Open main menu

Clear-channel station

  (Redirected from Clear-channel)

A clear-channel station is an AM radio station in North America that has the highest protection from interference from other stations, particularly concerning night-time skywave propagation. The system exists to ensure the viability of cross-country or cross-continent radio service, and is enforced through a series of treaties and statutory laws. Now known as Class A stations since 1982, they are occasionally still referred to by their former classifications of Class I-A (the highest classification), Class I-B (the next highest class), or Class I-N (for stations in Alaska too far away to cause interference to the primary clear-channel stations in the lower 48 states). The term "clear-channel" is used most often in the context of North America and the Caribbean, where the concept originated.

Since 1941, these stations have been required to maintain at least 10,000 watts of power to retain their status. Nearly all these stations in the United States, Canada and The Bahamas broadcast at 50,000 watts, with several clear-channel stations in Mexico going as high as 150,000 watts and XEW in Mexico City operating at 250,000 watts for over 80 years. (Cuba was originally included in the plan and had several stations given clear-channel status, but Cuba stopped participating after the Cuban Revolution of 1959.)

Contents

DescriptionEdit

Sixty medium wave frequencies were set aside in 1941 under the North American Regional Broadcasting Agreement (NARBA) for nighttime use by only one, two or three specific AM stations, covering a wide area via skywave propagation. These frequencies were known as the "clear channels", and the stations on them are thus clear-channel stations. NARBA set aside 37 Class I-A frequencies and 27 Class I-B frequencies. The Class I-N stations in Alaska shared those same frequencies. Where only one station was assigned to a clear channel, the treaty provides that it must operate with a nominal power of 50 kilowatts or more. These were for the most part Class I-A. Stations on the other clear channels, with two or more stations, must use between 10 kW and 50 kW, and most often use a directional antenna so as not to interfere with each other. In addition to the frequencies, the treaty also specified the specific locations where stations on Class I-B channels could be built.

Some of the original NARBA signatories, including the United States, Canada and Mexico, have implemented bilateral agreements that supersede NARBA's terms, eliminating among other things the distinction between the two kinds of clear channel: the original "I-A" and "I-B" classes, and the newer, U.S.-only "I-N" class, which are now all included in class A. Classes "I-A" and "I-B" still mandate a minimum efficiency of 362.10 mV/m/kW at 1 km, whereas Class "I-N" is permitted to use the lower Class B minimum efficiency of 281.63 mV/m/kW at 1 km. There exist exceptions, where a former Class B station was elevated to Class A, yet it maintained its previous antenna system, or made only minor changes thereto.

Clear-channel stations, unlike all other AM stations in North America, have a secondary service area; that is, they are entitled to protection from interference to their nighttime skywave signals. Other stations are entitled, at most, to protection from nighttime interference in their primary service area—that which is covered by their groundwave signal.

Many stations beyond those listed in the treaty have been assigned to operate on a clear channel (and some had been long before NARBA came into effect in 1941). In most cases, those stations operate during the daytime only, so as not to interfere with the primary stations on those channels. Since the early 1980s, many such stations have been permitted to operate at night with such low power as to be deemed not to interfere; these stations are still considered "daytimers" and are not entitled to any protection from interference to their nighttime signals. Another group of stations, formerly known as class II stations, were licensed to operate on the former "I-B" clear channels with significant power at night, provided that they use directional antenna systems to minimize radiation towards the primary stations.[citation needed]

iHeartMedia, Inc. (formerly Clear Channel Communications until September 2014), a San Antonio, Texas-based company that owns over 1000 U.S. radio stations, was originally formed to purchase one clear-channel station, 1200 WOAI in its home city of San Antonio. The company now owns more than a dozen such stations.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

For the U.S., a form of clear channels first appeared in 1922 when the Commerce Department moved stations which had all used three (initially two) frequencies (two for entertainment stations, one for "weather and crop reports") onto 52 frequencies. Two were set aside for low-power local and regional stations, while the large stations in major cities each got their own frequency. A few frequencies were used on both the East and West coasts, which were considered far enough apart to limit interference. At that time, large stations were limited to 1000 watts and some licences were revoked.[citation needed]

On November 11, 1928 the United States implemented General Order 40, which classified each allocation in the AM band as either Local, Regional or Clear. The classification system considered stations in Canada as well. Gradually maximum power was increased to 50,000 watts: additionally there were some short-lived experiments with 250–500 kilowatt "super-power" operations. This system was continued in the 1941 NARBA system, although almost all stations shifted broadcast frequencies. The FCC's intent behind licensing 50,000 watt clear-channel stations was to provide reliable radio service to the thousands of Americans who lived in the vast rural areas of the United States.[1] As a result, these stations usually reached large portions of North America at night. Radio fans often call such stations "flamethrowers" or "blowtorches" because of their high power.

