Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam. The Western variety is spoken by 220,000 people in Cambodia and 25,000 people in Vietnam. As for the Eastern variety, there are about 73,000 speakers in Vietnam. There are also small populations of speakers in Thailand and Malaysia.
|Native to||Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, China (Hainan Island), various countries with recent immigrants|
|320,000 (2002 – 2008 census)|
|Cham, Arabic, Latin|
Cham is a member of the Malayo-Polynesian branch of the Austronesian family. Other Chamic languages are spoken in Cambodia and/or Vietnam (Raglai, Rade, Jarai, Chru and Haroi), on Hainan (Tsat) and in Aceh, North Sumatra (Acehnese). Cham is notable for being the oldest-attested Austronesian language, with the Dong Yen Chau inscription being dated to the late 4th century AD.
Western Cham language has 21 consonants and 9 vowels.
ia, iɯ (only occurs before -ʔ), ea, ua, oa, au (only occurs before -ʔ),
iə, ɛə, ɔə, uə.
This section needs to be updated.August 2013)(
There are several prefixes and infixes which can be used for word derivation.
- prefix pa-: causative, sometimes giving more force to the word
- thău (to know) → pathău (to inform)
- blẽi (to buy) → pablẽi (to sell)
- bier (low) → pabier (to lower)
- yău (like, as) → payău (to compare)
- jœû (finished) → pajœû (well finished)
- prefix mœ-: sometimes causative, often indicates a state, possession, mutuality, reciprocity
- jruu (poison) → mœjruu (to poison)
- gruu (teacher) → mœgruu (to study)
- téan (belly) → mœtéan (pregnancy)
- boḥ (egg, fruit) → mœboḥ (lay an egg, give fruit)
- daké (horn) → mœdaké (having horns)
- prefix ta- or da-: frequentative
- galuṇg (to roll) → tagaluṇg (to roll around)
- dâp (to hide oneself) → dadâp (to be wont to hide oneself)
- infix -an-: noun formation
- pvâch (to speak) → panvâch (speech)
- tiêu (row) → taniêu (oar)
- dok (to live) → danok (house, living place)
- infix -mœ-: no specific meaning
- payău (to compare) → pamœyău (to compare)
- palẽi, pala-palẽi (country)
- raḅaḥ, raḅaḥ-raḅœp (misery)
Syntax and word orderEdit
Dummy pronominal subjects are sometimes used, echoing the subject:
Inœû hudiêp dahlak nhu atong adẽi puthang nhu. my wife's mother she beat her husband's younger sister "My wife's mother beats her husband's younger sister."
Composite verbs will behave as one inseparable verb, having the object come after it:
Bloḥ nhu ḍiḥ dii apvẽi anẽk lakẽi. then she lie at fire (i.e.: give birth) son "Then she gave birth to a son."
Sometimes, however, the verb is placed in front of the subject:
Lêk dahlak. fall I "I fall."
Auxiliary verbs are placed after any objects:
Nhu ba hudiêp nhu nau. he bring his wife go "He brings his wife."
If a sentence contains more than one main verb, one of the two will have an adverbial meaning:
Nhu dâp klaḥ mœtai. he hide evade death "He evaded death by hiding."
Adjectives come after the nouns they modify:
thang prong house big "a big house"
If the order is reversed, the whole will behave like a compound:
ôrang prong shap person big noise "a noisy person"
Composite sentences can be formed with the particle krung:
It is also possible to leave out this particle, without change in meaning:
Dahlak brẽi athêh nan kaa va dahlak ∅ dok dii palẽi Ram. I give this horse to my uncle who live in the village of Ram "I have given this horse to my uncle, who lives in the village of Ram."
Questions are formed with the sentence-final particle rẽi:
Anẽk thău vakhar rẽi? child know writing q "Can you write, child?"
Other question words are in situ:
Hẽû nau hatau? you go where "Where are you going?"
Like many languages in Eastern Asia, Cham uses numeral classifiers to express amounts. The classifier will always come after the numeral, with the noun coming invariably before or after the classifier-numeral pair.
The above examples show the classifier boḥ, which literally means "egg" and is the most frequently used — particularly for round and voluminous objects. Other classifiers are ôrang (person) for people and deities, ḅêk for long objects, blaḥ (leaf) for flat objects, and many others.
The days of the month are counted with a similar system, with two classifiers: one (bangun) used to count days before the full moon, and the other one (ranaṃ) for days after the full moon.
Personal pronouns behave like ordinary nouns and do not show any case distinctions. There are different forms depending on the level of politeness. The first person singular, for example, is kău in formal or distant context, while it is dahlak (in Vietnam) or hulun (in Cambodia) in an ordinarily polite context. As is the case with many other languages of the region, kinship terms are often used as personal pronouns.
tapaa di aï nhu big at his brother "bigger than his brother"
There are some particles that can be used to indicate tense/aspect. The future is indicated with shi or thi in Vietnam, with hi or si in Cambodia. The perfect is expressed with jœû. The first one comes in front of the verb:
Arak ni kău shi nao. now I fut go "I will go now."
The second one is sentence-final:
Shit traa kău nao jœû. little more I go prf "I'll be gone in a moment."
Certain verbs can function as auxiliaries to express other tenses or aspects. The verb dok ("to stay") is used for the continuous, vœk ("to return") for the repetitive aspect, and kiœng ("to want") for the future tense.
The imperative is formed with the sentence-final particle bêk, and the negative imperative with the preverbal jvai/jvẽi (in Vietnam and Cambodia respectively).
