Committee on Space Research

  (Redirected from COSPAR)

The Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) was established in 1958 by the International Council for Scientific Unions (ICSU). Among COSPAR's objectives are the promotion of scientific research in space on an international level, with emphasis on the free exchange of results, information, and opinions, and providing a forum, open to all scientists, for the discussion of problems that may affect space research. These objectives are achieved through the organization of symposia, publication, and other means. COSPAR has created a number of research programmes on different topics, a few in cooperation with other scientific Unions. The long-term project COSPAR international reference atmosphere started in 1960; since then it has produced several editions of the high-atmosphere code CIRA. The code "IRI" of the URSI-COSPAR working group on the International Reference Ionosphere was first edited in 1978 and is yearly updated.

Committee on Space Research
AbbreviationCOSPAR
Formation1958; 62 years ago (1958)
TypeINGO
Location
Region served
Worldwide
Official language
English, French
President
Prof. Lennard A. Fisk
Executive Director
Dr. Jean-Claude Worms
Parent organization
International Council for Science
WebsiteCOSPAR Official website

General AssemblyEdit

Every second year, COSPAR calls for a General Assembly (also called Scientific Assembly). These are conferences currently gathering almost three thousand participating space researchers. The most recent assemblies are listed in the table below.[1] The 41st General Assembly in Istanbul was cancelled due to the 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt.[2]

General
Assembly
Year Place Country
44th 2022 Athens   Greece
43rd 2020 Sydney   Australia
42nd 2018 Pasadena   United States
41st 2016 Istanbul (cancelled)   Turkey
40th 2014 Moscow   Russia
39th 2012 Mysore   India
38th 2010 Bremen   Germany
37th 2008 Montreal   Canada
36th 2006 Beijing  China
35th 2004 Paris   France
34th 2002 Houston   United States
33rd 2000 Warsaw   Poland
32nd 1998 Nagoya   Japan
31st 1996 Birmingham   United Kingdom
30th 1994 Hamburg   Germany
29th 1992 Washington, DC   United States
28th 1990 The Hague   Netherlands
27th 1988 Espoo   Finland
26th 1986 Toulouse   France
25th 1984 Graz   Austria
24th 1982 Ottawa   Canada
23rd 1980 Budapest   Hungary
22nd 1979 Bangalore   India
21st 1978 Innsbruck   Austria
20th 1977 Tel-Aviv   Israel
19th 1976 Philadelphia, PA   United States
18th 1975 Varna   Bulgaria
17th 1974 Sao Paulo   Brazil
16th 1973 Konstanz   Germany
15th 1972 Madrid   Spain
14th 1971 Seattle, WA   United States
13th 1970 Leningrad   Soviet Union
12th 1969 Prague   Czechoslovakia
11th 1968 Tokyo   Japan
10th 1967 London   United Kingdom
9th 1966 Vienna   Austria
8th 1965 Mar del Plata   Argentina
7th 1964 Florence   Italy
6th 1963 Warsaw   Poland
5th 1962 Washington, DC   United States
4th 1961 Florence   Italy
3rd 1960 Nice   France
2nd 1959 The Hague   Netherlands
1st 1958 London   United Kingdom

Scientific StructureEdit

Scientific CommissionsEdit

Scientific Commission A
Space Studies of the Earth's Surface, Meteorology and Climate
  • Task Group on GEO
  • Subcommission A1 on Atmosphere, Meteorology and Climate
  • Subcommission A2 on Ocean Dynamics, Productivity and the Cryosphere
  • Subcommission A3 on Land Processes and Morphology
Scientific Commission B
Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets, and Small Bodies of the Solar System
  • Sub-Commission B1 on Small Bodies
  • Sub-Commission B2 on International Coordination of Space Techniques for Geodesy (a joint Sub-Commission with IUGG/IAG Commission I on Reference Frames)
  • Sub-Commission B3 on The Moon
  • Sub-Commission B4 on Terrestrial Planets
  • Sub-Commission B5 on Outer Planets and Satellites
  • Sub-Commission B6/E4 on Exoplanets Detection, Characterization and Modelling
Scientific Commission C
Space Studies of the Upper Atmospheres of the Earth and Planets Including Reference Atmospheres
  • Sub-Commission C1 on The Earth's Upper Atmosphere and Ionosphere
  • Sub-Commission C2 on The Earth's Middle Atmosphere and Lower Ionosphere
  • Sub-Commission C3 on Planetary Atmospheres and Aeronomy
    • Task Group on Reference Atmospheres of Planets and Satellites (RAPS) 
    • URSI/COSPAR Task Group on the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI)
    • COSPAR/URSI Task Group on Reference Atmospheres, including ISO WG4 (CIRA)
  • Sub-Commission C5/D4 on Theory and Observations of Active Experiments
Scientific Commission D
Space Plasmas in the Solar System, Including Planetary Magnetospheres
  • Sub-Commission D1 on The Heliosphere
  • Sub-Commission D2/E3 on The Transition from the Sun to the Heliosphere
  • Sub-Commission D3 on Magnetospheres
  • Sub-Commission C5/D4 on Theory and Observations of Active Experiments
Scientific Commission E
Research in Astrophysics from Space
  • Sub-Commission E1 on Galactic and Extragalactic Astrophysics
  • Sub-Commission E2 on The Sun as a Star
  • Sub-Commission D2/E3 on The Transition from the Sun to the Heliosphere
  • Sub-Commission B6/E4 on Exoplanets Detection, Characterization and Modelling
Scientific Commission F
Life Sciences as Related to Space
  • Sub-Commission F1 on Gravitational and Space Biology
  • Sub-Commission F2 on Radiation Environment, Biology and Health
  • Sub-Commission F3 on Astrobiology
  • Sub-Commission F4 on Natural and Artificial Ecosystems
  • Sub-Commission F5 on Gravitational Physiology in Space
Scientific Commission G
Materials Sciences in Space
Scientific Commission H
Fundamental Physics in Space