As early as the 1930s, debate raged in Washington, D.C., and in the U.S. broadcasting industry over whether continuation of the clear-channel system was justifiable. The licensees of clear-channel stations argued that, without their special status, many rural areas would receive no radio service at all. Rural broadcasters pointed out that most of the clear-channel stations were licensed to serve large cities on the two coasts, which made little sense for a service that was meant to provide radio to the vast rural areas in the middle of the country. The clear-channel licensees requested that the power limit on the "I-A" channels in the U.S., set at 50 kW by the FCC, be lifted entirely. They pointed to successful experiments made by WLW in Cincinnati before the war, and in later years successful implementation by state broadcasters in Europe and the Middle East, as evidence that this would work and improve the service received by most Americans. Other broadcasters, particularly in the western states, argued to the contrary; that if the special status of the clear-channel stations was eliminated, they would be able to build facilities to provide local service to those rural "dark areas".

One of the most outspoken of the small-town broadcasters, Ed Craney of KGIR in Butte, Montana, went so far as to apply to move his station, then on the 1370 kHz regional channel, to a class I-A signal on 660 kHz, asking the FCC to downgrade the NBC New York flagship, WEAF, to make way for the Butte station.[2] The FCC denied Craney's petition.

In 1941 several existing clear-channel stations applied for power increases to between 500 and 750 kW;[3][4] dissemination of national defense information is cited as one reason this would be in the public interest. In October 1941 the FCC's engineering department presented a report on a complete reorganization of the clear-channel service; the report considered the possibility of "some 25 superpower stations of 500,000 watts or more, strategically located to provide maximum service" (as Broadcasting described it), and suggested that stations would have to be relocated away from the east and west coasts in such a scenario, as coastal stations waste energy over the oceans. One complication the FCC considered was the "Wheeler resolution", passed by the United States Senate in 1938, expressing the view of the Senate that radio stations should be limited to a maximum power of 50 kW.[5]

One station, KOB in Albuquerque, New Mexico, fought a long legal battle against the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) and New York's WABC for the right to move from a regional channel to a clear channel, 770 kHz, arguing that the New York signal was so weak in the mountain west that it served no one. KOB eventually won the argument in the late 1960s; it and several other western stations were allowed to move to eastern clear channels. (Western clear channels, such as 680 in San Francisco, had been "duplicated" in the eastern states for many years.) These new class II-A assignments (in places like Boise, Idaho; Las Vegas and Reno, Nevada; Lexington, Nebraska; Casper, Wyoming; Kalispell, Montana; and others) began what would later be called "the breakdown of the clear channels". The class I-A station owners' proposal to increase power fifteenfold was not immediately quashed, but the new II-A stations would make it effectively impossible for stations on the duplicated channels to do so, and the owners eventually lost interest. That proposal was finally taken off the FCC's docket in the late 1970s.[citation needed]

On May 29, 1980 the FCC voted to limit the protection for all clear-channel stations to a 750-mile (1 207 km) radius around the transmitter. Stations on those frequencies outside the area of protection were no longer required to sign off or power down after sundown.[6]

In 1987 the FCC changed its rules to prohibit applications for new "class-D" stations. (Class-D stations have night power between zero and 250 watts, and frequently operate on clear channels.) However, any existing station could voluntarily relinquish nighttime authority, thereby becoming a class-D, and several have done so since the rule change.

DaytimersEdit

Daytimers (also known as daytime-only stations) are AM radio stations that are limited to broadcasting during the daytime only, as their signals would interfere with clear-channel and other radio stations at night, when solar radiation is reduced, and medium wave radio signals can propagate much farther. Such stations are usually supposed to do one of three things: sign off, reduce power (sometimes dramatically, to only a few watts), or switch to another frequency (such as the Detroit area's WNZK, which broadcasts on 690 during the day, and on 680 at night). Their broadcast class is Class D. A great number of these stations use FM translators to continue their broadcasts overnight, and some also broadcast on the internet and have separate streams that air when the station's over-the-air signal has signed-off.

