Cumberland County, Pennsylvania

Cumberland County is a county located in the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 235,406.[2] Its county seat is Carlisle.[3]

Cumberland County
Old Cumberland County Courthouse
Old Cumberland County Courthouse
Map of Pennsylvania highlighting Cumberland County
Location within the U.S. state of Pennsylvania
Map of the United States highlighting Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 40°10′N 77°16′W / 40.17°N 77.27°W / 40.17; -77.27
Country United States
State Pennsylvania
FoundedJanuary 27, 1750
Named forCumberland
SeatCarlisle
Largest boroughCarlisle
Area
 • Total550 sq mi (1,400 km2)
 • Land545 sq mi (1,410 km2)
 • Water4.8 sq mi (12 km2)  0.9%%
Population
 • Estimate 
(2020)
255,857
 • Density469/sq mi (181/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional districts10th, 13th
Websitewww.ccpa.net
DesignatedMay 17, 1982[1]

Cumberland County is included in the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area.

HistoryEdit

 
Plaque at Middle Spring Presbyterian Church

Cumberland County was first settled by a majority of Scots-Irish immigrants who arrived in this area about 1730. English and German settlers constituted about ten percent of the early population. The settlers originally mostly devoted the area to farming and later developed other trades.[4] These settlers built the Middle Spring Presbyterian Church, among the oldest houses of worship in central Pennsylvania, in 1738 near present-day Shippensburg, Pennsylvania.

The General Assembly (legislature) of the Pennsylvania colony on January 27, 1750, created Cumberland County from Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, naming it for Cumberland, England. Its county seat is Carlisle.[3] The county also lies within the Cumberland Valley adjoining the Susquehanna River at its eastern border, stretching approximately 42 miles from the borough of Shippensburg on the west to the Susquehanna River in east Cumberland County.

 
"Old Main" at Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania

The oldest towns in the county are Shippensburg, Pennsylvania, and Carlisle, Pennsylvania, each with its unique history. Shippensburg is home to Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, one of 14 universities of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Carlisle is also home to Dickinson College, established in 1773, and the Penn State Dickinson School of Law.

 
U.S. Army War College

The United States Army War College is a United States Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500 acre (2 km2) campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks, a military post dating back to the 1770s. It caters to high-level military personnel and civilians and prepares them for strategic leadership responsibilities. It is the U. S. Army's most senior military educational institution.

During the Gettysburg campaign of the American Civil War in the summer of 1863, Confederate troops marched through the Cumberland Valley, briefly occupying much of Cumberland County.

In the 20th century, the suburbs of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, the state capital, expanded extensively into eastern Cumberland County. Carlisle also developed suburbs in adjoining townships.

GeographyEdit

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 550 square miles (1,400 km2), of which 545 square miles (1,410 km2) is land and 4.8 square miles (12 km2) (0.9%) is water.[5] The area code is 717 with an overlay of 223. Blue Mountain forms Cumberland's northern natural boundary and Yellow Breeches Creek forms part of its SE natural boundary. The Susquehanna River drains the county and forms its eastern natural boundary. A large portion of Cumberland is drained by the Conodoguinet Creek, which winds its way west-to-east across the county into the Susquehanna.

ClimateEdit

Almost all of Cumberland has a hot-summer humid continental climate (Dfa) and its hardiness zone is 6b except in much of the eastern portion where it is 7a. Average monthly temperatures in Lemoyne range from 29.9° F in January to 74.9° F in July, in Carlisle they range from 29.8° F in January to 75.2° F in July, and in Shippensburg they range from 29.6° F in January to 74.6° F in July. [1] The latest temperature averages show some low-lying eastern areas of the county to have a humid subtropical climate (Cfa.)

