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Churchill, Manitoba

Churchill (Inuktitut: ᑯᒡᔪᐊᖅ, Kuugjuaq)[4] is a town in northern Manitoba, Canada, on the west shore of Hudson Bay, roughly 110 kilometres (68 miles) from the Manitoba–Nunavut border. It is most famous for the many polar bears that move toward the shore from inland in the autumn, leading to the nickname "Polar Bear Capital of the World" that has helped its growing tourism industry.

Churchill

ᑯᒡᔪᐊᖅ
Town
Churchill's welcome sign
Churchill's welcome sign
Nicknames: 
Churchill is located in Manitoba
Churchill
Churchill
Churchill in Manitoba
Churchill is located in Canada
Churchill
Churchill
Churchill (Canada)
Coordinates: 58°46′09″N 094°10′09″W / 58.76917°N 94.16917°W / 58.76917; -94.16917Coordinates: 58°46′09″N 094°10′09″W / 58.76917°N 94.16917°W / 58.76917; -94.16917
CountryCanada
ProvinceManitoba
RegionNorthern
Census division23
Government
 • TypeTown Council
 • MayorMichael Spence
 • MPNiki Ashton
 • MLAIan Bushie
Area
 • Total53.96 km2 (20.83 sq mi)
Elevation0 m (0 ft)
Highest elevation
29 m (94 ft)
Lowest elevation
0 m (0 ft)
Population
 (2016)
 • Total899
 • Density16.7/km2 (43/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC−06:00 (CST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−05:00 (DST)
Postal code
Area code(s)204
Websitechurchill.ca

GeographyEdit

Churchill is located on Hudson Bay, at the mouth of the Churchill River on the 58th parallel north, far above most Canadian populated areas. Churchill is far from any other towns or cities, with Thompson, approximately 400 km (250 mi) to the south, being the closest larger settlement. Manitoba's provincial capital, Winnipeg, is approximately 1,000 km (620 mi) south of Churchill.[citation needed]

HistoryEdit

A variety of nomadic Arctic people lived and hunted in this region. The Thule people arrived around the year 1000 from the west, and later evolved into the present-day Inuit culture. The Dene people arrived around the year 500 from farther north. Since before the time of European contact, the region around Churchill has been predominantly inhabited by the Chipewyan and Cree natives.[citation needed]

Europeans first arrived in the area in 1619 when a Danish expedition led by Jens Munk wintered near where Churchill would later stand. Only 3 of 64 expedition members survived the winter and sailed one of the expedition's two ships, the sloop Lamprey, back to Denmark.[5] Danish archaeologists in 1964 discovered remains of the abandoned ship, the Unicorn (a frigate), in the tidal flats some kilometres from the mouth of the river.[6] The discoveries were all taken to Denmark; some are on display at the National Museum in Copenhagen.

After an abortive attempt in 1688–89, in 1717 the Hudson's Bay Company built the first permanent settlement, Churchill River Post, a log fort a few kilometres upstream from the mouth of the Churchill River. The trading post and river were named after John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough (an ancestor of Winston Churchill), who was governor of the Hudson's Bay Company in the late 17th century. The fort was built mostly to capitalize on the North American fur trade, out of the reach of York Factory. It dealt mainly with the Chipewyan natives living north of the boreal forest. Much of the fur came from as far away as Lake Athabasca and the Rocky Mountains.[citation needed]

As part of the Anglo-French dispute for North America, in 1731–1741 the original fort was replaced with Prince of Wales Fort, a large stone fort on the western peninsula at the mouth of the river. In 1782, the French, led by La Pérouse, captured it. Since the British, under Samuel Hearne, were greatly outnumbered and in any event were not soldiers, they surrendered without firing a shot. The leaders agreed Hearne would be released and given safe passage to England, along with 31 British civilians, in the sloop Severn, on condition he immediately publish his story "A Journey to the Northern Ocean". In return, the British promised the same number of French prisoners would be released and a British navigator familiar with the waters safely conduct the French from Hudson's Bay at a time of year when the French risked becoming trapped in winter ice.[7] The French made an unsuccessful attempt to demolish the fort. The worst effect was on the natives, who had become dependent on trade goods from the fort, and many of them starved. Extensive reconstruction and stabilization of the fort's remains have taken place since the 1950s.[citation needed]