Daytime-only stations first originated in the late 1920s shortly after General Order 40 was imposed. One of the first to do so was WKEN in Kenmore, New York (now WUFO). WKEN proposed the concept to avoid the then-common practice of having to share one frequency between multiple stations; under General Order 40, WKEN would have had to share its frequency with WKBW, and the daytime-only proposal allowed both stations their own frequency.[7] WUFO remains a daytime-only station to the present day, albeit with a 24/7 FM translator introduced in mid-2017.

As of 2013, daytimers only exist in the United States and Mexico. The last Canadian daytime station, CKOT, signed off on February 17 of that year after converting to the FM band. There were 61 daytimers in Mexico in 2015.[8]

List of all clear-channel stationsEdit

The following two tables show all of the class-A stations in North America.

First is the Canada, Mexico, and contiguous United States table, for the former class I-A and class I-B stations. General Order 40 allocations are in bold.

Second is the Alaska table, for the former class I-N stations.

Under the most recent treaty, Mexican Class A stations which previously operated with 50 kW or less (but a minimum of 10 kW nights) may increase power to 100 kW days while retaining their 10 kW night operation. This created some anomalies where stations licensed for 10 kW during all hours could increase power to 100 kW days and 10 kW nights, unless a directional antenna system was installed for nights, in which case the maximum night power was 50 kW. Additionally, one Class B station which had been operating non-directionally with 100 kW days and 50 kW nights was required to reduce power to 50 kW during all hours.

