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Christopher Scott Kyle (April 8, 1974 – February 2, 2013) was a United States Navy SEAL sniper. He served four tours in the Iraq War and was awarded several commendations for acts of heroism and meritorious service in combat. He was awarded one Silver Star Medal, four Bronze Star Medals with "V" devices, a Navy and Marine Corps Achievement Medal and numerous other unit and personal awards.[4][8]

Chris Kyle
Chris Kyle.jpg
Kyle in a green FROG uniform
Birth nameChristopher Scott Kyle[1]
Nickname(s)"The Legend", "Devil of Ramadi", "Tex"
Born(1974-04-08)April 8, 1974
Odessa, Texas, U.S.
DiedFebruary 2, 2013(2013-02-02) (aged 38)
Erath County, Texas, U.S.
Allegiance United States of America
Service/branchFlag of the United States Navy.svg United States Navy
Years of service1999–2009
RankCPO collar.png Chief Petty Officer[3]
UnitUnited States Navy Special Warfare insignia.pngU.S. Navy SEALs
  • Sniper element, platoon "Charlie", later changed to "Cadillac", SEAL Team 3
Battles/warsIraq War
Taya Kyle (m. 2002)
  • Wayne Kenneth Kyle (father)
  • Deby Lynn Mercer (mother)
  • Children: 2[6]
Other work

Kyle was honorably discharged from the U.S. Navy in 2009, and published his bestselling autobiography, American Sniper, in 2012. An eponymous film adaptation of Kyle's book, directed by Clint Eastwood, was released two years later. In 2013, Kyle was murdered by Eddie Ray Routh at the Rough Creek Lodge shooting range near Chalk Mountain, Texas.[9] A former Marine with posttraumatic stress disorder, Routh was found guilty and sentenced to life in prison without parole.[10]

Early life and educationEdit

Kyle was born in Odessa, Texas, the first of two boys born to Deby Lynn (née Mercer) and Wayne Kenneth Kyle, a Sunday school teacher and deacon.[3][11] Kyle's father bought his son his first rifle at 8 years old, a bolt-action .30-06 Springfield rifle, and later a shotgun, with which they hunted deer, pheasant, and quail.[3] Kyle and his brother grew up raising up to 150 head of cattle at a time.[12] Kyle attended high school in Midlothian, Texas,[13] and after graduating, became a professional bronco rodeo rider and ranch hand, but his professional rodeo career ended abruptly when he severely injured his arm.[14]

Military careerEdit

Kyle went to a military recruiting office, as he was interested in joining the U.S. Marine Corps special operations. A U.S. Navy recruiter convinced him to try, instead, for the SEALs. Initially, Kyle was rejected because of the pins in his arm, but he eventually received an invitation to the 24-week Basic Underwater Demolition/Sea, Air, Land (SEAL) training (BUD/S) at Coronado, California in 1999.[14] Kyle graduated with class 233 in March 2001.

Assigned to SEAL Team-3, sniper element, Platoon "Charlie" (later "Cadillac"),[15] within the Naval Special Warfare Command, and with four tours of duty, Kyle served in many major battles of the Iraq War.[3] His first long-range kill shot was taken during the initial invasion when he shot a woman carrying a hand grenade approaching a group of Marines. CNN reported that the woman was cradling a toddler in her other hand.[16] As ordered, Kyle opened fire, killing the woman before she could attack.[17] He later stated, "the woman was already dead. I was just making sure she didn't take any Marines with her. It was clear that not only did she want to kill them, but she didn’t care about anybody else nearby who would have been blown up by the grenade or killed in the firefight. Children on the street, people in the houses, maybe her child."[15]

Because of his track record as a marksman during his deployment to Ramadi, the insurgents named Kyle Shaitan Ar-Ramadi (English: "The Devil of Ramadi"), and put a $20,000 bounty on his head that was later increased to $80,000. They posted signs highlighting the cross on his arm as a means of identifying him.[3][17]

In his book, American Sniper, Kyle describes his longest successful shot: in 2008, outside Sadr City, he killed an insurgent sniper aiming at other members of the US military with "a straight-up luck shot" from his McMillan TAC-338 sniper rifle from about 2,100 yards (1,920 m) away.[15]

Kyle became known as, "The Legend" among the general infantry, including Marines, whom he had the task of protecting. The nickname originated among Kyle's fellow SEALs following his taking of a sabbatical to train other snipers in Fallujah, and he was sometimes called "The Myth".[18] During four tours of duty in the Iraq War, he was shot twice and survived six separate IED detonations.[17]

Military sniperEdit

Kyle was arguably one of the United States military's most effective snipers in Iraq with a large number of confirmed and unconfirmed kills. To be counted as confirmed, "They basically had to see the person fall and be clearly dead", according to Jim DeFelice, one of the coauthors of Kyle's autobiography.[19] Kyle's shooter's statements (shooter's statements are filled out by every sniper after a mission) were reported to higher command, who kept them in case any shootings were contested as outside the rules of engagement (ROE).[15] The publisher HarperCollins states: "The Pentagon has officially confirmed more than 150 of Kyle's kills (the previous American record was 109), but it has declined to verify the total number for this book."[20] In his autobiography, Kyle wrote:

The Navy credits me with more kills as a sniper than any other American service member, past or present. I guess that's true. They go back and forth on what the number is. One week, it's 160 (the 'official' number as of this writing, for what that's worth), then it's way higher, then it's somewhere in between. If you want a number, ask the Navy—you may even get the truth if you catch them on the right day.[15][21]

On July 8, 2016, the U.S. Navy corrected Kyle's DD Form 214 regarding some decorations listed on his original discharge document.[22] The original discharge papers issued to him upon leaving the service (a DD-214) tally with his account given in his autobiography, of two Silver Stars and five Bronze Stars with valor. The Navy revised it to one Silver Star and four Bronze Stars with valor.[22] The Navy said "Kyle would have played no role in the production of his personnel files other than signing the DD-214 upon his discharge" and "[a]fter thoroughly reviewing all available records, the Navy determined an error was made" and "issued a corrected copy of the DD214, which accurately reflects Kyle's years of honorable and extraordinary service."[22]


As a sniper, Kyle was often asked about his weapons. While in training, he used four different rifles in order to know which weapon was the most useful in the given situation. In the field, he used the following:[15]

Post-military lifeEdit

Kyle in January 2012, signing autographs for his book American Sniper at Camp Pendleton
Taya Kyle in August 2013

Kyle left the U.S. Navy in 2009, and moved to Midlothian, Texas, with his wife, Taya, and two children.[23] He was president of Craft International, a tactical training company for the U.S. military and law enforcement communities.[24]

In 2012, HarperCollins released Kyle's autobiography, American Sniper.[15] Kyle had initially hesitated to write the book but was persuaded to move forward because other books about SEALs were underway.[25] In his book, Kyle wrote bluntly of his experiences. Of the battle for control of Ramadi he says: "Force moved that battle. We killed the bad guys and brought the leaders to the peace table. That is how the world works."[26] In the book and ensuing interviews, Kyle stated he had no regrets about his work as a sharpshooter, saying, "I had to do it to protect the Marines."[27]

American Sniper had a 37-week run on The New York Times bestseller list and brought Kyle national attention.[28] Following its release, media articles challenged some of Kyle's anecdotes,[29] but the core of his narrative was widely accepted. "Tales of his heroism on the battlefield were already lore in every branch of the armed forces", writes Michael J. Mooney, author of a biography of Kyle.[30]

Kyle paired with FITCO Cares Foundation, a nonprofit organization which created the Heroes Project to provide free in-home fitness equipment, individualized programs, personal training, and life-coaching to in-need veterans with disabilities, Gold Star families, or those suffering from PTSD.[31] On August 13, 2012, Kyle appeared on the reality television show Stars Earn Stripes, which features celebrities pairing up with a Special Operations or law enforcement professional who train them in weapons and combat tactics. Kyle was teamed with actor Dean Cain.[32]

Defamation lawsuitEdit

In Kyle's book American Sniper, Kyle wrote a subchapter titled "Punching Out Scruff Face" about an alleged altercation in a bar. In the book he claims he punched a man he refers to as "Scruff" who told Kyle, "You deserve to lose a few."[29] According to Kyle, the encounter took place at McP's, a bar in Coronado, California, on October 12, 2006, during a wake for Kyle's comrade, Michael A. Monsoor, a U.S. Navy SEAL who had been killed in Iraq.[33] Petty Officer Monsoor would thereafter be posthumously presented the Medal of Honor, on April 8, 2008, for his actions in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom on September 29, 2006.

On January 4, 2012, Kyle appeared on Opie and Anthony to discuss his book.[34] On the show Kyle alleged that the character "Scruff" in his book is former Governor of Minnesota Jesse Ventura.[35]

Following these allegations, Ventura denied the incident had happened, and filed a lawsuit in January 2012 against Kyle for charges of defamation, appropriation, and unjust enrichment.[36][37] After Kyle was killed the following year, Ventura continued the lawsuit against Kyle's estate.[38]

On July 29, 2014, the jury returned a divided verdict of 8 to 2 that Kyle was liable to Ventura for defamation and unjust enrichment, but not appropriation. The jury concluded that the Kyle estate owed Ventura $500,000 for defamation, and $1.34 million for unjust enrichment.[39][40][41]

Kyle's widow appealed the verdict on behalf of Kyle's estate.[42] Attorneys for Kyle's estate asked the appeals court to throw out the verdict or at least order a new trial, because a lawyer for Ventura told jurors that the $1.8 million judgment would be paid for by Kyle's book publisher's insurance policy, not his estate.[43] In June 2016, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 8th Circuit threw out the $1.8 million in part due to the revelation of the insurance policy by Ventura's attorneys to the jury. The $1.35 million in "unjust enrichment" was overturned and dismissed as being inconsistent with Minnesota law. The $500k defamation suit was remanded back to trial.[44][45]