In 1783, Hearne returned to build a new fort, a short distance upriver. Due to its distance from areas of heavy competition between the North West Company and the Hudson's Bay Company, it remained a stable, if not profitable, source of furs.[citation needed]

 
Polar bear statue in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada

Between the years of decline in the fur trade and surfacing of western agricultural success, Churchill phased into and then back out of obsolescence. After decades of frustration over the monopoly and domination of the Canadian Pacific Railway, western Canadian governments banded together and argued for the creation of a major new northern shipping harbour on Hudson Bay, linked by rail from Winnipeg. Initially Port Nelson was selected for this purpose in 1912. After several years of effort and millions of dollars, this project was abandoned and Churchill was selected as the alternative after World War One. Surveys by the Canadian Hydrographic Service ship CSS Acadia opened the way for safe navigation. However, construction and use of the railroad was extremely slow and the rail line itself did not come to Churchill until 1929.[citation needed]

Once the link from farm to port was completed, commercial shipping took many more years to pick up. In 1932 Grant MacEwan was the first person to cross through Churchill customs as a passenger. This was purely due to his determination in taking the Hudson Bay route to Saskatchewan from Britain—most passengers returned via the Saint Lawrence River.[citation needed]

In 1942, the United States Army Air Forces established a base called Fort Churchill, 8 km (5 mi) east of the town. After World War II, the base served several other purposes including as a Strategic Air Command facility. Following the demolition of the base it was repurposed into the town's airport.[8][citation needed]

Naval Radio Station Churchill, callsign CFL, was activated as an ionospheric study station by the RCN in support of the U-boat HFDF net and became operational on August 1, 1943. Around 1949, Churchill became part of the Canadian SUPRAD (signals intelligence) network and remained in that role until it closed its doors in 1968. The Operations and Accommodations building remains today but is abandoned.[citation needed]

This area was also the site of the Churchill Rocket Research Range, part of Canadian-American atmospheric research. Its first rocket was launched in 1956, and it continued to host launches for research until closing in 1984. The site of the former rocket range now hosts the Churchill Northern Studies Centre, a facility for multidisciplinary Arctic research.[9][citation needed]

In the 1950s, the British government considered establishing a site near Churchill for testing their early nuclear weapons, before choosing Australia instead.[10]

EnvironmentEdit

 
Polar bears on the ice

Churchill is situated at the estuary of the Churchill River at Hudson Bay. The small community stands at an ecotone, on the Hudson Plains, at the juncture of three ecoregions: the boreal forest to the south, the Arctic tundra to the northwest, and the Hudson Bay to the north. Wapusk National Park is to the east of the town.[citation needed]

The landscape around Churchill is influenced by shallow soils caused by a combination of subsurface permafrost and Canadian Shield rock formation. The black spruce dominant tree cover is sparse and stunted from these environmental constraints. There is also a noticeable ice pruning effect to the trees.[11] The area also offers sport fishing. Several tour operators offer expeditions on land, sea and air, using all terrain vehicles, tundra buggies, boats, canoes, helicopters and even ultralight aircraft.[citation needed]

Aurora BorealisEdit

Like all northern communities in Canada, Churchill can sometimes see the Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) when there is a high amount of solar activity. Visibility also depends on the sky being dark enough to see them, which usually precludes their visibility in the summer due to twilight all night long.[citation needed]

ClimateEdit

Churchill has a subarctic climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfc) with long very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.[12] Churchill's winters are colder than a location at a latitude of 58 degrees north should warrant, given its coastal location. The shallow Hudson Bay freezes, eliminating any maritime moderation. Prevailing northerly winds from the North Pole jet across the frozen bay and chill it to a −26.0 °C (−14.8 °F)[13] January average. Juneau, Alaska, by contrast, is also at 58 degrees north but is moderated by the warmer and deeper Pacific Ocean. Juneau's −3.5 °C (25.7 °F)[14] January average temperature is a full 22.5 °C (40.5 °F) warmer than Churchill's. Yet in summer, when the Hudson Bay thaws, Churchill's summer is moderated.[citation needed]

