California State University, Chico

California State University, Chico (CSU Chico, Chico State, or Chico), is a public university in Chico, California. Founded in 1887, it is the second oldest campus in the California State University system. As of the Fall 2018 semester, the university had a total enrollment of 17,448 students. The university offers 126 bachelor's degree programs, 35 master's degree programs, and four types of teaching credentials.[8][9]

California State University, Chico
CSU Chico seal.svg
Former names
Northern Branch State Normal School of California (1887–1921)
Chico State Teachers College (1921–35)
Chico State College (1935–72)
MottoArs Probat Artificem (Latin)
Motto in English
"Art is the test of the artisan."[1]
Established1887; 133 years ago (1887)
Endowment$65.3 million (2019)[2]
Budget$248.6 million (2019)[3]
PresidentGayle Hutchinson
ProvostDebra Larson
Academic staff
989 (Fall 2018)[4]
Administrative staff
1,106 (Fall 2018)[4]
Students17,019 (Fall 2019)[5]
Undergraduates16,099 (Fall 2019)[5]
Postgraduates920 (Fall 2019)[5]
Location, ,
United States

39°43′54″N 121°50′58″W / 39.73167°N 121.84944°W / 39.73167; -121.84944Coordinates: 39°43′54″N 121°50′58″W / 39.73167°N 121.84944°W / 39.73167; -121.84944
CampusSmall/Medium City[6]
Central Campus: 119 acres (48 ha)
Total: 3,249 acres (1,315 ha)
ColorsRed and white
AthleticsNCAA Division IICCAA
AffiliationsCalifornia State University system
Western Association of Schools and Colleges
MascotWillie the Wildcat
CSU, Chico logo.svg


Trinity Hall as seen from George Petersen Rose Garden

On March 12, 1887, a legislative act was enacted to create the Northern Branch of the California State Normal School. Less than a month later, Chico was chosen as the location. On June 24, 1887, General John Bidwell donated 8 acres (3.2 ha) of land from his cherry orchard. Then on July 4, 1888, the first cornerstone was laid. On September 3, 1889, doors opened for the 90 enrolled students. The library opened on January 11, 1890 with 350 books. On June 20, 1891 the first graduation took place, a class of 15.

In 1910, Annie Kennedy Bidwell donated an additional 2 acres (0.81 ha) of land to be used for work with elementary agriculture. The next year Mrs. Bidwell donated an orange orchard lot 55 × 440 feet (130 m) as the children's playground, which is connected to the Training School.[10] Twenty years later in 1921, legislation was enacted to change the school's name to Chico State Teacher's College. In 1922, Chico State Teacher's College added a junior college curriculum and awarded a certificate after two years. Also in 1922, Bidwell Mansion was turned into a women's dormitory, Bidwell Hall. In 1923 the first college paper, The Collegian, was published. In 1924, the state Board of Education allowed the school to grant baccalaureate degrees. Also in 1924, the wildcat was chosen as the mascot. In 1925 the alumni organization was founded. In 1927 a fire destroyed the Normal Building. That same year a gym was built on the grounds of Bidwell Mansion. In 1929, the cornerstone for the new administration building was laid on top of Normal Building's original cornerstone. In 1929 the student bookstore was established.

In 1935, Bidwell Hall was turned into a recreation and student center—the first student union. Also in 1935 a legislative act changed the college name from Chico State Teachers College to Chico State College. In 1937 evening classes started on campus and athletic fields were purchased from the Chico Board of Education. In 1939, chimes were installed in library tower. Sororities held a fund drive to raise $600 for them. In 1940 the college offered civilian pilot classes.

In 1948, dorms for 500 male students were set up on west side of Warner Street. The buildings were built during World War II and were used as bachelor quarters for a Marine Hospital in Klamath Falls, Oregon. They were brought to Chico State in sections and reconstructed in the spring of 1948. The two-story barrack-like structures had 36 rooms, each occupied by 4 students. North Hall later became a female dormitory. The speech and debate team was founded by Herbert Rae, Speech & Drama Department Chair.