In December 2017, the case was settled out of court for an undisclosed amount.[46]


On February 2, 2013, Kyle and his friend, Chad Littlefield, 35, were shot and killed by Eddie Ray Routh at the Rough Creek Ranch-Lodge-Resort shooting range in Erath County, Texas.[47] Both Kyle and Littlefield were armed with .45-caliber 1911-style pistols when they were killed, but neither gun had been unholstered or fired, and the safety catches were still on. Kyle was killed with a .45-caliber pistol, while Littlefield was shot with a 9mm SIG Sauer pistol. Both guns belonged to Kyle.[9]

Routh was a 25-year-old U.S. Marine Corps veteran from Lancaster, Texas.[48] Kyle and Littlefield had reportedly taken Routh to the gun range in an effort to help him with his post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Routh had been in and out of mental hospitals for at least two years and had been diagnosed with schizophrenia.[9] His family also said he suffered from PTSD from his time in the military.[49][50] On the way to the shooting range, Kyle texted Littlefield, "This dude is straight up nuts." Littlefield responded, "Watch my six," military slang meaning "watch my back."[51] Four months later, while he was in his jail cell, Routh shared with former Erath County Sheriff's Deputy Gene Cole: "I was just riding in the back seat of the truck, and nobody would talk to me. They were just taking me to the range, so I shot them. I feel bad about it, but they wouldn't talk to me. I’m sure they've forgiven me."[9]

After the killings, Routh went to his sister's house in Midlothian and told her what he had done. His sister, Laura Blevins, called 9-1-1 and told the emergency operator: "They went out to a shooting range ... Like, he's all crazy. He's ... psychotic."[9][52] Local police captured Routh after a short freeway chase, which ended when Routh, who fled the scene in Kyle's Ford F-350 truck, crashed into a police cruiser in Lancaster.[53]

Routh was arraigned February 2, 2013, on two counts of capital murder, and was taken to the Erath County Jail for holding under a $3 million bond.[54] His trial was set to begin May 5, 2014 but was delayed to allow more time to comply with DNA testing requirements.[55] The trial began on February 11, 2015.[56]

A memorial service was held for Kyle at Cowboys Stadium in Arlington, Texas, on February 11, 2013. He was buried on February 12, 2013, at the Texas State Cemetery in Austin, after the funeral cortege journeyed from Midlothian to Austin, more than 200 miles (320 km).[57] Hundreds of people, many waving American flags, lined Interstate 35 to view the procession and pay their final respects to Kyle.[58][59]

On February 24, 2015, Routh was found guilty of killing Kyle and Littlefield. The jury returned the verdict after less than three hours of deliberations. Since prosecutors decided beforehand not to seek the death penalty, the trial judge, Jason Cashon, immediately sentenced Routh to life in prison with no possibility of parole.[60][61] Routh is imprisoned at the Texas Department of Criminal Justice Powledge Unit near Palestine, Texas.[62]


The signing of the "Chris Kyle Bill" at the Texas State Capitol in August 2013
Kyle's tombstone at the Texas State Cemetery in August 2018

In August 2013, Texas governor Rick Perry signed Senate Bill 162, also known as the "Chris Kyle Bill", to recognize military training in the issuance of occupational licenses. The bill had been co-sponsored by Republican Representative Dan Flynn of Van and Democratic Senator Leticia Van de Putte of San Antonio. The ceremony was attended by Kyle's widow Taya.[63]

Sculptor Greg Marra created a memorial statue of Kyle for presentation to his widow. Fundraising for production of the statue was provided by members of the Tea Party movement.[64][65]

Clint Eastwood's film American Sniper (2014) is based on Kyle's autobiography. Kyle is portrayed by Bradley Cooper, and his wife Taya Kyle is portrayed by Sienna Miller.[66] For his portrayal of Kyle, Cooper received an Academy Award nomination for Best Actor, and the film was nominated in five other categories, including Best Picture.[67] The film won the Academy Award for Best Sound Editing.[68]

On February 2, 2015, exactly two years after Kyle's murder, Texas Governor Greg Abbott declared the day "Chris Kyle Day".[69][70][71]

Awards and decorationsEdit

See alsoEdit


  • Kyle, Chris; McEwen, Scott; DeFelice, Jim (2013. American Sniper: The Autobiography of the Most Lethal Sniper in U.S. Military History. New York: W. Morrow, 2012. ISBN 0-062-08235-3 OCLC 733224029
  • Kyle, Chris; Doyle, William (2013). American Gun: A History of the U.S. in Ten Firearms. New York: William Morrow, 2013. ISBN 0-0622-4271-7 OCLC 813286737


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Further readingEdit


External linksEdit