Churchill's 12.7 °C (54.9 °F)[13] July average temperature is almost the same as Juneau's 13.8 °C (56.8 °F)[14] July average. Churchill lies just south of the parallel of Stockholm, Sweden, and just north of that of Inverness, Scotland, both of which have a much milder climate, with all months being significantly warmer than coastal Northern Manitoba. This is in part due to the lack of influence of the Gulf Stream on the Hudson Bay climate.[citation needed]

Climate data for Churchill Airport, 1981−2010 normals, extremes 1929−present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 1.2 1.7 8.3 28.0 30.7 36.2 39.7 44.2 34.1 23.0 5.4 2.8 44.2
Record high °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
1.8
(35.2)
9.0
(48.2)
28.2
(82.8)
28.9
(84.0)
32.2
(90.0)
34.0
(93.2)
36.9
(98.4)
29.2
(84.6)
21.7
(71.1)
7.2
(45.0)
3.0
(37.4)
36.9
(98.4)
Average high °C (°F) −21.9
(−7.4)
−20.2
(−4.4)
−13.9
(7.0)
−5.1
(22.8)
2.9
(37.2)
12.0
(53.6)
18.0
(64.4)
16.8
(62.2)
9.5
(49.1)
1.6
(34.9)
−9.0
(15.8)
−17.8
(0.0)
−2.3
(27.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.0
(−14.8)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−18.9
(−2.0)
−9.8
(14.4)
−1.0
(30.2)
7.0
(44.6)
12.7
(54.9)
12.3
(54.1)
6.4
(43.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
−12.7
(9.1)
−21.9
(−7.4)
−6.5
(20.3)
Average low °C (°F) −30.1
(−22.2)
−28.8
(−19.8)
−23.9
(−11.0)
−14.4
(6.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
2.0
(35.6)
7.3
(45.1)
7.7
(45.9)
3.2
(37.8)
−3.9
(25.0)
−16.4
(2.5)
−25.9
(−14.6)
−10.7
(12.7)
Record low °C (°F) −45.6
(−50.1)
−45.4
(−49.7)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−33.3
(−27.9)
−25.2
(−13.4)
−9.4
(15.1)
−2.2
(28.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−11.7
(10.9)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−36.1
(−33.0)
−43.9
(−47.0)
−45.6
(−50.1)
Record low wind chill −64 −63 −63 −47 −37 −13 −7 −6 −17 −35 −51 −59 −64
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.7
(0.74)
16.6
(0.65)
18.1
(0.71)
23.6
(0.93)
30.0
(1.18)
44.2
(1.74)
59.8
(2.35)
69.4
(2.73)
69.9
(2.75)
48.4
(1.91)
35.5
(1.40)
18.4
(0.72)
452.5
(17.81)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.4
(0.02)
1.1
(0.04)
16.1
(0.63)
41.0
(1.61)
59.8
(2.35)
69.3
(2.73)
66.0
(2.60)
20.9
(0.82)
1.3
(0.05)
0.1
(0.00)
276.0
(10.87)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 21.7
(8.5)
19.3
(7.6)
20.4
(8.0)
24.9
(9.8)
15.5
(6.1)
3.3
(1.3)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
4.2
(1.7)
29.8
(11.7)
39.2
(15.4)
22.9
(9.0)
201.2
(79.2)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 11.9 10.2 11.0 8.9 10.2 12.0 13.9 15.4 15.9 15.7 15.5 11.9 152.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.09 0.05 0.45 1.4 5.1 10.7 13.9 14.9 14.5 6.5 0.91 0.24 67.5
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 11.9 10.3 11.1 8.3 6.7 1.5 0.0 0.06 2.6 11.6 15.6 12.3 92.1
Mean monthly sunshine hours 79.7 117.7 177.8 198.2 197.0 243.0 281.7 225.9 112.0 58.1 55.3 53.1 1,799.5
Percent possible sunshine 36.2 45.1 48.7 45.8 37.7 44.3 51.6 47.2 29.0 18.2 23.5 26.7 37.8
Source: Environment Canada[13][15][16]

EconomyEdit

Tourism and ecotourism are major contributors to the local economy, with the polar bear season (October and November) being the largest. Tourists also visit to watch beluga whales in the Churchill River in June and July. The area is also popular for birdwatchers and to view the aurora borealis.[citation needed]

The Port of Churchill is the terminus for the Hudson Bay Railway operated by the Arctic Gateway Group. The port facilities handle shipments of grain and other commodities around the world. The Churchill Northern Studies Centre also attracts visitors and academics from around the world interested in sub-Arctic and Arctic research. The town also has a health centre, several hotels, tour operators, and restaurants, to serve locals and visitors.[citation needed]

EcotourismEdit

Churchill is situated along Manitoba's 1,400 km (870 mi) coastline, on Hudson Bay at the meeting of three major biomes: marine, boreal forest and tundra,[17][18][19][20] each supporting a variety of flora and fauna. Each year, 10,000–12,000 eco-tourists visit, about 400–500 of whom are birders.