In 1950, California's governor allowed state colleges to grant Master of Arts degrees. In 1951 the college reorganized from 18 departments into seven divisions with chairmen. Then in 1956 a new flagpost and sign in front of Kendall Hall was donated by the class of 1956. In the following year, 1957, a new cafeteria was built and the rose gardens were planted. In 1958 the first "telecourse" was taught, Psychology 51.

KCSC, a student-run radio station, launched, broadcasting old-time radio dramas on the campus public address system in 1951.

The Arts & Humanities Building is one of the newest buildings on campus. It opened in July 2016.[11]

In 1970, the university closed First Street on campus to through traffic.[12][13]

In 1972, Chico State College became California State University, Chico as a result of legislation passed in 1971.

In 1975, broadcasts of classes through closed circuit TV were used for the first time by residents in Oroville, Marysville and Colusa. Also in 1975, The Orion, the campus student newspaper, published its first issue. In 1977, the other campus paper, The Wildcat, changed its name to Chico News and Review and moved off campus to become an independent publication. In 1978 bike riding was restricted on campus.[14]

Chico State's library was renamed in 1981 for father and son Morrison E. Meriam, professor of psychology from 1902 to 1934, and Theodore "Ted" Meriam, community leader, alumnus, and friend of the University, a member of the California State University Board of Trustees from 1961 to 1971, and its chair from 1968 to 1969.[15]

CSU Chico opened its first sub-campus in Redding, affiliated with Shasta College, in 2007.

In 2005, student Matt Carrington was hazed to death at the Chi Tau (local) house, which had previously been expelled from the university in 2001 due to violations.[16] Carrington died as a result of water intoxication during a hazing session involving the victim being forced to exercise and drink large quantities of water.

In 2010, the President of the Associated Student body, Joseph Igbineweka, was stabbed in a racially motivated attack.[17]

In 2011, CSU, Chico received a Civic Learning Initiative Grant from the W. M. Keck Foundation to extend its efforts to establish civic engagement as a key component of students' academic success.[18]


The university has more than 75 departments[19] and offers more than 150 undergraduate degrees.[20] It is organized into seven colleges and four schools.

Liberal Arts CollegesEdit

  • College of Behavioral & Social Sciences
  • College of Humanities and Fine Arts
  • College of Natural Sciences

Vocational CollegesEdit

  • College of Agriculture
  • College of Business
  • College of Communication & Education
  • College of Engineering, Computer Science, & Construction Management


  • School of Communication
  • School of Education
  • School of Nursing
  • School of Social Work

The school's library, the Meriam Library, has several special collections of Native American and Californian history.[21]

Fall Freshman Statistics[22][23][24][25]

2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
Freshman Applicants 23,964 22,853 23,124 22,321
Admits 15,639 15,796 15,393 14,441
% Admitted 65.3 69.1 66.6 64.7
GPA 3.41 3.34 3.30 3.33
SAT mid-50% range* 1000–1190 990–1170 880–1100 890–1110
ACT mid-50% range 18–24 19–25 19–24 19–25
* SAT out of 1600


University rankings
Forbes[26] 335
THE/WSJ[27] 343
U.S. News & World Report[28] 26
Master's University class
Washington Monthly[29] 15

According to the U.S. News & World Report 2021 college rankings, Chico State is ranked tied for 9th among 66 western regional public universities, tied at 16th for "Best Colleges for Veterans", tied at 22nd for "Best Undergraduate Teaching", tied at 41st for "Social Mobility", and tied for 26th overall among 127 regional universities in the western United States.[30]

Chico State is ranked 335th out of 650 colleges, universities, and service academies in the U.S. in the 2019 Forbes America's Top Colleges list, and is ranked 68th in the West, 73rd for "Best Value", and 113th among all public universities.[31]

2019 USNWR departmental rankings[32]

Fine Arts 173
Public Affairs 199
Social Work 121
Speech–Language Pathology 183


The California State University, Chico campus consists of a 119-acre main campus, the 800-acre Paul L. Byrne Memorial University Farm, and 2,330-acres of ecological reserves. These reserves include the Big Chico Creek Ecological Reserve (BCCER) and the Butte Creek Ecological Preserve (BCEP).[4]