Class A (former I-A/I-B) stations
kHz Callsign City of license kW[9] Transmitter coordinates
540 CBK Watrous, Saskatchewan 50 51°40′48″N 105°26′48″W / 51.68°N 105.446667°W / 51.68; -105.446667 (CBK 540 - 50 kW)
540 CBT Grand Falls, Newfoundland and Labrador 10 48°57′03″N 55°37′34″W / 48.950833°N 55.626111°W / 48.950833; -55.626111 (CBT 540 - 10 kW)
540 XEWA San Luis Potosí, San Luis Potosí 150 22°09′29″N 100°55′35″W / 22.157944°N 100.92625°W / 22.157944; -100.92625 (XEWA 540 - 150 kW)
640 CBN St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador 10 47°34′08″N 52°48′45″W / 47.568889°N 52.8125°W / 47.568889; -52.8125 (CBN 640 - 10 kW)
640 KFI Los Angeles, California 50 33°52′47″N 118°00′47″W / 33.879722°N 118.013056°W / 33.879722; -118.013056 (KFI 640 - 50 kW)
650 WSM Nashville, Tennessee 50 35°59′53″N 86°47′27″W / 35.998194°N 86.790833°W / 35.998194; -86.790833 (WSM 650 - 50 kW)
660 WFAN New York, New York 50 40°51′35″N 73°47′07″W / 40.859722°N 73.785278°W / 40.859722; -73.785278 (WFAN 660 - 50 kW)
670 WSCR Chicago, Illinois 50 41°56′03″N 88°04′24″W / 41.934167°N 88.073333°W / 41.934167; -88.073333 (WSCR 670 - 50 kW)
680 KNBR San Francisco, California 50 37°32′50″N 122°14′00″W / 37.547222°N 122.233333°W / 37.547222; -122.233333 (KNBR 680 - 50 kW)
690 CKGM[a] Montreal, Quebec 50 45°17′43″N 73°43′18″W / 45.2953°N 73.7217°W / 45.2953; -73.7217 (CKGM 690 - 50 kW)
690 XEWW Tijuana, Baja California 77.5 / 50 32°17′52″N 117°01′48″W / 32.297778°N 117.03°W / 32.297778; -117.03 (XEWW 690 - 77.5 / 50 kW)
700 WLW Cincinnati, Ohio 50 39°21′11″N 84°19′30″W / 39.353056°N 84.325°W / 39.353056; -84.325 (WLW 700 - 50 kW)
710 KIRO Seattle, Washington 50 47°23′55″N 122°26′00″W / 47.398611°N 122.433333°W / 47.398611; -122.433333 (KIRO 710 - 50 kW)
710 WOR New York, New York 50 40°47′51″N 74°05′24″W / 40.7975°N 74.09°W / 40.7975; -74.09 (WOR 710 - 50 kW)
720 WGN Chicago, Illinois 50 42°00′42″N 88°02′07″W / 42.011667°N 88.035278°W / 42.011667; -88.035278 (WGN 720 - 50 kW)
730 CKAC Montreal, Quebec 50 45°30′50″N 73°58′24″W / 45.5139°N 73.9733°W / 45.5139; -73.9733 (CKAC 730 - 50 kW)
730 XEX Mexico City, D.F. 60 / 100 19°21′54″N 98°57′28″W / 19.36505°N 98.957703°W / 19.36505; -98.957703 (XEX 730 - 60 / 100 kW)
740 CFZM[b] Toronto, Ontario 50 43°34′30″N 79°49′02″W / 43.575°N 79.817222°W / 43.575; -79.817222 (CFZM 740 - 50 kW)
750 WSB Atlanta, Georgia 50 33°50′38″N 84°15′12″W / 33.843889°N 84.253333°W / 33.843889; -84.253333 (WSB 750 - 50 kW)
760 WJR Detroit, Michigan 50 42°10′05″N 83°12′54″W / 42.168056°N 83.215°W / 42.168056; -83.215 (WJR 760 - 50 kW)
770 WABC New York, New York 50 40°52′50″N 74°04′10″W / 40.880556°N 74.069444°W / 40.880556; -74.069444 (WABC 770 - 50 kW)
780 WBBM Chicago, Illinois 50 41°59′26″N 88°01′40″W / 41.990556°N 88.027778°W / 41.990556; -88.027778 (WBBM 780 - 50 kW)
800 XEROK Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua 50 31°41′44″N 106°23′01″W / 31.695556°N 106.383611°W / 31.695556; -106.383611 (XEROK 800 - 50 kW)
810 KGO San Francisco, California 50 37°31′35″N 122°06′02″W / 37.526389°N 122.100556°W / 37.526389; -122.100556 (KGO 810 - 50 kW)
810 WGY Schenectady, New York 50 42°47′32″N 74°00′43″W / 42.792336°N 74.011937°W / 42.792336; -74.011937 (WGY 810 - 50 kW)