Brunelle observed two phenomena of language use among speakers of Eastern Cham: They are both diglossic and bilingual (in Cham and Vietnamese). Diglossia is the situation where two varieties of a language are used in a single language community, and oftentimes one is used on formal occasions (labelled H) and the other is more colloquial (labelled L).
Cham is divided into two primary dialects. Western Cham is spoken by the Cham in Cambodia as well as in the adjacent Vietnamese provinces of An Giang and Tây Ninh. Eastern Cham is spoken by the coastal Cham populations in the Vietnamese provinces of Bình Thuận, Ninh Thuận, and Đồng Nai. The two regions where Cham is spoken are separated both geographically and culturally. The more numerous Western Cham are predominantly Muslims (although some in Cambodia now practice Theravāda Buddhism), while the Eastern Cham practice both Islam and Hinduism. Ethnologue states that the Eastern and Western dialects are no longer mutually intelligible. The table below gives some examples of words where the two dialects differed as of the 19th century.
Cambodia southern Vietnam vowels child anœk anẽk take tuk tôk not jvẽi jvai sibilants one sa tha save from drowning srong throng salt sara shara equal samu hamu final consonants heavy trap trak in front anap anak lexical differences market pasa darak hate amoḥ limuk
Lê et al. (2014:175) lists a few Cham subgroups.
- Chăm Poông: in Thạnh Hiếu village, Phan Hiệp commune, Bắc Bình District, Bình Thuận Province. The Chăm Poông practice burial instead of cremation as the surrounding Cham do.
- Chăm Hroi (population 4,000): in Phước Vân District (Bình Định Province), Đồng Xuân District (Phú Yên Province), and Tây Sơn District (Bình Định Province)
- Chàvà Ku, a mixed Malay-Khmer people in Châu Đốc
Cham script is a Brahmic script. The script has two varieties: Akhar Thrah (Eastern Cham) and Akhar Srak (Western Cham). Western Cham language is written with Arabic script or the aforementioned Akhar Srak.
- Western Cham at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
Eastern Cham at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
- Cham. In The Unicode Standard, Version 11.0 (p. 661). Mountain View, CA: Unicode Consortium.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Cham". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Ueki, Kaori. (2011). Prosody and Intonation of Western Cham (Doctoral dissertation). University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa.
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. X
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XXI
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XIII
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XII
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XIX
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XI
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. VIII
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XVI
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XV
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. XIV
- This happens to be homophonous with the locative preposition.
- Brunelle, Marc. (2008). Diglossia, Bilingualism, and the Revitalization of Written Eastern Cham. Language Documentation & Conservation, 2(1), 28-46.
- Brunelle, Marc. (2009). Diglossia and Monosyllabization in Eastern Cham: A sociolinguistic study. In J. N. Stanford & D. R. Preston (Eds.), Variation in Indigenous Minority Languages (pp. 47-75). John Benjamins.
- Aymonier 1889, chapt. IX
- Lê Bá Thảo, Hoàng Ma, et. al; Viện hàn lâm khoa học xã hội Việt Nam - Viện dân tộc học. 2014. Các dân tộc ít người ở Việt Nam: các tỉnh phía nam. Ha Noi: Nhà xuất bản khoa học xã hội. ISBN 978-604-90-2436-8
- Hosken, Martin. (2019). L2/19-217 Proposal to encode Western Cham in the UCS.
- Bruckmayr, Philipp. (2019). The Changing Fates of the Cambodian Islamic Manuscript Tradition. Journal of Islamic Manuscripts, 10(1), 1-23. doi:10.1163/1878464X-01001001
|Eastern Cham language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
|Western Cham language test of Wikipedia at Wikimedia Incubator|
- Anthony Grant, Paul Sidwell, Australian National University. Pacific Linguistics (2005). Chamic and beyond: studies in mainland Austronesian languages (illustrated ed.). Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-561-4. Retrieved 2011-05-15.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
- Graham Thurgood (1999). From ancient Cham to modern dialects: two thousand years of language contact and change : with an appendix of Chamic reconstructions and loanwords. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-2131-9. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Etienne Aymonier; Antoine Cabaton (1906). Dictionnaire čam-français. Volume 7 of Publications de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient. E. Leroux. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Aymonier, Etienne (1889). Grammaire de la langue chame. Imprimerie coloniale. Retrieved 2011-05-15.
- Aymonier, Etienne and Antoine Cabaton (1906). Dictionnaire Cam-Français. Paris: Leroux.
- Blood, D. L., & Blood, D. (1977). East Cham language. Vietnam data microfiche series, no. VD 51-72. Huntington Beach, Calif: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Blood, D. L. (1977). A romanization of the Cham language in relation to the Cham script. Vietnam data microfiche series, no. VD51-17. Dallas: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
- Edwards, E. D., and C. O. Blagden. 1939. “A Chinese Vocabulary of Cham Words and Phrases”. Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London 10 (1). Cambridge University Press: 53–91. https://www.jstor.org/stable/607926.
- Vladimir Braginsky (18 March 2014). Classical Civilizations of South-East Asia. Routledge. pp. 398–. ISBN 978-1-136-84879-7.
- Moussay, Gerard (1971). Dictionnaire Cam-Vietnamien-Français. Phan Rang: Centre Culturel Cam.
- Sakaya. 2014. Từ điển Chăm. Nhà xuất bản Tri Thức. ISBN 978-604-908-999-2
- Various. 2011. Ngôn ngữ Chăm: thực trạng và giải pháp. Hanoi: Nhà xuất bản Phụ Nữ.