Early constructionEdit

Kendall Hall

The construction of the normal school building was begun in September, 1887. It was a large brick building, consisting of three stories and full basement. It was of Romanesque design with Elizabethan gables and artificial stone trimmings. The building was destroyed by a fire in 1927. The current administration building Kendall Hall was built on the site of the normal school in 1929.[33]

Colusa Hall, completed in 1921 is the oldest building on campus. It was used for purposes related to the industrial arts, but now the building is now used as a conference and public events facility.[15]


The Campus Arboretum is located across the campus of California State University, Chico along Big Chico Creek.

Nearby Bidwell Park includes 29 acres (117,000 m²) of a former arboretum, now run somewhat wild, which contains trees such as English oaks, hawthorn, Cherry Plum, bay laurel, cork oak, ponderosa, aleppo, and Monterey pines, willow, mulberry, linden, maple, catalpa, pine, and eucalyptus, collected from around the world.[34]

Residence hallsEdit

Currently, the university can accommodate 2,150[35] or approximately 13% of the student body in seven on-campus residential halls. Sutter, Whitney, Shasta and Lassen halls are on the main campus, while Esken, Mechoopda and Konkow are near the athletic fields about a block and a half away from the main campus. Whitney, Shasta and Lassen are the names of major mountains in Northern California, and the others are named after Native American tribes which used to inhabit the area. Most buildings that make up the campus are named after counties in California. University Village or "UV" is a university-owned dorm about a mile off campus. The university opened its newest dorm, Sutter Hall, for the Fall 2010 semester. It is located between Whitney and Shasta and Lassen halls. For much of the Fall 2010 semester, Sutter Hall's dining area remained closed. However, it opened in the Spring 2011 semester, featuring new dining options for students.

Meriam libraryEdit

Meriam Library started out as an unnamed library in 1887, housed in what was then known as Chico State Normal School. In 1927, the Normal School building and its library burned down in a fire. The library found a new home in 1933 when a new building, Trinity Hall, was constructed. In 1959, Chico State College Library was built. The library was expanded and renamed to the "Learning Activities Resource Center" (LARC) in 1975. It was in 1985 when the library gained another expansion and its current name, Meriam Library. This name was dedicated after the family of Ted Meriam. A fourth floor of the library was constructed in 1985.[36]

Student lifeEdit

Chico State campus: Laxson Auditorium

Associated Students, ChicoEdit

Associated Students, Chico is the student government at California State University, Chico. Associated Students, Chico owns and operates several student services on-campus including all vending machines, and foodservices, as well as the campus bookstore. The students of CSU, Chico also own their own student union building named the Bell Memorial Union which houses the Marketplace Cafe, the Chico State Wildcat Store, and the student government offices. Student officers are elected annually from among and by the students. Students are assessed a mandatory Activity Fee at registration which funds the student government and other programs.

The AS is generally divided into three areas, each the responsibility of one of three Associated Students standing committees. The AS' role as a government is manifested in the Government Affairs Committee. The student union is administered under the original authority of the Bell Memorial Union Committee. The administration of the businesses is under the original authority of the Business Committee. All of these areas are under the ultimate authority of the AS Board of Directors.

Office of Student Life and LeadershipEdit

Fall 2018 Demographics of student body[37]
* All levels, freshman through graduate
African American 2.6%
Asian American 4.5%
Filipino American 0.9%
Pacific Islander 0.2%
White European Americans 42.9%
Native American/American Indian 0.5%
Mexican American/Chicano 27.1%
Other Latino American 6.1%
Multiracial Americans 5.2%
Non-resident alien 3.2%
Unknown 6.6%

Student Life and Leadership, formally the Student Activities Office, incorporates four programs: Student Organizations and Leadership Education (SOLE), Fraternity and Sorority Affairs (FSA), Rec Sports, and the Cross-Cultural Leadership Center (CCLC).