820 WBAP Fort Worth, Texas 50 32°36′38″N 97°10′04″W / 32.610556°N 97.167778°W / 32.610556; -97.167778 (WBAP 820 - 50 kW)
830 WCCO Minneapolis, Minnesota 50 45°10′44″N 93°20′59″W / 45.178889°N 93.349722°W / 45.178889; -93.349722 (WCCO 830 - 50 kW)
840 WHAS Louisville, Kentucky 50 38°15′40″N 85°25′43″W / 38.261111°N 85.428611°W / 38.261111; -85.428611 (WHAS 840 - 50 kW)
850 KOA Denver, Colorado 50 39°30′22″N 104°45′57″W / 39.506111°N 104.765833°W / 39.506111; -104.765833 (KOA 850 - 50 kW)
860 CJBC Toronto, Ontario 50 43°34′30″N 79°49′03″W / 43.575°N 79.8175°W / 43.575; -79.8175 (CJBC 860 - 50 kW)
870 WWL New Orleans, Louisiana 50 29°50′14″N 90°07′55″W / 29.837222°N 90.131944°W / 29.837222; -90.131944 (WWL 870 - 50 kW)
880 WCBS New York, New York 50 40°51′35″N 73°47′08″W / 40.859806°N 73.785444°W / 40.859806; -73.785444 (WCBS 880 - 50 kW)
890 WLS Chicago, Illinois 50 41°33′21″N 87°50′54″W / 41.555833°N 87.848333°W / 41.555833; -87.848333 (WLS 890 - 50 kW)
900 CKBI Prince Albert, Saskatchewan 10 53°12′03″N 105°45′14″W / 53.2008°N 105.7538°W / 53.2008; -105.7538 (CKBI 900 - 10 kW)
900 XEW Mexico City, D.F. 100 19°21′54″N 98°57′28″W / 19.36505°N 98.957703°W / 19.36505; -98.957703 (XEW 900 - 100 kW)
940 CFNV[c] Montreal, Quebec 50 45°23′34″N 73°41′53″W / 45.3928°N 73.6981°W / 45.3928; -73.6981 (CFNV 940 - 50 kW)
940 XEQ Mexico City, D.F. 30 19°21′37″N 98°59′32″W / 19.360217°N 98.992194°W / 19.360217; -98.992194 (XEQ 940 - 30 kW)
990 CBW Winnipeg, Manitoba 50 / 46 49°50′10″N 97°30′46″W / 49.836111°N 97.512778°W / 49.836111; -97.512778 (CBW 990 - 50 / 46 kW)
990 CBY Corner Brook, Newfoundland and Labrador 10 48°55′58″N 57°54′22″W / 48.9328°N 57.9061°W / 48.9328; -57.9061 (CBY 990 - 10 kW)
1000 KOMO Seattle, Washington 50 47°27′49″N 122°26′27″W / 47.463611°N 122.440833°W / 47.463611; -122.440833 (KOMO 1000 - 50 kW)
1000 WMVP Chicago, Illinois 50 41°49′05″N 87°59′18″W / 41.818056°N 87.988333°W / 41.818056; -87.988333 (WMVP 1000 - 50 kW)
1000 XEOY Mexico City, D.F. 50 / 10 19°23′18″N 99°07′29″W / 19.388333°N 99.124722°W / 19.388333; -99.124722 (XEOY 1000 - 50 / 10 kW)
1010 CBR Calgary, Alberta 50 50°56′17″N 113°57′42″W / 50.938056°N 113.961667°W / 50.938056; -113.961667 (CBR 1010 - 50 kW)
1010 CFRB Toronto, Ontario 50 43°30′40″N 79°37′48″W / 43.511019°N 79.630019°W / 43.511019; -79.630019 (CFRB 1010 - 50 kW)
1020 KDKA Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 50 40°33′34″N 79°57′10″W / 40.559481°N 79.95266°W / 40.559481; -79.95266 (KDKA 1020 - 50 kW)
1030 WBZ Boston, Massachusetts 50 42°16′44″N 70°52′34″W / 42.278889°N 70.876111°W / 42.278889; -70.876111 (WBZ 1030 - 50 kW)
1040 WHO Des Moines, Iowa 50 41°39′10″N 93°21′01″W / 41.652778°N 93.350278°W / 41.652778; -93.350278 (WHO 1040 - 50 kW)
1050 XEG Monterrey, Nuevo León 150 25°41′53″N 100°10′30″W / 25.698056°N 100.175°W / 25.698056; -100.175 (XEG 1050 - 150 kW)
1060 KYW Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 50 40°06′12″N 75°14′56″W / 40.103333°N 75.248889°W / 40.103333; -75.248889 (KYW 1060 - 50 kW)
1060 XEEP Mexico City, D.F. 100 / 20 19°21′50″N 99°01′38″W / 19.363972°N 99.027194°W / 19.363972; -99.027194 (XEEP 1060 - 100 / 20 kW)
1070 KNX Los Angeles, California 50 33°51′35″N 118°20′59″W / 33.859722°N 118.349722°W / 33.859722; -118.349722 (KNX 1070 - 50 kW)