Climate data for Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (Harrisburg Capital City Airport) 1991-2020 normals (Records 1939-2021)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
(23)
83
(28)
86
(30)
93
(34)
97
(36)
100
(38)
107
(42)
101
(38)
102
(39)
97
(36)
84
(29)
75
(24)
107
(42)
Average high °F (°C) 40.3
(4.6)
43.2
(6.2)
52.6
(11.4)
64.9
(18.3)
74.7
(23.7)
83.2
(28.4)
87.6
(30.9)
85.4
(29.7)
78.6
(25.9)
66.7
(19.3)
55.1
(12.8)
44.4
(6.9)
64.7
(18.2)
Daily mean °F (°C) 32.6
(0.3)
34.7
(1.5)
43.2
(6.2)
54.1
(12.3)
64.0
(17.8)
73.0
(22.8)
77.5
(25.3)
75.4
(24.1)
68.5
(20.3)
56.7
(13.7)
46.0
(7.8)
37.0
(2.8)
55.2
(12.9)
Average low °F (°C) 24.9
(−3.9)
26.2
(−3.2)
33.9
(1.1)
43.3
(6.3)
53.2
(11.8)
62.8
(17.1)
67.4
(19.7)
65.5
(18.6)
58.4
(14.7)
46.7
(8.2)
37.0
(2.8)
29.5
(−1.4)
45.7
(7.6)
Record low °F (°C) −9
(−23)
−5
(−21)
2
(−17)
19
(−7)
31
(−1)
40
(4)
49
(9)
45
(7)
30
(−1)
23
(−5)
13
(−11)
−8
(−22)
−9
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 2.64
(67)
2.36
(60)
3.35
(85)
3.70
(94)
3.48
(88)
3.72
(94)
4.30
(109)
3.68
(93)
4.12
(105)
3.68
(93)
2.80
(71)
3.15
(80)
40.98
(1,041)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 9 9 10 12 14 12 12 11 10 11 9 10 127
Source: NOAA[6]

Adjacent countiesEdit

Major highwaysEdit

State protected areasEdit

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
179018,208
180025,38639.4%
181026,7575.4%
182023,606−11.8%
183029,22623.8%
184030,9535.9%
185034,32710.9%
186040,09816.8%
187043,9129.5%
188045,9774.7%
189047,2712.8%
190050,3446.5%
191054,4798.2%
192058,5787.5%
193068,23616.5%
194074,8069.6%
195094,45726.3%
1960124,81632.1%
1970158,17726.7%
1980178,54112.9%
1990195,2579.4%
2000213,6709.4%
2010235,40610.2%
2020259,46910.2%
U.S. Decennial Census[7]
1790-1960[8] 1900-1990[9]
1990-2000[10] 2010-2019[2][11]

As of the census[12] of 2000, there were 213,674 people, 83,015 households, and 56,118 families residing in the county. The population density was 388 people per square mile (150/km2). There were 86,951 housing units at an average density of 158 per square mile (61/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 94.40% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 0.97% from two or more races. 1.35% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.3% were of German, 10.6% American, 10.1% Irish, 7.5% English and 6.8% Italian ancestry. 94.7% spoke English and 1.4% Spanish as their first language.

There were 83,015 households, out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, and 32.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals, and 10.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 22.00% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, and 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males.

Its per capita income is $31,627, making it the wealthiest Pennsylvania county outside greater Philadelphia, and fifth wealthiest overall.

Metropolitan Statistical AreaEdit

The United States Office of Management and Budget[13] has designated Cumberland County as the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). As of the 2010 U.S. Census[14] the metropolitan area ranked 6th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 96th most populous in the United States with a population of 549,475. Cumberland County is also a part of the larger Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area (CSA), which combines the populations of Cumberland County as well as Adams, Dauphin, Lebanon, Perry and York Counties in Pennsylvania. The Combined Statistical Area ranked 5th in the State of Pennsylvania and 43rd most populous in the United States with a population of 1,219,422.

Government and politicsEdit

For most of its history, Cumberland County has been a Republican Party stronghold in presidential elections, with only seven Democratic Party candidates having managed to win the county from 1888 to the present day. The most recent Democrat to win the county in a presidential election was Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964 as he won in a landslide statewide & nationally. As a testament to the county's status as a Republican Party stronghold, Barack Obama in 2008 and Joe Biden in 2020 are the lone Democrats to win forty percent of the county's votes since Johnson's 1964 win.