Town Hall MeetingEdit

Chico State formed an event where Chico State students gather in a public area and discuss most current policy issues with their peers. Faculty members are also involved in this event. This event happens annually and students look forward to it all year. Once the opening comments and the welcome occur in the Bell Memorial Union Auditorium, the participants explore different locations on campus for "breakout sessions". These sessions give students a chance to share their research with their peers. Students have commented saying this event has inspired them to get more involved in the community and stay educated about current politics.[38]

The Great DebateEdit

The Great Debate was created to drive members of both the campus and the community to take part in a conversation about issues that have the ability to divide the community. There is a different topic that takes place every semester. An example of a topic is Climate Change. The event requires a full day where presentations and debates take place. Students partake in active listening and respectful communication exchange. Students from Communication Studies classes are the students who give presentations based on a previously chosen topic. At 6:15 pm, a formal debate is held by CSU, Chico Debate Team members and stakeholder Community Members.[39]

Greek lifeEdit

As of May 2017 Chico State has 26 fraternities and sororities, making up approximately 12 percent of the student population.[40]

The Fraternity and Sorority Affairs (FSA) program embodies three Greek governed councils: the Interfraternity Council (IFC), the Multicultural Greek Council, and the Panhellenic Council.

Fraternities in the IFC include Alpha Sigma Phi, Kappa Sigma, Delta Chi, Lambda Chi Alpha, Phi Delta Theta, Phi Kappa Tau, Tau Kappa Epsilon, Sigma Nu and Sigma Pi. The Panhellenic Council includes Alpha Delta Pi, Alpha Gamma Delta, Alpha Omicron Pi, Alpha Phi, Gamma Phi Beta and Sigma Kappa. The Multicultural Greek Council includes Delta Xi Phi, Lambda Theta Nu, Lambda Sigma Gamma, Sigma Omega Phi, Upsilon Kappa Delta, Epsilon Sigma Rho and Nu Alpha Kappa.[41]


Male to Female Percentage: 46:54%[4]

CSU Chico along with CSU Bakersfield has the second largest enrollment percentage of Native Americans in the Cal State system.[37]

Student mediaEdit

KCSC Radio was founded in 1951. The university's student-run weekly newspaper, The Orion first began publishing in 1975.[42] In 1989, The Orion won the National Pacemaker Award, the first of nine times the paper has won the top prize in college journalism. In 2009, The Orion won the National Pacemaker Award for the 11th time at the College Media Convention.[citation needed]

In 1997 Wild Oak Music Group, an independent record company, was founded and is run by the Music Industry students within the College of Humanities and Fine Arts.


The university's athletic teams are known as the Chico State Wildcats. The school sponsors soccer, basketball, golf, cross country, and track and field for both men and women. The school sponsors softball and volleyball for women, and baseball for men. The school's athletic director is Anita Barker. The school competes in Division II of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) in the California Collegiate Athletic Association (CCAA).[43] Since 1998, Chico State's athletic teams have won 99 NCAA Championship berths, 40 CCAA titles, 24 West Region titles, and 15 NCAA national titles.[44] The Wildcats softball team won the first AIAW Division III national championship in 1980, led by pitcher Kathy Arendsen.[45] Chico excels in cross country and track and field in the California Collegiate Athletic Association.[46]

The Wildcats of Chico State earned six team NCAA championships at the Division II level.[47] NCAA Division II individual championships by Scott Bauhs (2008) Men's cross country and J. J. Jakovac (2002, 2004) and Kyle Souza (2011) Men's Golf Championships.


The Chico State Motto, "Today decides tomorrow"

Chico State made The Princeton Review's 2011 "Guide to Green Colleges", honoring campuses that "demonstrate a strong commitment to sustainability in their academic offerings, campus infrastructure, activities, and career preparation."[48]

