and military casualties
Parties to the civil conflict
Gwangju citizenry

South Korean army

  • ROKA SWC (was known as the "Airborne unit" at the time)

South Korean police

  • Jeollanam-do (Jeonnam) Provincial Police Agency
Lead figures
Decentralized leadership, subsequently Settlement Committees Chun Doo-hwan
Roh Tae-Woo
Jeong Ho-yong
Lee Hee-seong
Hwang Yeong-si
Ju Yeong-bok[1]
Casualties and losses
165 killed, 76 missing, 3,515 injured[citation needed]
41 killed (37 soldiers, 4 police officers) and 253 wounded (109 soldiers, 144 police officers); 14 soldiers killed by mistaken shootings[citation needed]
Up to 2,000; see Casualties section.

Support for or denial of the Gwangju Uprising has long acted as a litmus test between conservative and far-right groups and beliefs, and mainstream and progressive sectors of the population. The far-right groups have sought to discredit the uprising. One such argument points to the fact that it occurred before Chun Doo-hwan officially took office, and so contend that it could not really have been a simple student protest against him that started it; however, Chun Doo-hwan had become the de facto leader of South Korea at that time since coming into power on December 12, 1979, after leading a successful military coup of the previous South Korean government.[8][9]

During Chun Doo-hwan's presidency, the authorities defined the incident as a rebellion instigated by Communist sympathizers and rioters.[10] By 1997, a national cemetery and day of commemoration (May 18), along with acts to "compensate, and restore honor" to victims, were established.[11]

In 2011, 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime located in Gwangju's city hall were inscribed on the UNESCO Memory of the World Register.


A series of democratic movements in South Korea began with the assassination of President Park Chung-hee on October 26, 1979. The abrupt termination of Park's 18-year authoritarian rule left a power vacuum and led to political and social instability.[12] While President Choi Kyu-hah, the successor to the Presidency after Park's death, had no dominant control over the government, South Korean Army major general Chun Doo-hwan, the chief of the Defense Security Command, seized military power through the Coup d'état of December Twelfth and tried to intervene in domestic issues. The military however could not explicitly reveal its political ambitions and had no obvious influence over the civil administration before the mass civil unrest in May 1980.[13]

The nation's democratization movements, which had been suppressed during Park's tenure, were being revived. With the beginning of a new semester in March 1980, professors and students expelled for pro-democracy activities returned to their universities, and student unions were formed. These unions led nationwide demonstrations for reforms, including an end to martial law (declared after Park's assassination), democratization, human rights, minimum wage demands and freedom of press.[14] These activities culminated in the anti-martial law demonstration at Seoul Station on May 15, 1980 in which about 100,000 students and citizens participated.

In response, Chun Doo-hwan took several suppressive measures. On May 17, he forced the Cabinet to extend martial law to the whole nation, which had previously not applied to Jeju Province. The extended martial law closed universities, banned political activities and further curtailed the press. To enforce martial law, troops were dispatched to various[which?] parts of the country. On the same day, the Defense Security Command raided a national conference of student union leaders from 55 universities, who were gathered to discuss their next moves in the wake of the May 15 demonstration. Twenty-six politicians, including South Jeolla Province native Kim Dae-jung, were also arrested on charges of instigating demonstrations.

Ensuing strife was focused in South Jeolla Province, particularly in the then-provincial capital, Gwangju, for complex political and geographical reasons. These factors were both deep and contemporary:

[The Jeolla, or Honam] region is the granary of Korea. However, due to its abundant natural resources, the Jeolla area has historically been the target for exploitation by both domestic and foreign powers.[15]

Oppositional protest had existed in Korea historically – especially in the South Jeolla Province region – during the Donghak Peasant Revolution, Gwangju Students Movement, Yeosu–Suncheon Rebellion, regional resistance to the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), and more recently under the Third Republic of South Korea and Fourth Republic of South Korea, as can be seen by the excerpts below:

Park Chung Hee's dictatorship had showered economic and political favors on his native Gyeongsang Province in the southeast, at the expense of the Jeolla region of the southwest. The latter became the real hotbed of political opposition to the dictatorship, which in turn led to more discrimination from the centre. Finally, in May 1980 the city of Gwangju in South Jeolla province exploded in a popular uprising against the new military strongman, General Chun Doo Hwan, who responded with a bloodbath that killed hundreds of Gwangju's citizens.[16]

The city of Kwangju was subject to particularly severe and violent repression by the military after [nationwide] martial law was imposed. The denial of democracy and the heightening authoritarianism that accompanied the coming to power of Chun Doo Hwan to replace Park prompted nation-wide protests which, because of Cholla's [Jeolla's] historical legacy of dissent and radicalism, were most intense in that region.[17]


May 18–21Edit

The former South Jeolla provincial office building

On the morning of May 18, students gathered at the gate of Chonnam National University, in defiance of its closing. By 9:30 am, around 200 students had arrived; they were opposed by 30 paratroopers. At around 10 am, soldiers and students clashed: soldiers charged the students; students threw stones. The protest then moved to the downtown, Geumnamno (the street leading to the Jeollanamdo Provincial Office), area. There the conflict broadened, to around 2000 participants by afternoon. Initially, police handled the Geumnamno protests; at 4 pm, though, the ROK Special Warfare Command (SWC) sent paratroopers to take over. The arrival of these 686 soldiers, from the 33rd and 35th battalions of the 7th Airborne Brigade, marked a new, violent, and now infamous phase of suppression.[18]

May 18th Movement Archives

Witnesses say soldiers clubbed both demonstrators and onlookers. Testimonies, photographs, and internal records attest to the use of bayonets. The first known fatality was a 29-year-old deaf man named Kim Gyeong-cheol, who was clubbed to death on May 18 while passing by the scene. As citizens were infuriated by the violence, the number of protesters rapidly increased and exceeded 10,000 by May 20.

As the conflict escalated, the army began to fire on citizens, killing an unknown number near Gwangju Station on May 20. That same day, angered protesters burned down the local MBC station, which had misreported the situation then unfolding in Gwangju (acknowledging only one civilian casualty, for example).[19] Four policemen were killed at a police barricade near the Provincial Government Building after a car rammed into them.[20]

On the night of May 20, hundreds of taxis led a large parade of buses, trucks, and cars toward the Provincial Office to meet the protest. These "drivers of democracy" showed up to support the citizens and the demonstration because of troop brutality witnessed earlier in the day. As the drivers joined in the demonstration, troops used tear gas on them, and pulled them out of their vehicles and beat them. This in turn led more drivers to come to the scene in anger after many taxi drivers were assaulted when trying to assist the injured and while taking people to the hospital. Some were shot after the drivers attempted to use the vehicles as weapons or to block soldiers.[21]

The violence climaxed on May 21. At about 1 pm, the army fired at a protesting crowd gathered in front of the Chonnam Provincial Office, causing casualties. In response, some protesters raided armories and police stations in nearby towns and armed themselves with M1 rifles and carbines. Later that afternoon, bloody gunfights between civilian militias and the army broke out in the Provincial Office Square. By 5:30 pm, militias had acquired two light machine guns and used them against the army, which began to retreat from the downtown area.

May 22–25Edit

Blockade of Gwangju, and further atrocitiesEdit

At this point, all troops retreated to suburban areas to wait for reinforcements. The army blocked all routes and communications leading into and out of the city. Although there was a lull in fighting between militias and the army, more casualties were incurred on May 23 when soldiers fired at a bus that attempted to break out of the city in Jiwon-dong, killing 17 of the 18 passengers. The following day, soldiers mistook boys swimming in the Wonje reservoir for an attempted crossing and opened fire on them, resulting in one death. Later that day, the army suffered its heaviest casualties when troops mistakenly fired at each other in Songam-dong.