United States presidential election results for Cumberland County, Pennsylvania[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 77,212 54.30% 62,245 43.78% 2,730 1.92%
2016 69,076 55.94% 47,085 38.13% 7,325 5.93%
2012 64,809 58.29% 44,367 39.90% 2,015 1.81%
2008 63,739 56.00% 48,306 42.44% 1,780 1.56%
2004 67,648 63.77% 37,928 35.75% 506 0.48%
2000 54,802 62.17% 31,053 35.23% 2,289 2.60%
1996 43,943 55.63% 28,749 36.40% 6,293 7.97%
1992 43,447 51.37% 26,635 31.49% 14,491 17.13%
1988 47,292 65.29% 24,613 33.98% 528 0.73%
1984 49,282 69.29% 21,374 30.05% 467 0.66%
1980 41,152 61.18% 19,789 29.42% 6,319 9.39%
1976 39,950 62.16% 23,008 35.80% 1,312 2.04%
1972 42,099 72.87% 14,562 25.20% 1,114 1.93%
1968 32,908 61.54% 15,467 28.93% 5,097 9.53%
1964 23,685 46.88% 26,633 52.71% 207 0.41%
1960 35,636 68.79% 15,968 30.83% 197 0.38%
1956 29,468 68.10% 13,651 31.55% 153 0.35%
1952 26,302 67.17% 12,762 32.59% 91 0.23%
1948 18,028 60.71% 11,421 38.46% 246 0.83%
1944 17,782 59.30% 12,068 40.25% 134 0.45%
1940 15,297 49.15% 15,758 50.63% 68 0.22%
1936 14,912 43.83% 18,850 55.41% 259 0.76%
1932 13,098 50.86% 12,086 46.93% 567 2.20%
1928 19,170 78.08% 5,189 21.14% 192 0.78%
1924 10,196 53.22% 7,643 39.89% 1,321 6.89%
1920 8,579 54.73% 6,455 41.18% 640 4.08%
1916 5,296 42.96% 6,432 52.17% 601 4.87%
1912 2,566 21.91% 5,023 42.89% 4,123 35.20%
1908 6,261 51.35% 5,403 44.32% 528 4.33%
1904 7,138 56.74% 5,038 40.05% 404 3.21%
1900 5,587 49.06% 5,428 47.66% 374 3.28%
1896 6,178 52.30% 5,202 44.04% 432 3.66%
1892 4,520 44.06% 5,446 53.09% 293 2.86%
1888 4,693 45.36% 5,386 52.05% 268 2.59%
1884 4,659 45.74% 5,375 52.77% 151 1.48%
1880 4,431 44.17% 5,462 54.45% 138 1.38%


As of November 1, 2021, there are 182,729 registered voters in Cumberland County.[16]

The Republican Party has been dominant in Cumberland County politics since before the American Civil War, with the victories of Robert P. Casey for governor in 1990, Bob Casey Jr. for state treasurer in 2004 and Tom Wolf for governor in 2018 being among the few times where a statewide Democrat carried the county. The county commissioner majority, all row offices, and all legislative seats serving Cumberland are held by Republicans.

County commissionersEdit

  • Vince DiFilippo, Republican
  • Jean Foschi, Democrat
  • Gary Eichelberger, Chairman, Republican[17]

Other county officesEdit

  • Clerk of Courts, Dennis Lebo, Republican
  • Controller, Alfred Whitcomb, Republican
  • Coroner Charles Hall, Republican
  • District Attorney, M.L."Skip" Ebert, Republican
  • Prothonotary, Dale Sabadish, Republican
  • Recorder of Deeds, Tammy L. Shearer, Republican
  • Register of Wills, Lisa M. Grayson, Esq., Republican
  • Sheriff, R. Ron Anderson, Republican
  • Treasurer, John Gross, Republican

State RepresentativesEdit

State SenatorsEdit

United States House of RepresentativesEdit

United States SenateEdit

EducationEdit

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Community, junior and technical collegesEdit

Public school districtsEdit

 
Map of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania School Districts

Public charter schoolsEdit

Technical schoolEdit

Private schoolsEdit

As reported by the National Center for Educational Statistics[21]