Polar bearsEdit

Polar bears were once thought to be solitary animals that would avoid contact with other bears except for mating. In the Churchill region, however, many alliances between bears are made in the fall. These friendships last only until the ice forms, then it is every bear for itself to hunt ringed seals. Starting in the 1980s, the town developed a sizable tourism industry focused on the migration habits of the polar bear. Tourists can safely view polar bears from specially modified vehicles built to navigate the tundra terrain. Utilizing a set of trails created by the Canadian and US military, responsible tour operators are granted permits to access these trails for wildlife viewing. Staying on these established trails ensures no further damage is done to the tundra ecosystem. October and early November are the most feasible times to see polar bears, thousands of which wait on the vast peninsula until the water freezes on Hudson Bay so they can return to hunt their primary food source, ringed seals. There are also opportunities to see polar bears in the non-winter months, with tours via boat visiting the coastal areas where polar bears can be found both on land and swimming in the sea.[21]

Many locals even leave their cars unlocked in case someone needs to make a quick escape from the polar bears in the area.[22] Local authorities maintain a so-called "polar bear jail" where bears (mostly adolescents) who persistently loiter in or close to town, are held after being tranquilised, pending release back into the wild when the bay freezes over.[23] It is the subject of a poem, Churchill Bear Jail, by Salish Chief Victor A. Charlo.[24]

Beluga whalesEdit

Thousands of beluga whales, which move into the warmer waters of the Churchill River estuary during July and August to calf, are a major summer attraction. Polar bears are present as well, and can sometimes be seen from boat tours at this time of year.[citation needed]

BirdsEdit

Churchill is also a destination for bird watchers from late May until August.[25] Birders have recorded more than 270 species within a 25 mi (40 km) radius of Churchill, including snowy owl, tundra swan, American golden plover and gyrfalcon. Plus, more than 100 birds, including parasitic jaeger, Smith's longspur, stilt sandpiper, and Harris's sparrow, nest there.[26]

Health careEdit

 
Town centre complex

The town has a modern health centre, the Churchill Regional Health Authority, which employs about 100 people. It provides 44 beds, dental care and diagnostic laboratories to service the residents of Churchill and the communities of the Kivalliq Region (Keewatin) of Nunavut.[27]

Arctic researchEdit

Churchill Northern Studies CentreEdit

The Churchill Northern Studies Centre is a non-profit research and education facility 23 km (14 mi) east of the town of Churchill. It provides accommodations, meals, equipment rentals, and logistical support to scientific researchers who work on a diverse range of topics of interest to northern science.[28]

Churchill Marine ObservatoryEdit

As of late 2019, the Churchill Marine Observatory (CMO) is currently under construction by the University of Manitoba with federal funds.[29] It will facilitate studies to address technological, scientific and economic issues pertaining to Arctic oil spills, gas exploration,[30] and other contaminants.[31] The facility will be located in the Churchill estuary, and will consist of two saltwater sub-pools designed to simultaneously accommodate contaminated and control experiments on various scenarios of the behavior of oil spills in sea ice.[32][33] The concrete pools will be equipped with a movable fabric roof to control snow cover and ice growth, and various sensors and instruments to allow real-time monitoring.[31][32] The project is estimated to cost about $32 million.[34] The lead scientist is David G. Barber, a professor at the University of Manitoba and Canada Research Chair in Arctic-System Science at the University of Manitoba.[34]

TransportationEdit

Churchill Airport, formerly a United States and Canadian military base, is serviced by Calm Air and First Air operating scheduled flights connecting Churchill to Winnipeg and to various communities in the Kivalliq Region of Nunavut.[citation needed]