Settlement CommitteesEdit

Meanwhile, in the "liberated" city of Gwangju, the Citizens' Settlement Committee and the Students' Settlement Committee were formed. The former was composed of about 20 preachers, lawyers and professors. They negotiated with the army, demanding the release of arrested citizens, compensation for victims, and prohibition of retaliation in exchange for disarmament of militias. The latter was formed by university students, and took charge of funerals, public campaigns, traffic control, withdrawal of weapons, and medical aid.

Order in the city was well maintained, but negotiations came to a deadlock as the army urged the militias to immediately disarm themselves. This issue caused division within the Settlement Committees; some wanted immediate surrender, while others called for continued resistance until their demands were met. After heated debates, those calling for continued resistance eventually took control.

Protests in other regionsEdit

As the news of the bloody crackdown spread, further protests against the government broke out in nearby regions, including Hwasun, Naju, Haenam, Mokpo, Yeongam, Gangjin, and Muan. While protests ended peacefully in most regions, in Haenam there were gunfights between armed protesters and troops.[citation needed] By May 24, most of these protests had died down; in Mokpo, protests continued until May 28.

May 26Edit

By May 26, the army was ready to reenter Gwangju. Members of the Citizens' Settlement Committee unsuccessfully tried to block the army's advance by lying down in the streets. As the news of the imminent attack spread, civil militias gathered in the Provincial Office, preparing for a last stand.

May 27Edit

At 4:00 a.m., troops from five divisions moved into the downtown area and defeated the civil militias within 90 minutes.


Mangwol-dong cemetery in Gwangju where victims' bodies were buried

There is no universally accepted death toll for the 1980 Gwangju Uprising. Official figures released by the Martial Law Command[when?] put the death toll at 144 rioters/civilians, 22 troops and four police killed, with 127 rioters/civilians, 109 troops and 144 police wounded. Individuals who attempted to dispute these figures were liable for arrest for "spreading false rumors".[22]

However, Gwangju's records of death in May 1980 were 2,300 above the monthly average.[23] According to the May 18 Bereaved Family Association, at least 165 people died between May 18 and 27. Another 76 are still missing and presumed dead. Twenty-three soldiers and four policemen were killed during the uprising, including 13 soldiers killed in the friendly-fire incident between troops in Songam-dong. Figures for police casualties are likely to be higher, due to reports of several policemen being killed by soldiers for releasing captured rioters.[24]

The official figures have been criticized by some as being too low. Based on reports by foreign press sources and critics of the Chun Doo-hwan administration, it has been argued that the actual death toll was in the 1,000 to 2,000 range.[25][26]


Memorial Hall in the May 18th National Cemetery in Gwangju where victims' bodies were buried

The government denounced the uprising as a rebellion instigated by Kim Dae-jung and his followers. In subsequent trials, Kim was convicted and sentenced to death, although his punishment was later reduced in response to international outcries.[27] Overall, 1,394 people were arrested for involvement in the Gwangju incident, and 427 were indicted. Among them, 7 received death sentences and 12 received life sentences.

137 victims were carried in handcarts and garbage trucks to be buried at the Old Mangweol-dong Cemetery located on the outskirts of Gwangju. A New Mangweol-dong Cemetery was created by the state to educate on and commemorate Gwangju's history.

The Gwangju Uprising had a profound impact on South Korean politics and history. Chun Doo-hwan already had popularity problems due to his taking power through a military coup, but authorizing the dispatch of Special Forces against citizens damaged his legitimacy even further. The movement also paved the way for later movements in the 1980s that eventually brought democracy to South Korea. The Gwangju Uprising has become a symbol of South Koreans' struggle against authoritarian regimes and for democracy.

Beginning in 2000, the May 18 Memorial Foundation has offered an annual Gwangju Prize for Human Rights to a notable human rights defender in memory of the uprising.[28]

On May 25, 2011, the documents of Gwangju Uprising were listed as a 'UNESCO Memory of the World.’ (The official registration name of these documents is 'Human Rights Documentary Heritage 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime, in Gwangju, Republic of Korea.')[29] It then became clear that there was an urgent need to systematically collect and preserve these documents. Gwangju Metropolitan City government then decided to establish May 18 Archives[30] by legislating an ordinance known as the 'Management Act on the Archives of May 18 Gwangju Democratization Movement.[31] Since then, the Gwangju Metropolitan City government decided to re-model the former Gwangju Catholic center building for record conservation. The construction of this facility started in 2014 and was completed in 2015.