Noted peopleEdit

Notable alumniEdit

Name Known for Relationship to Chico
Annette Abbott Adams First female Assistant Attorney General of the United States
Big Poppa E Professional slam poet Attended 1994-2000 (Journalism)
Nelson Briles Former Major League Baseball player
Donald J. Butz United States Air Force major general
Don Carlsen Former NFL referee retired 2012
Doug Chapman Actor BA, 1994
Raymond Carver Author
Clay Dalrymple Former Major League Baseball player
Mark Davis Owner Las Vegas Raiders
Amanda Detmer Actress
Clair Engle United States Senator BA, 1930
Horace Dove-Edwin Olympian MA in exercise science, 1999
Ken Grossman Co-founder Sierra Nevada Brewing Company
Brandon Harkins Professional golfer
Joseph Hilbe Statistician and philosopher BA in Philosophy
Dominik Jakubek Goalkeeper for Major League Soccer BA Liberal Studies 2009
Troy Johnson Food critic, TV judge of Food Network shows BA Speech Communications and Poetry 1997
Tom Jones Director of Operations Las Vegas Raiders BA Criminal Justice 2005
Mat Kearney Columbia recording artist Attended Chico State for 2 years
Adnan Khashoggi Saudi businessman
Sandra Lerner Co-founder of Cisco Systems BA Political Science 1975
Michael Messner Sociologist, Professor at the University of Southern California BA, 1974; MA, 1976
Bob Mulholland Political strategist
Troy Neiman Baseball player
Matt Olmstead Writer and television producer
Kathleen O'Neal Gear Historian and archaeologist BA and MA
Maureen O'Toole Olympic silver medalist
Michael Polenske Entrepreneur & vintner Bachelors in Finance[49]
Lubna al Qasimi Minister for Economy and Planning of the United Arab Emirates BS in Computer Science
Ed Rollins Political strategist BA, 1968
Thom Ross Artist degree in fine arts, 1974
Gene Scott Ordained minister and religious broadcaster BA and MA
Carolyn Shoemaker Astronomer
Dale Thayer Major League Baseball player
Mark Thoma Economist BA, 1980
Mike Thompson Member of the United States Congress
Mark Ulriksen Painter
Johannes van Overbeek Race car driver
Patrick Vaughan Historian
Bill Wattenburg Radio host, author, inventor
Chris Wondolowski Forward for Major League Soccer
Don Young Member of the United States Congress BA, 1958


Name Known for Relationship to Chico
John Gardner Author Professor of English
Michael Gillis Historian Lecturer in history
Janja Lalich Sociologist Professor of Sociology
Harold Lang Dancer and actor Professor of dance, 1970–1985
Peveril Meigs Geographer Professor of geography, 1929–1942
Nicholas Nagy-Talavera Historian Professor of History, 1967–1991
Michael Perelman Author Professor of Economics
Sarah M. Pike Author Professor of Comparative Religion and Humanities
Ivan Sviták Philosopher, Critic, Poet Professor of Philosophy, 1970–1990

University presidentsEdit

  • Edward Timothy Pierce, 1889–1893
  • Robert F. Pennell, 1893–1897
  • Carleton M. Ritter, 1897–1899
  • Charles C. Van Liew, 1899–1910
  • Allison Ware, 1910–1917
  • Elmer Isaiah Miller, 1910, 1917–1918
  • Charles Osenbaugh, 1918–1930
  • Clarence Knight Studley, 1930–1931
  • Rudolph D. Lindquist, 1931
  • Aymer Jay Hamilton, 1931–1950
  • George Glenn Kendall, 1950–1966
  • Robert Eugene Hill, 1966–1970
  • Lew Dwight Oliver, 1970–1971
  • Stanford Cazier, 1971–1979
  • Robert L. Fredenburg, 1979–1980
  • Robin Wilson, 1980–1993
  • Manuel A. Esteban, 1993–2003
  • Scott McNall, 2003–2004
  • Paul Zingg, 2004–2016
  • Gayle E. Hutchinson, 2016–present

