Communal conflicts in Nigeria
- Ethno-religious conflicts, attributed to actors primarily divided by cultural, ethnic, or religious communities and identities, such as instances of religious violence between Christian and Muslim communities.
- Herder-farmer conflicts, typically involving disputes over land and/or cattle between herders (in particular the Fulani or Hausa) and farmers (in particular the Adara, Tiv and Tarok).
|Communal conflicts in Nigeria|
Map of the 36 States of Nigeria
|Adara, Tiv and Tarok farmers||Fulani and Hausa herders|
|Casualties and losses|
|16,000+ people killed since 1998|
The most impacted states are those of the Nigerian Middle Belt like Benue, Taraba and Plateau.
Violence has reached two peaks in 2004 and 2011 with around 2,000 fatalities those years. It resulted in more than 700 fatalities in 2015.
Since the Fourth Nigerian Republic’s founding in 1999, farmer-herder violence has killed thousands of people and displaced tens of thousands more. Insecurity and violence have led many populations to create self-defence forces and ethnic militias, which have engaged in further violence. The majority of farmer-herder clashes have occurred between Muslim Fulani herdsmen and Christian peasants, exacerbating ethnoreligious hostilities.
Additional instances of ethnic violence in Nigeria exist; these are often urban riots or such, for example the Yoruba-Hausa disturbances in Lagos, the Igbo massacre of 1966 or the clashes between the Itsekiri and the Ijaw in Delta state. Others are land disputes between neighbours, such as clashes between Ile-Ife and Modakeke in the late 1990s and in Ebonyi State in 2011.
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- "ACLED Realtime data 2015". Archived from the original on 2015-10-31.
- "Backgrounder: Communal conflicts in Nigeria". UCDP. 21 June 2012.
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- "KILLINGS IN BENUE, PLATEAU AND TARABA STATES".
- "Social violence in Nigeria". Connect SAIS Africa.
- "Farmer-Herder Clashes Amplify Challenge for Beleaguered Nigerian Security". IPI Global Observatory. 16 July 2015.
- "An Evaluation of the Causes and Efforts Adopted in Managing the Ethnic Conflicts, Identity and Settlement Pattern among the Different Ethnic Groups in Warri, Delta State, Nigeria", Agbegbedia Oghenevwoke Anthony. International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN (Online): 2319-7064 Volume 3 Issue 4, April 2014.
- ORUMIE S. T. (May 2008). "2 NIGER DELTA DEVELOPMENT COMMISION (NDDC) AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE OIL PRODUCING COMMUNITIES: A CASE STUDY OF RIVERS STATE" (PDF). University of Nigeria, Nsukka. University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- NIGERIA: Special Report on Ethnic Violence UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA - AFRICAN STUDIES CENTER.
- "Lagos calm after city centre riots". BBC Online. BBC. 2000-10-18. Retrieved 2007-03-03.
- Ife Modakeke Clash: Guess What Ooni’s Planning Michael Abimboye, naij.com
- Nigeria: 'at least 50 killed' in communal clashes. The Telegraph, 11:28AM GMT 01 Jan 2012.