At the Mangwol-dong cemetery in Gwangju where victims' bodies were buried, survivors of the democratization movement and bereaved families have held an annual memorial service on May 18 every year since 1980 called the May Movement (O-wol Undong).[32] Many pro-democracy demonstrations in the 1980s demanded official recognition of the truth of the uprising and punishment for those responsible.

Official reevaluation began after the reinstatement of direct presidential elections in 1987. In 1988, the National Assembly held a public hearing on the Gwangju Uprising and officially renamed the incident the Gwangju Uprising. While the official renaming occurred in 1987, it can also be found translated into English as "Gwangju People's Uprising".

In 1995, as public pressure mounted, the National Assembly passed the Special Law on May 18 Democratization Movement, which enabled prosecution of those responsible for the December 12 coup d'état and Gwangju Uprising although the statute of limitations had run out. In 1996, eight politicians were indicted for high treason and the massacre. Their punishments were settled in 1997, including a death sentence, which was changed to a life sentence, for Chun Doo-hwan. Former President Roh Tae-Woo, Chun's successor and fellow participant in the December 12 coup, was also sentenced to life in prison. However, all convicts were pardoned in the name of national reconciliation on December 22 by President Kim Young-sam, based on advice from President-elect Kim Dae-Jung.

In 1997, May 18 was declared an official memorial day. In 2002, a law privileging bereaved families took effect, and the Mangwol-dong cemetery was elevated to the status of a national cemetery.

On May 18, 2013, President Park Geun-hye attended the 33rd anniversary of the Gwangju uprising and stated, "I feel the sorrow of family members and the city of Gwangju every time I visit the National May 18 Cemetery", and that "I believe achieving a more mature democracy is a way to repay the sacrifice paid by those [killed in the massacre]."[33]

2017 investigationEdit

In May 2017, newly elected South Korean President Moon Jae-in vowed to reopen the investigation into the South Korean government's role in the suppression of the uprising.[34]

In February 2018, it was revealed for the first time that the army had used McDonnell Douglas MD 500 Defender and Bell UH-1 Iroquois helicopters to fire on civilians. Defense Minister Song Young-moo made an apology.[35][36]

On November 7, 2018, Defense Minister Jeong Kyeong-doo issued an apology for the South Korean military's role in suppressing the uprising and acknowledged that soldiers had engaged in acts of sexual violence during the crackdown as well.[37][38]

Kim Yong-jang, a former intelligence officer at the 501st Military Intelligence Brigade of the U.S. Army was found to be a witness for the first time in 39 years in 2019. He stated in an interview on 14 March 2019 "On May 21, 1980, Chun, fired near the Jeonil Building in the heart of Gwangju and in Yanglim-dong, upstream of Gwangju. The helicopter aircraft I used at that time was remembered as UH-1H and the machine gun as M60 and reported so. I have testified. Then again, this is an obvious fact. Soon after the former president returned to Seoul by helicopter, a mass shooting and shooting took place in front of the Gwangju Metropolitan Government, and delivered the information to the U.S. defense department."[39] In May 2019, Kim reiterated that Chun Doo-hwan personally ordered troops to shoot protesters based on the intelligence he saw at the time and Chun secretly came to Gwangju on May 21, 1980, by helicopter to meet four military leaders including Chung Ho-yong, then-commander of special operations, and Lee Jae-woo, then-colonel of the Gwangju 505 security unit. Kim also said there were undercover soldiers among the Gwangju citizens acting as agents provocateurs to discredit the movement. The soldiers were "in their 20s and 30s with short hair, some wearing wigs" and "Their faces were burnt and some wore worn-out clothes".[40][41]