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "CSU, Chico 2009-2011 Catalog". Retrieved 2011-05-22.
  2. ^ As of June 30, 2019. "U.S. and Canadian 2019 NTSE Participating Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2019 Endowment Market Value, and Percentage Change in Market Value from FY18 to FY19 (Revised)". National Association of College and University Business Officers and TIAA. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  3. ^ "2019-20 Budget Plan" (PDF). September 9, 2019. Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  4. ^ a b c d "Chico Facts". California State University, Chico. Retrieved March 5, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "Fall Term Student Enrollment". The California State University Institutional Research and Analyses. Archived from the original on December 2, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  6. ^ "CSUMentor - Explore Campuses - Comparative View". Retrieved April 12, 2017.
  7. ^ "Chico Facts - CSU, Chico". Retrieved August 11, 2017.
  8. ^ "CSU Degrees". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  9. ^ "CSU Degrees" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 April 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
  10. ^ Bailey, Mary Ellen. "University Archives: Chico State Normal School (1887-1921)". Retrieved 2008-01-06.
  11. ^ New Arts and Humanities Building opens, in: Chico State Today, July 28, 2016, retrieved on March 26, 2020.
  12. ^ "Chico State Student Activism". Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  13. ^ "The end of the Sixties". Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  14. ^ "Cal State, Chico, History". Retrieved 25 December 2019.
  15. ^ a b "Campus Buildings". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
  16. ^ Morrison, Keith (June 26, 2006). "Hazing death at Chico State". NBC News. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
  17. ^ "Confronting the killer of your loved one". CNN. 2008-07-22. Archived from the original on 2012-10-08. Retrieved 2011-05-18.
  18. ^ "Civic Learning Initiative Receives Grant from W. M. Keck Foundation - CSU, Chico News - CSU, Chico". 2011-01-31. Archived from the original on 2011-02-07. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  19. ^ "Colleges and Departments". Chico State. 2008. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  20. ^ "Program Search". Chico State. 2008. Archived from the original on 2007-01-02. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  21. ^ "Library Collections". Meriam Library. 2008. Archived from the original on 2006-11-30. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  22. ^ "California State University, Chico 2018-2019 Common Data Set" (PDF). California State University, Chico.
  23. ^ "California State University, Chico 2017-2018 Common Data Set" (PDF). California State University, Chico.
  24. ^ "California State University, Chico 2016-2017 Common Data Set" (PDF). California State University, Chico.
  25. ^ "California State University, Chico 2015-2016 Common Data Set" (PDF). California State University, Chico.
  26. ^ "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
  27. ^ "Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education College Rankings 2021". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved October 20, 2020.
  28. ^ "Best Colleges 2021: Regional Universities Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 24, 2020.
  29. ^ "2020 Rankings -- Masters Universities". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 31, 2020.
  30. ^ "U.S. News Best College Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. 2021. Retrieved September 25, 2020.
  31. ^ "America's Top Colleges". Forbes. August 15, 2019.
  32. ^ "California State University–Chico - U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 12, 2019.
  33. ^ "University Archives - Campus Buildings". Archived from the original on 2012-03-16. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  34. ^ "Campus Grounds - University Archives". Meriam Library -- Special Collections. Archived from the original on 2014-05-31. Retrieved 2013-12-30.
  35. ^ "UHFS Annual Report 2011-2012" (PDF).[permanent dead link]
  36. ^ "History of Meriam Library". Retrieved October 17, 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Ethnicity Enrollment Profile". Retrieved 2019-07-09.
  38. ^ "The CSU, Chico Town Hall Meeting".
  39. ^ "Chico Great Debate".
  40. ^ "Fraternity and Sorority Affairs". Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  41. ^ "Social Greek Chapters at CSU, Chico - Division of Student Affairs - CSU, Chico". Archived from the original on 2017-04-27. Retrieved 2017-04-26.
  42. ^ "About". The Orion. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  43. ^ "Wildcat Athletics". California State University, Chico. 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
  44. ^ "Competing with NCAA Elite - Best of Chico State - CSU, Chico". Archived from the original on 2011-11-12. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  45. ^ "The Hall of Fame Committee Salutes the 1980 Softball Team" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-03-07.
  46. ^ "CCAA Champions". 2020-10-17. Retrieved 2020-10-17.
  47. ^ "Championships Summary" (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  48. ^ "Topping the Green List - Best of Chico State - CSU, Chico". Archived from the original on 2011-11-12. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
  49. ^ Nalley, Richard. "Napa Valley: The Entrepreneur's Tour". Forbes Life. Forbes. Retrieved 17 April 2013.

External linksEdit