The privately-owned Port of Churchill is Canada's principal seaport on the Arctic Ocean. The port was originally constructed by the government in the 1930s, although the idea of building such an Arctic deepwater port originated in the 19th century.[35] It is the only Arctic Ocean seaport connected to the North American railway grid. The port is capable of servicing Panamax vessels.[36] The presence of ice on Hudson Bay restricts navigation from mid-autumn to mid-summer.[37][38] Churchill experiences the highest tides in Hudson Bay.[39][40] The Churchill estuary has a narrow entrance, and ships planning to moor at the port have to execute a relatively tight 100 degree turn. Marine transportation companies Northern Transportation Company Limited[41] (NTCL), headquartered in Hay River, Northwest Territories, and Nunavut Sealink and Supply (NSSI),[42] both have bases in Churchill and provide sealift to the Eastern Arctic and to a few Central Arctic communities. he port was used for the export of Canadian grain to European markets, with rail-sea connections made at Churchill.[43]

There are no roads from Churchill that connect to the Canadian highway network.[43] The only overland route connecting Churchill to the rest of Canada is the Hudson Bay Railway, formerly part of the Canadian National Railway (CN) network, which connects the Port of Churchill and the town's railway station to CN's rail line at The Pas. The Winnipeg–Churchill train, operated by Via Rail, provides passenger service between Churchill station in downtown Churchill and Union Station in downtown Winnipeg twice per week and from The Pas once per week. The 1,700 km (1,100 mi) journey from Winnipeg takes approximately 40 hours, and services many smaller communities in northern Manitoba and eastern Saskatchewan.[44][45]

In 1997, the railway line and port were sold by the Canadian government to the American railway-holding company OmniTRAX. The government of Manitoba proposed in 2010 that the Port of Churchill could serve as an "Arctic gateway", accepting container ships from Asia whose containers would then be transported south by rail to major destinations in North America.[46] Churchill has been used to transship grain since 1929.[36] In October 2012, the Financial Post reported that due to delays in the approval of several new pipelines from Alberta's oil fields, oil industry planners were considering shipping oil by rail to Churchill, for loading on panamax oil tankers.[36] Under this plan icebreakers would extend the shipping season. In July 2016 OmniTRAX announced the closure of the Port of Churchill and the end of daily rail freight service to the port. Weekly freight service to the town remained[35] until May 2017, when floods washed out the track.[47]

In 2018, the Port of Churchill, the Hudson Bay Railway, and the Churchill Marine Tank Farm were purchased by Arctic Gateway Group, a public-private partnership that includes Missinippi Rail LP (a consortium of First Nations and local governments), Fairfax Financial Holdings and AGT Food and Ingredients.[48] The group engaged Cando Rail Services and Paradox Access Solutions[49] to repair the flood damage.[50] On November 1, 2018, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau joined Churchill residents to celebrate the resumption of rail freight service to the town.[51][52][53] Regular freight shipments resumed in late November and passenger service in early December 2018.[54][55][54]

Demographics and cultureEdit

YearPop.±%
19811,304—    
19861,217−6.7%
19961,089−10.5%
2001963−11.6%
2006923−4.2%
2011813−11.9%
2016899+10.6%

As of the 2006 Canada Census, just under half (44.10%) of the population was non-native and the rest (56.41%) were Aboriginal, mostly Chipewyan and Swampy Cree (33.85%), with some Métis (16.41%) and a small number of Inuit (5.64%).[56]

Hunting, trapping and fishing is still an important activity to most of these residents. Although there are some summer trails, snowmobiles are their main transport.[citation needed]

The main language is English and about one in five aboriginal residents also speak Cree.[56]

The town has a modern multiplex centre housing a cinema, cafeteria, public library, hospital, health centre, day care, swimming pool, ice hockey rink, indoor playground, gym, curling rinks and basketball courts. Nearby is the "Eskimo Museum", operated by the Diocese of Churchill-Baie d'Hudson, with over 850 high quality Inuit carvings on permanent display. The exhibits include historic and contemporary sculptures of stone, bone, and ivory, as well as archaeological and wildlife specimens.[57] The Parks Canada visitor centre also has artifacts on display and makes use of audiovisual presentations of various topics involving the region's natural and archaeological history.