2020 Truth CommissionEdit

In May 2020, 40 years after the uprising, the independent May 18 Democratization Movement Truth Commission was launched to investigate the crackdown and use of military force. Under legislation passed in 2018, it would operate for two years, with a one-year extension allowed if necessary.[42]

In an interview held to mark the 40th anniversary, President Moon announced his support for inscribing the historic value and significance of the May 18 Democratization Movement in a new constitution of South Korea following the liberals' landslide victory in the National Assembly elections.[43]

In popular cultureEdit


  • Human Acts (novel) by Han Kang, translated by Deborah Smith, Portobello Books, (January 6, 2016). ISBN 978-1-8462-7596-8 [44]
  • The Old Garden (novel) by Hwang Sok-yong, translated by Jay Oh, Seven Stories Press (June 1, 2009). ISBN 978-1-5832-2836-4
  • I'll Be Right There (novel) by Shin Kyung-sook, translated by Sora Kim-Russell, Other Press (June 3, 2014). ISBN 978-1-1019-0672-9
  • There a Petal Silently Falls: Three Stories by Ch'oe Yun, translated by Bruce Fulton and Ju-Chan Fulton, Columbia University Press (May 31, 2008). ISBN 0-231-14296-X[45]
  • The Seed of Joy (novel) by William Amos ISBN 978-1-5176-2456-9
  • Dance Dance Revolution (poetry) by Cathy Park Hong, W. W. Norton Company (May 17, 2007). ISBN 978-0-3930-6484-1


  • "518-062" by D-Town (production by Suga)
  • "Ma City" by BTS
  • "Exemplum in memoriam Kwangju" for large orchestra by Isang Yun