  • Allen Mennonite School - Dillsburg
  • Berean Christian Day School - Newville
  • Best Friends - New Cumberland
  • Bethel Christian Academy - Carlisle
  • Blue Ridge Mennonite School - Carlisle
  • Brookside Montessori School - Camp Hill
  • Chesterbrook Academy - Camp Hill
  • Chestnut Groove School - Shippensburg
  • Children's School of New Cumberland - New Cumberland
  • Dickinson College Children's Center - Carlisle
  • Emmanuel Baptist Christian Academy - Mechanicsburg
  • Faith Tabernacle School - Mechanicsburg
  • Good Shepherd Elementary School - Camp Hill
  • Harrisburg Academy - Wormleysburg
  • Hickory Lane School - Newburg
  • Hidden Valley School - Carlisle
  • Kindercare Learning Center - Mechanicsburg
  • Learning and Sharing - New Cumberland
  • Living Faith School - Shippensburg
  • Meadow Run - Newburg
  • Mechanicsburg Learning Center - Mechanicsburg
  • Middle Run Parochial School - Shippensburg
  • Oak Grove Parochial School - Shippensburg
  • Oakwood Baptist Day School - Camp Hill
  • Otterbein School - Newburg
  • Quarry Hill School - Newville
  • Rocky View School Parochial - Newville
  • South Mountain Parochial School - Shippensburg
  • South Mountain Parochial School - Newville
  • Spring HIll Parochial School - Shipensburg
  • St. Joseph School - Mechaniscburg
  • St Patrick School - Carlisle
  • St Theresa Elementary School - New Cumberland
  • Sunset Amish School - Newburg
  • The Children's Garden of St Johns Lutheran Church - Shiremanstown
  • The Christian School of Grace Baptist Church - Carlisle
  • The Goddard School - Enola
  • The Goddard School - Mechanicsburg
  • The Learning Center - Camp Hill
  • Trinity High School (Camp Hill, Pennsylvania)
  • West Shore Christian Academy - Shiremanstown
  • Yellow Breeches Education Center - Boiling Springs

Public librariesEdit

CommunitiesEdit

 
Map of Cumberland County, Pennsylvania with Municipal Labels showing Boroughs (red), Townships (white), and Census-designated places (blue).

Under Pennsylvania law, there are four types of incorporated municipalities: cities, boroughs, townships, and, in at most two cases, towns. The following boroughs and townships are located in Cumberland County:

BoroughsEdit

TownshipsEdit

Census-designated placesEdit

Census-designated places are geographical areas designated by the U.S. Census Bureau for the purposes of compiling demographic data. They are not actual jurisdictions under Pennsylvania law. Other unincorporated communities, such as villages, may be listed here as well.

Unincorporated communitiesEdit

Population rankingEdit

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2010 census of Cumberland County.[14]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2010 Census)
1 Carlisle Borough 18,682
2 Mechanicsburg Borough 8,981
3 Camp Hill Borough 7,888
4 New Cumberland Borough 7,277
5 Lower Allen CDP 6,694
6 Enola CDP 6,111
7 Shippensburg (partially in Franklin County) Borough 5,492
8 Schlusser CDP 5,265
9 Lemoyne Borough 4,553
10 Boiling Springs CDP 3,225
11 Wormleysburg Borough 3,070
12 Shippensburg University CDP 2,625
13 Messiah College CDP 2,215
14 Mount Holly Springs Borough 2,030
15 Shiremanstown Borough 1,569
16 Newville Borough 1,326
17 West Fairview CDP 1,282
18 New Kingstown CDP 495
19 Plainfield CDP 399
20 Newburg Borough 336

RecreationEdit

Annual events occur in downtown Carlisle at the Carlisle Fairgrounds. The Capital City Mall in Lower Allen Township serves the West Shore, the Carlisle area, and surrounding communities. Williams Grove Speedway is a half-mile auto-racing track in the county. The Appalachian Trail crosses the central part of Cumberland, which has two state parks:

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "PHMC Historical Markers Search" (Searchable database). Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved January 25, 2014.
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 21, 2016. Retrieved November 16, 2013.
  3. ^ a b "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ Wayland F. Dunaway, The Scotch-Irish of Colonial Pennsylvania; University of North Carolina Press, 1944, p. 60.
  5. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  6. ^ "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  7. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  8. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  9. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 24, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  10. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved March 6, 2015.
  11. ^ "Census 2020".
  12. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  13. ^ "Office of Management and Budget". whitehouse.gov. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  14. ^ a b "2010 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved December 6, 2015.
  15. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  16. ^ "Voter registration statistics by county". November 2, 2021.. Dos.state.pa.us. Retrieved on 2021-11-02.
  17. ^ "Meet the Commissioners | Cumberland County, PA - Official Website". www.ccpa.net. Retrieved April 19, 2017.
  18. ^ a b Center, Legislativate Data Processing. "Find Your Legislator". The official website for the Pennsylvania General Assembly. Retrieved April 21, 2017.
  19. ^ Palleschi, Amanda. Enrollment in cyber charter schools booming in Pennsylvania despite friction with school districts, The Patriot News, November 30, 2009
  20. ^ Pennsylvania Department of Education - Operating Charter Schools in Pennsylvania Report. September 2009.
  21. ^ ies, National Center for Education Statistics, US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, Private School Universe Survey 2008

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 40°10′N 77°16′W / 40.17°N 77.27°W / 40.17; -77.27