By the late 1980s, both the local government and Parks Canada had successfully educated its population on polar bear safety, significantly reducing lethal confrontations and fueling ecotourism such that both the community and the polar bears benefited.[citation needed]

Local mediaEdit

RadioEdit

  • CHFC 1230 AM – CBC Radio One. Weekday mornings (Tuesday-Friday) from 8:15-8:30 AM, David Caskey hosted the local morning announcement program for 28 years, retiring in 2009. From January 2009-November 2009 the show was co-hosted by Ian Martens. George Davis was also the morning host for a time. At all other times the station repeats CBWK-FM from Thompson. CBC news anchor Peter Mansbridge got his start here.[58]
  • VF2312 96.9 FM – Native Communications

NewspapersEdit

Churchill has one newspaper called The Hudson Bay Post. It is a monthly newspaper, 'published occasionally', according to the front page.

In the late 1950s the first local paper, the weekly Churchill Observer, was produced by an avocational journalist, Jack Rogers, at DRNL (Defence Research Northern Laboratories) and continued for some years even after his departure. Later another small paper, the Taiga Times, was published for a few years.[citation needed]

Notable people associated with ChurchillEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brian Vinh Tien Trinh (2014-02-27). "Churchill, Manitoba, Canada's Polar Bear Capital, As Seen From Google Streetview". The Huffington Post Canada. Retrieved 2015-01-02.
  2. ^ "Census Profile". Statistics Canada. Retrieved 29 October 2012.
  3. ^ Maximum elevation at the airport as Canada Flight Supplement. Effective 0901Z 10 October 2019 to 0901Z 5 December 2019.
  4. ^ Issenman, Betty. Sinews of Survival: The living legacy of Inuit clothing. UBC Press, 1997. pp. 252–254
  5. ^ Mowat, Farley (1973). Ordeal by ice; the search for the Northwest Passage. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Ltd. OCLC 1391959.
  6. ^ Kristiansen, Anette Lillevang. ""Arctic explorer Jens Munk will always be in my heart."".
  7. ^ McGoogan, Ken (2004). Ancient Mariner. Bantam Press. pp. 299–307. ISBN 978-0-553-81642-6.
  8. ^ "Historic Sites of Manitoba: Fort Churchill (Churchill)". www.mhs.mb.ca. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  9. ^ "- Non Profit Field Station". Churchill Northern Studies Centre. Retrieved 2019-09-29.
  10. ^ O'Brien, John Clearwater and David O'Brien; Clearwater, John (July–August 2003). "O Lucky Canada – Britain considered testing nuclear weapons in northern Manitoba but found the climate in Australia much more agreeable" (PDF). Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. 59 (4): 60–65. doi:10.2968/059004015. Retrieved 2010-11-07.
  11. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Black Spruce: Picea mariana, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. Nicklas Stromberg, November 2008 Archived October 5, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ Firlotte, N.; Staniforth, R. J. (1995). "Strategies for revegetation of disturbed gravel areas in climate stressed subarctic environments with special reference to Churchill, Manitoba, Canada: a literature review" (PDF). Climate Research. 5 (1): 49–52. doi:10.3354/cr005049.
  13. ^ a b c "Churchill A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved May 7, 2014.
  14. ^ a b NOAA weather. Temperature averages for Juneau International Airport 1971–2000
  15. ^ "Churchill Marine". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  16. ^ "Churchill Climate". Canadian Climate Data. Environment Canada. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  17. ^ "Churchill, tundra biome". Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  18. ^ "Churchill, boreal forest biome". Grc.k12.nf.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  19. ^ "Chrurchill, Marine, Tundra, and Boreal Forest". Churchill.ca. Archived from the original on 2011-03-04. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  20. ^ "Integrated Management Planning in Canada's Northern Marine Environment: Engaging Coastal Communities" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  21. ^ R. Harvey Lemelin, "The gawk, the glance, and the gaze: Ocular consumption and polar bear tourism in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada." Current Issues in Tourism 9.6 (2006): 516-534.
  22. ^ Smith, John. "Churchill offers best glimpse of polar bears". Toronto Sun. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
  23. ^ "The Inconvenient Truth About Polar Bears". NPR.org. February 2, 2013. Retrieved 2019-11-02.
  24. ^ Harrison, Brady (2009). All Our Stories Are Here: Critical Perspectives on Montana Literature. U of Nebraska Press. p. 30. ISBN 0803222777. Retrieved 24 June 2018.
  25. ^ "Bird watching". virtualmuseum.cexhibitions. Retrieved 24 August 2016.[permanent dead link]
  26. ^ Kramer, Gary. "Where to Go Birdwatching at Churchill on Hudson Bay, Manitoba, Canada". Worl Birder's Magazine. Archived from the original on 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
  27. ^ Churchill Regional Health Authority Archived 2002-11-23 at Archive.today
  28. ^ "Northern Studies Centre". Churchillscience.ca. 2007-01-05. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  29. ^ Arctic Science Partnership: Churchill Marine Observatory (CMO).
  30. ^ Federal government funds U of M research into oil spill responses. University of Manitoba. 12 August 2019.
  31. ^ a b Churchill Marine Observatory. Prairie Architects. Accessed on 31 October 2019.
  32. ^ a b The Churchill Marine Observatory (CMO). Canada Foundation for Innovation.
  33. ^ The Churchill Marine Observatory (CMO) - A new national marine research base On the shores of Hudson Bay. University of Manitoba.