Music videosEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ South Korean Supreme Court of South Korea
  2. ^ "Archived copy" 5월단체, "5.18 관련 사망자 606명" (in Korean). Yeonhap News. May 13, 2005. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. Retrieved May 25, 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  3. ^ "Gwangju apology: South Korea sorry for 'rape and torture' by troops". South China Morning Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
  4. ^ Sallie Yea, "Rewriting Rebellion and Mapping Memory in South Korea: The (Re)presentation of the 1980 Kwangju Uprising through Mangwol-dong Cemetery," Urban Studies, Vol. 39, no. 9, (2002): 1556–1557
  5. ^ Patricia Ebrey et al., "East Asia: A Cultural, Social, and Political History (Second Edition)" United States: Wadsworth Cengage Learning (2009): 500
  6. ^ "Human Rights Documentary Heritage 1980 Archives for the May 18th Democratic Uprising against Military Regime, in Gwangju, Republic of Korea". UNESCO. Archived from the original on October 30, 2012. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
  7. ^ Embassy of the United States in Seoul. "South Korea Current Issues > Backgrounder". Archived from the original on March 31, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2013.
  8. ^ Sallie Yea, "Rewriting Rebellion and Mapping Memory in South Korea: The (Re)presentation of the 1980 Kwangju Uprising through Mangwol-dong Cemetery," Urban Studies, Vol. 39, no. 9, (2002): 1556
  9. ^ "Dying for democracy: 1980 Gwangju uprising transformed South Korea," The Japan Times, May 17, 2014: Archived August 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ "TV shows tarnish Gwangju history," Joong Ang Daily, May 21, 2013: Archived August 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  11. ^ May, The Triumph of Democracy. Ed. Shin Bok-jin, Hwang Chong-gun, Kim Jun-tae, Na Kyung-taek, Kim Nyung-man, Ko Myung-jin. Gwangju: May 18 Memorial Foundation, 2004. p. 275.
  12. ^ "Yet Another Assessment of ROK Stability and Political Development" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on November 10, 2015.
  13. ^ Scott-Stokes, Henry (April 10, 1980). "South Korea Leader Voices Worry On Student Unrest; 'Students Are Waking Up Again'". The New York Times. Archived from the original on August 10, 2016. Retrieved February 8, 2017.
  14. ^ May, The Triumph of Democracy. Ed. Shin Bok-jin, Hwang Chong-gun, Kim Jun-tae, Na Kyung-taek, Kim Nyung-man, Ko Myung-jin. Gwangju: May 18 Memorial Foundation, 2004. p. 22.
  15. ^ Documentary 518. Produced by May 18 Memorial Foundation. See also Ahn Jean. "The socio-economic background of the Gwangju Uprising," in South Korean Democracy: Legacy of the Gwangju Uprising. Ed. Georgy Katsiaficas and Na Kahn-chae. London and New York: Routledge, 2006.
  16. ^ Armstrong, Charles. "Contesting the Peninsula". New Left Review 51. London: 2008. p. 118.
  17. ^ Sallie Yea, "Rewriting Rebellion and Mapping Memory in South Korea: The (Re)presentation of the 1980 Kwangju Uprising through Mangwol-dong Cemetery", Urban Studies, Vol. 39, No. 9, (2002): 1557
  18. ^ History of the 5.18 Democratic Uprising, Volume 1. The May 18 Memorial Foundation. Gwangju, 2008. pp. 236–239. ISBN 978-89-954173-1-7.
  19. ^ Documentary 518. Produced by May 18 Memorial Foundation.
  20. ^ "Research". The Heritage Foundation. Archived from the original on February 22, 2008.
  21. ^ Lewis 2002.
  22. ^ Chung, Kun Sik. "The Kwangju Popular Uprising and the May Publisher". Archived from the original on February 7, 2009.
  23. ^ History of Korea Roger Tennant
  24. ^ Katsiaficas, George (September 19, 2006). "The Gwangju uprising, 1980". Archived from the original on September 18, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017.
  25. ^ Plunk, Daryl M. "South Korea's Kwangju Incident Revisited". Asian Studies Backgrounder No. 35 (September 16) 1985: p. 5.
  26. ^ "Flashback: The Kwangju massacre". BBC News. May 17, 2000. Archived from the original on September 7, 2011. Retrieved October 12, 2011.
  27. ^ "The National Security Archive". Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  28. ^ "Gwangju Prize for Human Rights". May 18 Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on June 3, 2011. Retrieved April 24, 2011.
  29. ^ "UNESCO Memory of the world registration process of the documents of May 18 Gwangju Democratic Uprising". May 18 Archives. Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved January 3, 2018.
  30. ^ "The May 18 Democratic Archive". Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  31. ^ "5·18 민주화운동 기록관 > 기록관소개 > 관련규정". Archived from the original on January 4, 2018. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
  32. ^ "Course: Topics in Asian American Themes: Re-imagining Global Korea: Art of Protest and Social Change". Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved April 29, 2019.
  33. ^ Kang Jin-kyu (May 20, 2013). "Park attends memorial of Gwangju massacre". Joongang Daily. Archived from the original on June 15, 2013. Retrieved May 20, 2013.
  34. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved November 8, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  35. ^ Herald, The Korea (February 7, 2018). "Panel confirms Army helicopters fired at protestors during Gwangju uprising". Archived from the original on April 24, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  36. ^ "Defense chief apologizes for military's bloody crackdown on 1980 Gwangju uprising". Archived from the original on February 10, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  37. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  38. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 8, 2018. Retrieved November 8, 2018.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  39. ^ ""헬기 사격 있던 5월 21일, 전두환 광주 현장에 있었다"". KBS 뉴스 (in Korean). Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  41. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved May 18, 2020.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  42. ^ "Committee launches fact-finding mission over 1980 pro-democracy movement". Yonhap News. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  43. ^ "May 18 pro-democracy Gwangju uprising should be reflected in constitutional revision, Moon says". Yonhap News. Archived from the original on June 15, 2020. Retrieved May 17, 2020.
  44. ^ "Human Acts". Portobello Books. Archived from the original on April 28, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.
  45. ^ "There a Petal Silently Falls". Columbia University Press. Archived from the original on May 11, 2019. Retrieved August 8, 2018.
  46. ^ "A Taxi Driver (Korean Movie – 2016) – 택시 운전사". HanCinema. Archived from the original on July 24, 2018. Retrieved April 25, 2018.


Further readingEdit

External linksEdit