1080 KRLD Dallas, Texas 50 32°53′25″N 96°38′44″W / 32.890281°N 96.645561°W / 32.890281; -96.645561 (KRLD 1080 - 50 kW)
1080 WTIC Hartford, Connecticut 50 41°46′39″N 72°48′19″W / 41.7775°N 72.805278°W / 41.7775; -72.805278 (WTIC 1080 - 50 kW)
1090 KAAY Little Rock, Arkansas 50 34°36′00″N 92°13′30″W / 34.6°N 92.225°W / 34.6; -92.225 (KAAY 1090 - 50 kW)
1090 WBAL Baltimore, Maryland 50 39°22′33″N 76°46′21″W / 39.375833°N 76.7725°W / 39.375833; -76.7725 (WBAL 1090 - 50 kW)
1090 XEPRS Rancho del Mar, Rosarito, Baja California 50 32°24′08″N 117°05′12″W / 32.402278°N 117.086722°W / 32.402278; -117.086722 (XEPRS 1090 - 50 kW)
1100 WTAM Cleveland, Ohio 50 41°16′50″N 81°37′22″W / 41.280556°N 81.622778°W / 41.280556; -81.622778 (WTAM 1100 - 50 kW)
1110 KFAB Omaha, Nebraska 50 41°07′11″N 96°00′06″W / 41.119722°N 96.001667°W / 41.119722; -96.001667 (KFAB 1110 - 50 kW)
1110 WBT Charlotte, North Carolina 50 35°07′56″N 80°53′23″W / 35.132222°N 80.889722°W / 35.132222; -80.889722 (WBT 1110 - 50 kW)
1120 KMOX St. Louis, Missouri 50 38°43′22″N 90°03′19″W / 38.722778°N 90.055278°W / 38.722778; -90.055278 (KMOX 1120 - 50 kW)
1130 CKWX Vancouver, British Columbia 50 49°09′27″N 123°04′01″W / 49.157601°N 123.067024°W / 49.157601; -123.067024 (CKWX 1130 - 50 kW)
1130 KWKH Shreveport, Louisiana 50 32°42′18″N 93°52′55″W / 32.705°N 93.881944°W / 32.705; -93.881944 (KWKH 1130 - 50 kW)
1130 WBBR New York, New York 50 40°48′39″N 74°02′24″W / 40.810833°N 74.04°W / 40.810833; -74.04 (WBBR 1130 - 50 kW)
1140 WRVA Richmond, Virginia 50 37°24′13″N 77°18′59″W / 37.403611°N 77.316389°W / 37.403611; -77.316389 (WRVA 1140 - 50 kW)
1140 XEMR Monterrey, Nuevo León 50 25°45′52″N 100°15′11″W / 25.764444°N 100.253056°W / 25.764444; -100.253056 (XEMR 1140 - 50 kW)
1160 KSL Salt Lake City, Utah 50 40°46′48″N 112°05′51″W / 40.78°N 112.0975°W / 40.78; -112.0975 (KSL 1160 - 50 kW)
1170 KFAQ Tulsa, Oklahoma 50 36°08′49″N 95°48′27″W / 36.146944°N 95.8075°W / 36.146944; -95.8075 (KFAQ 1170 - 50 kW)
1170 WWVA Wheeling, West Virginia 50 40°06′07″N 80°52′02″W / 40.101944°N 80.867222°W / 40.101944; -80.867222 (WWVA 1170 - 50 kW)
1180 WHAM Rochester, New York 50 43°04′55″N 77°43′30″W / 43.081944°N 77.725°W / 43.081944; -77.725 (WHAM 1180 - 50 kW)
1190 KEX Portland, Oregon 50 45°25′20″N 122°33′57″W / 45.422222°N 122.565833°W / 45.422222; -122.565833 (KEX 1190 - 50 kW)
1190 XEWK Guadalajara, Jalisco 50 / 10 20°44′11″N 103°20′52″W / 20.736389°N 103.347778°W / 20.736389; -103.347778 (XEWK 1190 - 50 / 10 kW)
1200 WOAI San Antonio, Texas 50 29°30′08″N 98°07′44″W / 29.502111°N 98.128806°W / 29.502111; -98.128806 (WOAI 1200 - 50 kW)
1210 WPHT Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 50 39°58′46″N 74°59′13″W / 39.979444°N 74.986944°W / 39.979444; -74.986944 (WPHT 1210 - 50 kW)
1220 XEB Mexico City, D.F. 100 19°18′31″N 99°03′32″W / 19.308611°N 99.058889°W / 19.308611; -99.058889 (XEB 1220 - 100 kW)
1500 KSTP Saint Paul, Minnesota 50 45°01′32″N 93°03′06″W / 45.025556°N 93.051667°W / 45.025556; -93.051667 (KSTP 1500 - 50 kW)[10]
1500 WFED Washington, D.C. 50 39°02′31″N 77°02′47″W / 39.041944°N 77.046389°W / 39.041944; -77.046389 (WFED 1500 - 50 kW)
1510 WLAC Nashville, Tennessee 50 36°16′19″N 86°45′28″W / 36.271944°N 86.757778°W / 36.271944; -86.757778 (WLAC 1510 - 50 kW)