  34. ^ a b Churchill Marine Observatory a Reality. Steve Selden, Churchill Polar Bears. 18 August 2019.
  35. ^ a b "How Ottawa abandoned Churchill, our only Arctic port". Maclean's. 18 August 2016. Retrieved 24 August 2016. The idea of building a deep-water port on Hudson Bay began in the 19th century. It was conceived as a great nation-building enterprise, a more direct route to Europe, and a strategic gateway giving Canada an indisputable claim to the Arctic. The rail line from The Pas took six years to build, cutting through the forest and over the muskeg. The first grain shipment left in 1931. In 1997, the Liberal government of Jean Chrétien sold the railroad and port to Omnitrax, based out of Denver. The port soon saw record volumes of exports being shipped to Europe, the Middle East, and even Africa. Then Stephen Harper's Conservatives ended the Wheat Board monopoly, and farmers were free to sell their grain to whomever they chose. They chose companies shipping out of Thunder Bay or Vancouver. So the ships stopped coming, and in July Omnitrax announced it was closing the port and ending its rail freight service, too.
  36. ^ a b c Claudia Cattaneo (2012-10-31). "Oil producers eye Arctic backup plan as pipelines face uncertain future". Financial Post. Archived from the original on 2012-11-03. Retrieved 2012-11-05. Discussions are quietly underway between Calgary's oil community, Canada's only Arctic seaport, railway companies, and refiners on the East Coast and the Gulf Coast, as well as in Europe, to collect unrefined oil by rail from fields across Western Canada, get it to the port on the west coast of Hudson Bay and load it on Panamax-class tankers.
  37. ^ "Navigation Ends At Churchill, Thursday". Calgary Daily Herald. Churchill, Manitoba. 1934-10-05. p. 2. Retrieved 2012-11-06. Marking its most successful season, navigation closed Thursday out of Churchill, Manitoba's northern seaport. The Brandon and the Ashworth, with cargoes for European points, sailed yesterday, and no other boats are scheduled to dock here between now and October 10, official date for the close of navigation.
  38. ^ "Shipping Report for Churchill, Manitoba for the 2000 navigation season". Wellandcanal.ca. 2000. Archived from the original on 2011-06-05. Retrieved 2012-11-07. Federal Rhine was the first ship this year and it ended up being the earliest arrival of any commercial vessel at the port on July 11th.
  39. ^ Robert G. Allan, Peter Woodward. "Ship-Handling in the Port of ChurchillmThe "Bear" Essentials". Marine Technology. Retrieved 2017-01-09.
  40. ^ Mark Fleming (1988). "Churchill: Polar Bear Capital of the World" (PDF). Hyperion Press. p. 78. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2013-08-18. Retrieved 2017-01-09. At least ships are in safe hands once they arrive at the Port of Churchill. The George Kidd and the larger H. M. Wilson are the 2 tugboats that assist the oceangoing vessels in docking.
  41. ^ "NTCL". NTCL. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  42. ^ "Desgagnés Transarctik". Arcticsealift.com. Archived from the original on 2011-07-07. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  43. ^ a b Howard Witt (1987-11-08). "Feed This Town's Kitty, But Not The Bears". Chicago Tribune. Churchill, Manitoba. Archived from the original on 2015-06-27. Retrieved 2012-11-06. Man, too, has intermittently found the rocky, wind-blasted bit of coast a fit place to settle: The Inuit stayed here in prehistory, European explorers in the early 17th Century and the Hudson's Bay Co. a hundred years after that. The railroad reached the area in the 1930s, to supply a grain port;
  44. ^ "Winnipeg-Churchill train". Viarail.ca. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  45. ^ "Winnipeg – Churchill train timetable, northbound" (PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  46. ^ "New Arctic gateway". November 2010. Archived from the original on 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2010-12-13.
  47. ^ Porter, Catherine. "Canadian Town, Isolated After Losing Rail Link, 'Feels Held Hostage'". nytimes.com.
  48. ^ Caroline Barghout (2018-09-05). "Company fixing Churchill rail line says repairs will be complete in 60 days". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved October 14, 2018.
  49. ^ Eric Westhaver (September 13, 2018). "Group reaches deal for Churchill rail purchase, repair". The Reminder. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  50. ^ "'This is historic': Deal reached on broken rail line to Churchill in Manitoba" – via The Globe and Mail.
  51. ^ "Trudeau joins Churchill residents to celebrate return of rail service". The Globe and Mail. 1 November 2018.
  52. ^ Malone, Kelly Geraldine (1 November 2018). "Prime Minister Justin Trudeau in Churchill as town celebrates rail line repairs". CTVNews.
  53. ^ The Canadian Press. "Churchill train service to be back to normal by end of November: Trudeau". Weyburn Review. Archived from the original on 2018-11-01. Retrieved 2018-11-02.
  54. ^ a b Aidan Geary (November 19, 2018). "Freight services back between Churchill and Thompson, Man". CBC.ca. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  55. ^ "All aboard: First passenger train in 18 months departs for Churchill, Man". CTV News. December 2, 2018. Retrieved December 16, 2018.
  56. ^ a b "2006 Aboriginal Population Profile". Retrieved 2009-04-26.
  57. ^ "Eskimo Museum". Churchill.ca. 1960-09-14. Archived from the original on 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2011-02-19.
  58. ^ Scott, Maureen. "Peter Mansbridge One on One". Good Life Mississauga. Metroland Media Group (May/June 2010). Archived from the original on May 30, 2015. Retrieved May 29, 2015.