Panels           Edit

  • Technical Panel on Satellite Dynamics (PSD)
  • Panel on Technical Problems Related to Scientific Ballooning (PSB)
  • Panel on Potentially Environmentally Detrimental Activities in Space (PEDAS)     
  • Panel on Radiation Belt Environment Modelling (PRBEM)
  • Panel on Space Weather (PSW)
  • Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP)
  • Panel on Capacity Building (PCB)
  • Panel on Capacity Building Fellowship Program and Alumni (PCB FP)
  • Panel on Education (PE)
  • Panel on Exploration (PEX)
  • Panel on Interstellar Research (PIR)
  • Task Group on Establishing an international Constellation of Small Satellites (TGCSS)
  • Panel on Social Sciences and Humanities (PSSH)
  • Panel on Innovative Solutions (PoIS)

Planetary Protection PolicyEdit

Responding to concerns raised in the scientific community that spaceflight missions to the Moon and other celestial bodies might compromise their future scientific exploration, in 1958 the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) established an ad-hoc Committee on Contamination by Extraterrestrial Exploration (CETEX) to provide advice on these issues. In the next year, this mandate was transferred to the newly founded Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), which as an interdisciplinary scientific committee of the ICSU (now the International Science Council - ISC) was considered to be the appropriate place to continue the work of CETEX. Since that time, COSPAR has provided an international forum to discuss such matters under the terms “planetary quarantine” and later “planetary protection”, and has formulated a COSPAR planetary protection policy with associated implementation requirements as an international standard to protect against interplanetary biological and organic contamination, and after 1967 as a guide to compliance with Article IX of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty in that area ([3]).

The COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy, and its associated requirements, is not legally binding under international law, but it is an internationally agreed standard with implementation guidelines for compliance with Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty. States Parties to the Outer Space Treaty are responsible for national space activities under Article VI of this Treaty, including the activities of governmental and non-governmental entities. It is the State that ultimately will be held responsible for wrongful acts committed by its jurisdictional subjects.

Updating the COSPAR Planetary Protection Policy, either as a response to new discoveries or based on specific requests, is a process that involves appointed members of the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection who represent, on the one hand, their national or international authority responsible for compliance with the United Nations Outer Space Treaty of 1967, and, on the other hand, COSPAR Scientific Commissions B – Space Studies of the Earth-Moon System, Planets and Small Bodies of the Solar Systems, and F - Life Sciences as Related to Space. After reaching a consensus among the involved parties, the proposed recommendation for updating the Policy is formulated by the COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection and submitted to the COSPAR Bureau for review and approval.

The new structure of the Panel and its work was described in recent publications ([4];[5]).

The recently updated COSPAR Policy on Planetary Protection was published in the August 2020 issue of COSPAR's journal Space Research Today. It contains some updates with respect to the previously approved version ([6]) based on recommendations formulated by the Panel and approved by the COSPAR Bureau.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "COSPAR Scientific Assemblies". Archived from the original on 2013-05-14. Retrieved 2013-05-16.
  2. ^ COSPAR 2016 Archived 2016-07-19 at the Wayback Machine
  3. ^ UNOOSA 2017, Report of the Committee on the Peaceful Use of Outer Space, 60th Session, A/72/20, United Nations, New York
  4. ^ Coustenis, A., Kminek, G., Hedman, N., 2019a. The challenge of planetary protection. ROOM Journal, June 2019, pages 44-48.
  5. ^ Coustenis, A., Kminek, G., Hedman, N., Ammanito, E., Deshevaya, E., Doran, P.T., Grasset, O., Green, J., Hayes, A., Lei, L., Nakamura, A., Prieto-Ballesteros, O., Raulin, F., Rettberg, P., Sreekumar, P., Tsuneta, S., Viso, M., Zaitsev, M., Zorzano-Mier, M.-P., 2019b. The COSPAR Panel on Planetary Protection role, structure and activities. Space Res. Today, vol. 205, August 2019, pages 14-26, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.srt.2019.06.013.
  6. ^ Kminek, G., Conley, C., Hipkin, V., Yano, H., 2017. COSPAR’s Planetary Protection Policy. Space Res. Today, vol. 200, December 2017.

External linksEdit