1520 KOKC Oklahoma City, Oklahoma 50 35°20′00″N 97°30′16″W / 35.333333°N 97.504444°W / 35.333333; -97.504444 (KOKC 1520 - 50 kW)
1520 WWKB Buffalo, New York 50 42°46′10″N 78°50′34″W / 42.769444°N 78.842778°W / 42.769444; -78.842778 (WWKB 1520 - 50 kW)
1530 KFBK Sacramento, California 50 38°50′54″N 121°28′58″W / 38.848333°N 121.482778°W / 38.848333; -121.482778 (KFBK 1530 - 50 kW)
1530 WCKY Cincinnati, Ohio 50 39°03′55″N 84°36′27″W / 39.065278°N 84.6075°W / 39.065278; -84.6075 (WCKY 1530 - 50 kW)
1540 KXEL Waterloo, Iowa 50 42°10′48″N 92°18′38″W / 42.18°N 92.310556°W / 42.18; -92.310556 (KXEL 1540 - 50 kW)
1540 ZNS-1 Nassau, Bahamas 50 25°00′14″N 77°21′01″W / 25.003917°N 77.350333°W / 25.003917; -77.350333 (ZNS-1 1540 - 50 kW)
1550 CBEF[d] Windsor, Ontario 10 42°12′56″N 82°55′15″W / 42.2156°N 82.9208°W / 42.2156; -82.9208 (CBEF 1550 - 10 kW)
1560 KNZR[e] Bakersfield, California 25 / 10 35°18′30″N 119°02′46″W / 35.308333°N 119.046111°W / 35.308333; -119.046111 (KNZR 1560 - 25 / 10 kW)
1560 WFME New York, New York 50 40°43′00″N 73°55′04″W / 40.716667°N 73.917778°W / 40.716667; -73.917778 (WFME 1560 - 50 kW)
1570 XERF Ciudad Acuña, Coahuila 100 29°21′00″N 101°02′00″W / 29.35°N 101.033333°W / 29.35; -101.033333 (XERF 1570 - 100 kW)
1580 CKDO[f] Oshawa, Ontario 10 43°52′19″N 78°45′53″W / 43.871944°N 78.764722°W / 43.871944; -78.764722 (CKDO 1580 - 10 kW)
Alaskan class A (former class I-N) stations
kHz Callsign City of license kW[9] Transmitter coordinates
640 KYUK Bethel 10 60°46′54″N 161°53′08″W / 60.78175°N 161.885639°W / 60.78175; -161.885639 (KYUK 640 - 10 kW)
650 KENI Anchorage 50 61°09′58″N 149°49′34″W / 61.166111°N 149.826111°W / 61.166111; -149.826111 (KENI 650 - 50 kW)
660 KFAR Fairbanks 10 64°48′29″N 147°29′34″W / 64.808056°N 147.492778°W / 64.808056; -147.492778 (KFAR 660 - 10 kW)
670 KDLG Dillingham 10 59°02′43″N 158°27′07″W / 59.045278°N 158.451944°W / 59.045278; -158.451944 (KDLG 670 - 10 kW)
680 KBRW Barrow 10 71°15′24″N 156°31′32″W / 71.256667°N 156.525556°W / 71.256667; -156.525556 (KBRW 680 - 10 kW)
700 KBYR Anchorage 10 61°12′25″N 149°55′20″W / 61.206944°N 149.922222°W / 61.206944; -149.922222 (KBYR 700 - 10 kW)
720 KOTZ Kotzebue 10 66°50′22″N 162°34′05″W / 66.839444°N 162.568056°W / 66.839444; -162.568056 (KOTZ 720 - 10 kW)
750 KFQD Anchorage 50 61°20′18″N 150°02′03″W / 61.338333°N 150.034167°W / 61.338333; -150.034167 (KFQD 750 - 10 kW)
770 KCHU Valdez 9.7 61°06′40″N 146°15′39″W / 61.111111°N 146.260833°W / 61.111111; -146.260833 (KCHU 770 - 9.7 kW)
780 KNOM Nome 25 / 14 64°29′16″N 165°17′58″W / 64.487778°N 165.299444°W / 64.487778; -165.299444 (KNOM 780 - 25 / 14 kW)
820 KCBF Fairbanks 10 64°52′44″N 147°40′06″W / 64.878889°N 147.668333°W / 64.878889; -147.668333 (KCBF 820 - 10 kW)
850 KICY Nome 50 64°29′15″N 165°18′53″W / 64.4875°N 165.314722°W / 64.4875; -165.314722 (KICY 850 - 50 kW)
890 KBBI Homer 10 59°40′14″N 151°26′38″W / 59.670556°N 151.443889°W / 59.670556; -151.443889 (KBBI 890 - 10 kW)
1020 KVNT Eagle River 10 61°29′02″N 149°45′44″W / 61.483889°N 149.762222°W / 61.483889; -149.762222 (KVNT 1020 - 10 kW)
1080 KOAN Anchorage 10 61°07′12″N 149°53′43″W / 61.12°N 149.895278°W / 61.12; -149.895278 (KOAN 1080 - 10 kW)
1170 KJNP North Pole 50 / 21 64°45′34″N 147°19′26″W / 64.759444°N 147.323889°W / 64.759444; -147.323889 (KJNP 1170 - 50 / 21 kW)