Further readingEdit

  • Brandon, Lorraine. Churchill Hudson Bay, A Guide to Natural and Cultural Heritage (The Churchill Eskimo Museum, 2011). ISBN 9780986937101
  • Bussidor, Ida and Bilgen-Reinart, Űstűn. "Night Spirits - The Story of the Relocation of the Sayisi Dene" The University of Manitoba Press ISBN 0-88755-643-4
  • Dredge, L. A. Field guide to the Churchill region, Manitoba glaciations, sea level changes, permafrost landforms, and archaeology of the Churchill and Gillam areas. Ottawa, Canada: Geological Survey of Canada, 1992. ISBN 0-660-14565-0
  • Eliasson, Kelsey. Polar Bears of Churchill (Munck's Cafe, 2005). ISBN 0-9780757-0-6
  • MacEwan, Grant. The Battle for the Bay (Prairie Books, 1975). ISBN 0-919306-51-9
  • Will Ferguson. Beauty Tips from Moose Jaw: Excursions in the Great Weird North (Canongate Books Ltd, 2006). ISBN 1-84195-690-2
  • Unger, Zac. Never look a polar bear in the eye : a family field trip to the Arctic's edge in search of adventure, truth, and mini-marshmallows (First Da Capo Press ed.). Boston, MA. ISBN 9780306821165. OCLC 778420449.
  • Lemelin, R. Harvey. "The gawk, the glance, and the gaze: Ocular consumption and polar bear tourism in Churchill, Manitoba, Canada." Current Issues in Tourism 9.6 (2006): 516-534.
  • MacIver, Angus & Bernice, Churchill on Hudson Bay, revised edition,2006, ISBN 0-9780757-3-0.
  • Montsion, Jean Michel. "Churchill, Manitoba and the Arctic Gateway: a historical contextualization." Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 59.3 (2015): 304-316.
  • Payne, Michael. "Fort Churchill, 1821-1900: an Outpost Community in the Fur Trade." Manitoba History 20 (1990): 2-15.

External linksEdit