NotesEdit

  1. ^ 690 kHz at Montreal was originally assigned under NARBA to CBF (that station migrated to FM in 1998), and was later reused by CINF; after CINF closed in January 2010, CKGM applied for and was granted the frequency, and moved from 990 kHz to 690 kHz in September 2012.
  2. ^ 740 kHz was used by CBC Radio One's CBL in Toronto until 2000 when the station moved to 99.1 FM. CFZM, known at the time as CHWO, acquired 740 in 2001.
  3. ^ 940 kHz at Montreal was originally assigned under NARBA to CBM (that station migrated to FM in 1998), and was later reused by CINW, which ceased operations in 2010. Despite leaving the air, it remained notified to the U.S. as a class-A allotment. A new license has since been granted to Tietolman-Tétrault-Pancholy Media (TTP) to broadcast a French news-talk format at 940 AM by the CRTC. After numerous delays, the station began broadcasting a series of test tones intermittently on October 26, 2016. Official testing began on November 16, 2016 with music and recorded announcements with a phone number to report signal interference. Although the station was given a deadline of November 21, 2016 by the CRTC to launch its French news-talk format, the station has yet to do so.
  4. ^ 1550 kHz was originally CBE (AM), which shut down the AM station after moving to 97.5 CBEW-FM in 2011. On November 1, 2012, CBEF, traditionally on 540 kHz, also started broadcasting on the same AM transmitter and frequency that CBE had used.
  5. ^ KNZR is the only U.S. class-A station licensed to operate with less than 50 kilowatts full-time.
  6. ^ 1580 kHz was originally used by CBJ in Chicoutimi, Quebec. After that station moved to FM in 1999, CHUC applied for and was granted 1580 kHz in Cobourg, Ontario with 10 kW, but chose instead to move to FM itself (despite being notified to the U.S. as an existing station on 1580). CKDO moved from 1350 to 1580 kHz on August 13, 2006 and became that day a class A station using 10 kW. U.S. FCC record is at [1]

List of former clear-channel stationsEdit

Freq.
(kHz)
Callsign City of license Fate
850 XETQ-AM Ixhuatlancillo, Veracruz Migrated to FM as XHTQ-FM. At its height XETQ was authorized for 100 kW day/50 kW night. In the 1990s it lowered its power to 10 kW day/1 kW night.
1070 CBA Moncton, New Brunswick Moved to FM in April 2008. Canada has not withdrawn the international notification for CBA.
1190 WOWO Fort Wayne, Indiana Downgraded to class B in 1998 by reducing night power to 9.8 kilowatts with a three tower directional antenna; Inner City Broadcasting purchased WOWO so that its station in New York, WLIB, could remain on air 24 hours a day. WOWO was later purchased by Pathfinder Communications, the current owners.
1510 KGA Spokane, Washington Downgraded to class B in 2011 to make room for co-channel sister station KSFN, Piedmont, California, reducing night power to 15 kW[11]
1550 XERUV-AM Xalapa, Veracruz A bad permit renewal, made in 2005, required this station to shut down in June 2016. The university wants to resume operation on AM but must apply for a new public concession to do so.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Rural Radio Magazine, Vol. 1 No. 1, Clear Channel Group (November 1938), p. 2
  2. ^ "KGIR, Butte, Requests 50 kw. On WEAF Clear Channel". Broadcasting and Broadcast Advertising. Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc. 21 (9): 16. September 1, 1941.
  3. ^ "WHAS Superpower". Broadcasting and Broadcast Advertising. Washington, D.C.: Broadcasting Publications, Inc. 21 (17): 52. October 27, 1941. A half-dozen other applications ranging from 500,000 to 750,000 watts now are pending
  4. ^ "WSB Revives Its 500-kw. Application, Seventh Stations Seeking Superpower". Broadcasting and Broadcast Advertising. 21 (18): 57. November 3, 1941. Already pending before the Commission were the applications of WLW, Cincinnati, for 650,000 watts, WOAI, San Antonio, seeking 750,000 watts, KSL, Salt Lake City, for 500,000 watts, and WSM, Nashville asking 500,000-watt operation. Similarly the application of WHO, Des Moines, for an increase to 500,000 watts is reported to be about ready for filing.
  5. ^ "Superpower, Clear Channels Slated for Early FCC Probe". Broadcasting and Broadcast Advertising. 21 (16): 12. October 20, 1941.
  6. ^ Facts on File 1980 Yearbook, p. 519
  7. ^ Fybush, Scott (February 26, 2010). "Remembering Buffalo's BBC". Tower Site of the Week. Retrieved March 13, 2018.
  8. ^ Instituto Federal de Telecomunicaciones. Infraestructura de Estaciones de Radio AM. Last modified 2018-05-16. Retrieved 2015-12-15. Technical information from the IFT Coverage Viewer.
  9. ^ a b When two figures are listed, the first is daytime power, the second is nighttime.
  10. ^ Nighttime site.
  11. ^ FCC license BL-20100527AGH

External linksEdit